Operating Costs
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2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (4) ◽  
pp. 252-265
Author(s):  
Viktoriia Apalkova ◽  
Sergiy Tsyganov ◽  
Tetiana Chernytska ◽  
Nataliia Meshko ◽  
Nadiia Tsyganova

Despite market volatility in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic and a decline in global investment flows to 2005 levels, sustainable development funds continued to grow. These data indicate a change in development vectors: now leading investors are guided by technologies for sustainable growth. The purpose of this paper is to determine the optimal model for evaluating investment projects in terms of their economic and environmental effects on the development of the region. The proposed technique is being tested for an investment project aimed at developing the production of mobile phones in Europe. As shown, the analysis of the location of the production of smartphones in Europe for subsequent implementation in the European market has a number of advantages and is more beneficial in terms of environmental and economic effects for the region. First, from an economic point of view, this leads to an increase in the volume of attracted investments, a decrease in operating costs for international logistics, the creation of new jobs and qualifications for the population. In addition, it is important to be able to actively implement circular business models that will reuse lithium-ion phone batteries, which will lead to a decrease in the need for cobalt as a raw material, as well as lead to an increase in the level of recycling of e-waste and the circularity of the European economy. Also, such investment projects open up great opportunities for manufacturers from a marketing point of view, creating bonuses for a positive image and preferences for a “local green producer”.


2021 ◽  
pp. 097226612110588
Author(s):  
S. Vishnuhadevi

This article surveys the existing literature on the compliance and administrative costs of VAT incurred by the businesses and the governments respectively. The review focuses on the concepts and components of VAT operating costs, the link between the tax compliance costs and the tax compliance decision, factors associated with compliance costs and the steps taken by various countries to mitigate these costs. The major studies of VAT compliance cost since 1980 and the methodologies adopted are summarised. The review of the studies shows that the VAT compliance costs are higher and significant in both absolute money terms and relative to tax revenue in developed as well as developing countries than the administrative costs and the compliance costs are highly regressive in nature which disproportionately affects the small businesses. Further, the psychological costs are underexplored in the VAT compliance cost literature due to the difficulty in measuring them. This article also highlights the understudied area of VAT compliance costs in India and the importance of exploring the compliance burden in India.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Caio Costa de Barros Pimentel Luke ◽  
Danielle de Freitas ◽  
Felipe Atenas Maldonado ◽  
Luigi Viola ◽  
Tiago Lino Bello ◽  
...  

Demand response is currently being tested by the Brazilian independent system operator, ONS, and by the trading chamber, CCEE. The program considers the reduction of consumption of some registered clients, as an alternative to dispatching thermal power plants according to merit order. The DESSEM computational tool, developed by CEPEL, is currently run by the ONS to define the next-day dispatch for the whole country. The results obtained using an academic version of DESSEM are used to benchmark and compare DESSEM's performance to relocate the load of demand offered by the operator to different clients under different configurations of the power system. Pros and cons are analyzed for different mathematical formulations, particularly regarding their impact on prices, operating costs, and computational times. Special attention is paid to determining the robustness of the considered models for a variety of optimality requirements for solving the unit-commitment problem.


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Somayeh Bakkhtiari Ramezani ◽  
Amin Amirlatifi ◽  
Thomas Kirby ◽  
Shahram Rahimi ◽  
Maria Seale

One of the main goals of predictive maintenance is to accurately classify the temporal trends as early as possible, detect faulty states and pinpoint the root cause of the fault. Undoubtedly, neither late nor early maintenance is desirable and incurs additional operating costs; however, early identification of faulty trends and scheduling on-time maintenance is crucial to smooth machinery operation. Various data-driven techniques have been used to identify faults; nevertheless, many of these techniques fail to perform when faced with missing values at run time or lack any explanation on the root cause of the fault. The present work offers a comprehensive study on different techniques used for fault type classification and compares their performance in identifying the mode of operation for the PHME21 dataset. We also evaluate the robustness of such classifiers against missing values. This study shows that tree-based techniques are best suited to perform root cause analysis for each faulty state and establish rules for faulty conditions.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
Matthew Stevens

<p>Software Defined Networks offers a new paradigm to manage networks, one that favors centralised control over the distributed control used in legacy networks. This brings network operators potential efficiencies in capital investment, operating costs and wider choice in network appliance providers. We explore in this research whether these efficiencies apply to all network functionality by applying formal modelling to create a mathematically rigourous model of a service, a firewall, and using that model to derive tests that are ultimately applied to two SDN firewalls and a legacy stateful firewall. In the process we discover the only publicly available examples of SDN firewalls are not equivalent to legacy stateful firewalls and in fact create a security flaw that may be exploited by an attacker.</p>


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
Matthew Stevens

<p>Software Defined Networks offers a new paradigm to manage networks, one that favors centralised control over the distributed control used in legacy networks. This brings network operators potential efficiencies in capital investment, operating costs and wider choice in network appliance providers. We explore in this research whether these efficiencies apply to all network functionality by applying formal modelling to create a mathematically rigourous model of a service, a firewall, and using that model to derive tests that are ultimately applied to two SDN firewalls and a legacy stateful firewall. In the process we discover the only publicly available examples of SDN firewalls are not equivalent to legacy stateful firewalls and in fact create a security flaw that may be exploited by an attacker.</p>


2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
pp. 39-49
Author(s):  
Anshori Budiono ◽  
Nofriandi Nofriandi ◽  
Tuti Herawati ◽  
Zaharuddin Zaharuddin ◽  
Supriyadi Supriyadi

