central valley
Recently Published Documents


TOTAL DOCUMENTS

1200
(FIVE YEARS 391)

H-INDEX

49
(FIVE YEARS 17)

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 205
Author(s):  
Lauren E. Parker ◽  
Ning Zhang ◽  
John T. Abatzoglou ◽  
Steven M. Ostoja ◽  
Tapan B. Pathak

Every decade, a suite of standardized climatological metrics known as climate normals are updated, providing averages of temperature and precipitation data over the previous 30-year period. Although some of these climate normals are directly applicable to agricultural producers, there are additional agroclimate metrics calculated from meteorological data that provide physiologically relevant information for on-farm management decisions. In this study, we identified a suite of energy-based agroclimate metrics and calculated changes over the two most recent normal periods (1981–2010 and 1991–2020), focusing on specialty crop production regions in California. Observed changes in agroclimate metrics were largely consistent with broader global warming trends. While most metrics showed small changes between the two periods, during the 1991–2020 period, the last spring freeze occurred ~5 days earlier as compared to the 1981-2010 period, contributing to a >6 day longer frost-free period in the Sacramento and Salinas Valleys; likewise an additional 6.4 tropical nights (Tn > 20 °C) occurred in the Coachella Valley during the 1991-2020 period. A complementary trend analysis of the agroclimate metrics over the 1981–2020 period showed significant increases in growing degree days across all agricultural regions, while significant increases in heat exposure were found for the Salinas and Imperial Valleys and over the Central Coast region. Moreover, summer reference evapotranspiration increased approximately 40 mm in California’s Central Valley during 1981–2020, with implications for agricultural water resources. Quantifying the shifts in these agroclimate metrics between the two most recent 30-year normal periods and the accompanying 40-year trends provides context for understanding and communicating around changing climatic baselines and underscores the need for adaptation to meet the challenge that climate change poses to agriculture both in the future and in the present.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
christopher Baker ◽  
Dhruv Patel ◽  
Benjamin J. Cole ◽  
Lindsey G. Ching ◽  
Oliver Dautermann ◽  
...  

Climate change is globally affecting rainfall patterns, necessitating the improvement of drought tolerance in crops. Sorghum bicolor is a drought-tolerant cereal capable of producing high yields under water scarcity conditions. Functional stay-green sorghum genotypes can maintain green leaf area and efficient grain filling in terminal post-flowering water deprivation, a period of ~10 weeks. To obtain molecular insights into these characteristics, two drought-tolerant genotypes, BTx642 and RTx430, were grown in control and terminal post-flowering drought field plots in the Central Valley of California. Photosynthetic, photoprotective, water dynamics, and biomass traits were quantified and correlated with metabolomic data collected from leaves, stems, and roots at multiple timepoints during drought. Physiological and metabolomic data was then compared to longitudinal RNA sequencing data collected from these two genotypes. The metabolic response to drought highlights the uniqueness of the post-flowering drought acclimation relative to pre-flowering drought. The functional stay-green genotype BTx642 specifically induced photoprotective responses in post-flowering drought supporting a putative role for photoprotection in the molecular basis of the functional stay-green trait. Specific genes are highlighted that may contribute to post-flowering drought tolerance and that can be targeted in crops to maximize yields under limited water input conditions.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Tamara S. Wilson ◽  
Elliott Matchett ◽  
Kristin B. Byrd ◽  
Erin Conlisk ◽  
Matthew E. Reiter ◽  
...  

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 83
Author(s):  
Robyn L. Bilski ◽  
Joseph M. Wheaton ◽  
Joseph E. Merz

Adult salmonids are frequently observed building redds adjacent to in-channel structure, including boulders and large woody debris. These areas are thought to be preferentially selected for a variety of reasons, including energy and/or predation refugia for spawners, and increased hyporheic exchange for incubating embryos. This research sought to quantify in-channel structure effects on local hydraulics and hyporheic flow and provide a mechanistic link between these changes and the survival, development, and growth of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha embryos. Data were collected in an eight-kilometer reach, on the regulated lower Mokelumne River, in the California Central Valley. Nine paired sites, consisting of an area containing in-channel structure paired with an adjacent area lacking in-channel structure, were evaluated. Results indicated that in-channel structure disrupts surface water velocity patterns, creating pressure differences that significantly increase vertical hydraulic gradients within the subsurface. Overall, in-channel structure did not significantly increase survival, development, and growth of Chinook salmon embryos. However, at several low gradient downstream sites containing in-channel structure, embryo survival, development, and growth were significantly higher relative to paired sites lacking such features. Preliminary data indicate that adding or maintaining in-channel structure, including woody material, in suboptimal spawning reaches improves the incubation environment for salmonid embryos in regulated reaches of a lowland stream. More research examining temporal variation and a full range of incubation depths is needed to further assess these findings.


