municipal wastewater treatment plants
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2022 ◽  
Vol 42 ◽  
pp. 03001
Author(s):  
Irina Elshaeva ◽  
Vera Titova ◽  
Alexander Vetchinnikov ◽  
Anna Pinaeva ◽  
Oksana Vetchinnikova

Wastewater sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants in Nizhny Novgorod and soils based on them, prepared with different ratios of sludge, sawdust and peat, have been investigated. Sewage sludge-based soils contain plant nutrients and are suitable for use as fertilizing materials in green building. Under the conditions of a three-year lysimetric experiment on cereal lawn grasses, a significant efficiency of organic soils was noted in comparison with traditional soils. The lawn maintenance regime revealed differences in the mixtures of fertilizing materials in terms of the effect on the productivity of the phytocenosis. Use of sewage sludge containing large amounts of heavy metals as one of the soil components undoubtedly leads to increase in the amount of these toxic elements in the soil as a whole.


Author(s):  
Zahra Abbasi ◽  
Mehdi Ahmadi

Introduction: Macrolides are a group of antibacterial agents. Given their clinical importance, and the consistent rise in resistance among pathogenic bacteria, macrolides have been the targets of extensive research. Materials and Methods: This review considered the number of macrolides in different wastewater and the removal of these drugs. The antibiotics were frequently detected in influents and effluents, ranged from ng/L up to lower μg/L. In influent, the highest concentrations of clarithromycin (6080 ng/L), roxithromycin (>103 ng/L), erythromycin (3900 ng/L), and azithromycin (1949 ng/L) were detected in Croatia, Chinese, USA, and Singapore municipal wastewater treatment plants, respectively. Results: The removal efficiency of macrolides during wastewater treatment processes varies and is essentially dependent on a combination of macrolides physicochemical properties, location of municipal wastewater, and the operating conditions of the treatment systems. The application of alternative techniques, including membrane separation, activated carbon adsorption, advanced oxidation processes, biodegradation, and disinfection were the dominant removal routes for macrolides in different wastewater treatment processes. A combination of these techniques can also be used, leading to higher removals, which may be necessary before the final disposal of the effluents or their reuse for irrigation or groundwater recharge. Conclusion: Many antibiotics cannot be removed completely in wastewater treatment processes and would enter into the environment via effluent and sludge. The molecular structure of macrolides and their load-bearing capacity has led to the advantage of biological treatment over other treatments. However, the main part of the treatment has been done using biological treatment.


2021 ◽  
pp. 0734242X2110652
Author(s):  
Charlotte Nilsson ◽  
Viktor Sjöberg ◽  
Anna Grandin ◽  
Stefan Karlsson ◽  
Bert Allard ◽  
...  

Given the high efficiency in phosphorus removal at municipal wastewater treatment plants (MMWWTP), sewage sludge constitutes a promising resource for phosphorus (P) recovery. Sewage sludge is, however, a complex matrix and its direct use as fertiliser is limited by its content of metals/metalloids and organic pollutants. In order to increase its usability as a potential resource of P, there is a need for increased knowledge on phosphorus speciation in these matrices. The sludge composition is highly influenced by local conditions (i.e. wastewater composition and treatment method), and it is therefore important to study sludge from several MMWWTPs. In this study, three different protocols for sequential extraction were utilised to investigate the chemical speciation of phosphorus in sludge from three different MMWWTP sludges in Sweden, as well as in corresponding ashes following incineration. The results showed that the total amounts of phosphorus ranged from 26 to 32 mg g−1 sludge (dry weight), of which 79–94% was inorganically bound (IP). In the sludge, 21–30% of the IP was associated with calcium (Ca-P), which is the preferred species for fertiliser production. Following incineration, this fraction increased to 54–56%, mainly due to transformation of iron-associated phosphorus (Fe-P), while aluminium-associated species of phosphorus (Al-P) remained unaltered. The results from this study confirm that incineration is a suitable treatment for sewage sludge in terms of potential phosphorus recovery.


Fermentation ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 302
Author(s):  
Marcin Sudlitz ◽  
Andrzej G. Chmielewski

This work reports on municipal sludge hygienization using electron beams. Three types of sewage sludge from two municipal wastewater treatment plants were tested: preliminary sludge with 4% TS, postflotation sludge with 2.5% TS and thickened preliminary sludge with 10% TS. The analysis of reference samples demonstrated the presence of bacteria and helminths ova in all examined samples. For the study of hygienization, electron beams from two types of accelerators, linear (Elektronika 10/10) and single cavity (ILU-6), were applied. For each type of accelerator, different irradiation methods were used: irradiation in sealed polyethylene bags using conveyor and flow irradiation installation. Experiments showed that the doses necessary for the elimination of mentioned pathogens were 4 kGy for preliminary sludge, 4 kGy for postflotation sludge and 5.5 kGy for preliminary sludge. The differences between the amounts of initial pathogens in preliminary and thickened preliminary sludge were marginal. It is possible that the higher irradiation dose required to hygienize thickened sludge resulted from higher TS concentration.


Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (23) ◽  
pp. 3398
Author(s):  
Haoze Wang ◽  
Bing Li ◽  
Jiaheng Zhao ◽  
Yongjing Tian ◽  
Yong Qiu

Filters are popularly used in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as the final guards against effluent solids; however, their impacts on antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) removal in the WWTPs are still unclear. In this study, metagenomic analysis was used to find out the distribution characteristics of ARGs in two WWTPs equipped with the same D-Type fiber filters. Samples of influent, activated sludge liquor, secondary clarifier effluent, and D-Type filter effluent were found to host 695, 609, 675, and 643 ARG subtypes, respectively. The detected ARGs mainly included macB (4.1–8.9%), sav1866 (1.7–3.4%), and oleC (1.6–3.8%). Co-occurrence network analysis combined with contribution analysis helped to identify the ARG-related risks in the samples. Microbacterium, Acinetobacter, Gordonia, and Streptomyces significantly correlated with more than ten kinds of ARG subtypes, implying that they are potential hosts for these resistance gene subtypes. The number of ARG subtypes in the D-Type filter was less than those in the secondary clarifier effluent, indicating the potential of D-Type filters to effectively reduce the ARGs released into the environment. However, the abundance of two pathogens, Mycobacterium and PmrA, increased after the treatment by the D-Type filter, which may reveal the adverse effects of intercepting ARGs inside the fibers. The results may help the understanding of the complex role of the D-Type fiber filter on ARG distribution in WWTPs.


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