2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Author(s):  
Alyssa DeVincentis ◽  
Samuel Sandoval Solis ◽  
Sloane Rice ◽  
Daniele Zaccaria ◽  
Richard Snyder ◽  
...  

As fresh water supplies become more unreliable, variable and expensive, the water-related implications of sustainable agriculture practices such as cover cropping are drawing increasing attention from California's agricultural communities. However, the adoption of winter cover cropping remains limited among specialty crop growers who face uncertainty regarding the water use of this practice. To investigate how winter cover crops affect soil water and evapotranspiration on farm fields, we studied three systems that span climatic and farming conditions in California's Central Valley: processing tomato fields with cover crop, almond orchards with cover crop, and almond orchards with native vegetation. From 2016 to 2019, we collected soil moisture data (3 years of neutron hydroprobe and gravimetric tests at 10 field sites) and evapotranspiration measurements (2 years at two of 10 sites) in winter cover cropped and control (clean-cultivated, bare ground) plots during winter months. Generally, there were not significant differences in soil moisture between cover cropped and control fields throughout or at the end of the winter seasons, while evapo-transpirative losses due to winter cover crops were negligible relative to clean-cultivated soil. Our results suggest that winter cover crops in the Central Valley may break even in terms of actual consumptive water use. California growers of high-value specialty crops can likely adopt winter cover cropping without altering their irrigation plans and management practices.


2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Author(s):  
Alyssa DeVincentis ◽  
Samuel Sandoval Solis ◽  
Sloane Rice ◽  
Daniele Zaccaria ◽  
Richard Snyder ◽  
...  

As fresh water supplies become more unreliable, variable and expensive, the water-related implications of sustainable agriculture practices such as cover cropping are drawing increasing attention from California's agricultural communities. However, the adoption of winter cover cropping remains limited among specialty crop growers who face uncertainty regarding the water use of this practice. To investigate how winter cover crops affect soil water and evapotranspiration on farm fields, we studied three systems that span climatic and farming conditions in California's Central Valley: processing tomato fields with cover crop, almond orchards with cover crop, and almond orchards with native vegetation. From 2016 to 2019, we collected soil moisture data (3 years of neutron hydroprobe and gravimetric tests at 10 field sites) and evapotranspiration measurements (2 years at two of 10 sites) in winter cover cropped and control (clean-cultivated, bare ground) plots during winter months. Generally, there were not significant differences in soil moisture between cover cropped and control fields throughout or at the end of the winter seasons, while evapo-transpirative losses due to winter cover crops were negligible relative to clean-cultivated soil. Our results suggest that winter cover crops in the Central Valley may break even in terms of actual consumptive water use. California growers of high-value specialty crops can likely adopt winter cover cropping without altering their irrigation plans and management practices.


2022 ◽  
pp. 563-577
Author(s):  
Ignacio Aguirre ◽  
Jacinto Garrido Velarde ◽  
Javier Lozano Parra

In the last decades there has been a strong increase around the world in the use of plastic greenhouses (PGs). The Valparaíso region, in the central valley of Chile, has not been the exception, and the area covered by greenhouses has also experienced an increase over the years, reaching 1180 ha in 2007. Taking into account that agriculture in this region employs more than 60,000 people and accounts for 4% of the regional GDP, this information should be available to be included in territorial planning and incorporated into hydrological, economic, and food security models. To do this, the authors propose a new method for identifying the surface covered by PGs based on the intersection of the normalized difference indices and the areas excluded by the masks. The results showed that this methodology was able to identify with a general precision of 86.25% which allowed to classify 1409.85 ha. This area is consistent with the agricultural census carried out in 2007 and with the increase of more than 900 subsidies granted by the government for the installation of new structures.


2021 ◽  
Vol XII (2) ◽  
pp. 267-279
Author(s):  
Jaume García Rosselló ◽  

In this article the social and technological dynamics detected in the transition from hand-made pottery to wheel-thrown ware in a modern context is considered. The many different sources supplemented by fieldwork provide a long-term perspective and a depiction of its present consequences. It is specifically explained, how an indigenous, hand-made, domestic and female pottery-production system has turned into an essentially male, wheel-thrown and workshop activity. After a series of significant events, the Indian village of Pomaire gained a reputation as a potter’s village. The several changes underwent by its population as regards to pottery production makes it an interesting example to analyse the origin and development of a process of technological change which ended up with the displacement of women from pottery-making and the introduction of the means for mechanised production during the 1980s. Thus, the social and technical transformations which have taken place since colonial times (beginning of the 16th century), for the potters of Pomaire are explained, enlarged on their history in order to contribute to a general reflection.


Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document