Consumer goods have direct demand characteristics, meaning that consumers are the determinants of purchasing consumer goods. On the other hand, the pricing of consumer goods is determined by retailers, not by producers. Under these conditions, the production and operational costs for producing goods must be as small as possible so that the retailer's selling price to the public can be accepted by consumers.The purpose of this study is to see the effect of increasing production costs and operating costs of pharmaceutical companies in Indonesia in the period 2016 to 2018. The research method is carried out by processing quarterly data on production costs, operating costs, and net income of two pharmaceutical companies in Indonesia during that period. The linearity test of the relationship was carried out by Spearman, Kendall, and Pearson correlation analysis. Meanwhile, to get the relationship, multiple regression was carried out using the Ordinary Least Square and Weighted Least Square methods From the data analysis, using the OLS method, the coefficient values ??of the increase in production costs and operating costs are 0.393 and 0.002. Meanwhile, the WLS method obtained the coefficient values ??of 0.382 and 0.010. This study concludes that there is a potential for increasing profits which is dominated by production factors. In this case, there is the potential to increase the company's profit by increasing production capacity.


Author(s):  
Jobin M V ◽  

Lean manufacturing (LM) is a method, which focuses on reducing wastes and increasing the productivity within manufacturing firms. Several analyses were performed on LM technology depending on minimal lead times, enhanced quality and reduced operating costs. However, limitation exists in understanding its role to develop managing commitment, worker involvement and in turn its organizational performance. This paper intends to propose a new Neural Network (NN) based intelligent prediction framework. The initial process is manual labeling or response validation, which is carried out by utilizing the responses attained for each questions under each factors including lean awareness, employee involvement, management commitment, lean technology, Organizational Performance (OP) and Organizational Support (OS). Subsequently, NN is exploited for prediction process, where the features (received responses) are given as input and the labeling values attained are set as target. Further, in order to improve the prediction performance, the NN training is performed by a new Hybrid Particle Swarm and Pigeon Optimization (HPS-PO) algorithm via tuning the optimal weights. In fact, the proposed algorithm is the combination of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Pigeon Optimization Algorithm (POA), respectively. Finally, the performance of the proposed model is examined over conventional methods in terms of prediction analysis and error analysis.


Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (22) ◽  
pp. 7706
Author(s):  
Sławomir Stec

Transport is one of the key sectors of the European economy. However, the intensive development of transport caused negative effects in the form of an increase in the emission of harmful substances. The particularly dramatic situation took place in the V4 countries. This made it necessary to implement solutions reducing emissions in transport, including passenger transport. Such activities can be implemented in the field of implementation of low-emission and zero-emission vehicles for use. That is why the European Union and the governments of the Visegrad Group countries have developed numerous recommendations, communications, laws, and strategies that order carriers to implement low- and zero-emission mobility. Therefore, transport organizers and communication operators faced the choice of the type of buses. From an economic point of view, each entrepreneur is guided by the economic efficiency of the vehicles used. Hence, the main aim of the article was to conduct an economic evaluation of the operational efficiency of ecological vehicles. As more than 70% of vehicles in use in the European Union are still diesel driven, the economic efficiency assessment was also made for vehicles with traditional diesel drive. To conduct the research, the method of calculating the total cost of ownership of vehicles in operation was used. As a result of the research, it was found that electric buses are the cheapest in the entire period of use (15 years), and then those powered by CNG. On the other hand, the cost of using hydrogen buses is the highest. This is due to the high purchase prices of these vehicles. However, the EU, as well as the governments of individual countries, support enterprises and communication operators, by offering them financing for investments. The impact of the forecasted fuel and energy prices and the planned inflation on operating costs was also examined. In this case, the analyses showed that the forecasted changes in fuel and energy prices, as well as the expected inflation, will significantly affect the costs of vehicle operation and the economic efficiency of using various types of drives. These changes will have a positive impact on the implementation of zero-emission vehicles into exploitation. Based on the analyses, it was found that in 2035 hydrogen buses will have the lowest operating costs.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Lauren Xiaoyuan Lu ◽  
Susan Feng Lu

In the past two decades, many nursing homes converted their ownership status from nonprofit to for-profit (NP-to-FP). These conversions have drawn public scrutiny and triggered a debate about the implications of ownership conversions on nursing home performance. Exploring a nationwide panel data set of U.S. nursing homes from 2006 to 2017, we observe that nursing homes with higher financial distress are associated with higher likelihood of NP-to-FP conversions. The postconversion operating margins increased significantly. Converted nursing homes improved their financial performance by reducing operating costs while keeping net resident revenues unchanged. Both cutting registered nurse staffing and cutting overhead staffing contributed to reductions in operating costs; however, only the former cost-reduction measure had a negative impact on quality. On average, the postconversion quality of care declined. The effects of NP-to-FP conversions on nursing homes were moderated by preconversion financial distress: High-distress nursing homes aggressively cut registered nurse staffing and experienced severe quality decline, whereas low-distress ones kept registered nurse staffing unchanged and largely avoided quality decline. These findings lead to both policy and managerial insights. To nursing home regulators, we recommend increased oversight on NP-to-FP conversions of nursing homes with high preconversion financial distress. To managers of nursing homes undergoing NP-to-FP conversions, our findings suggest that although cost reduction is an effective strategy to improve financial performance, they need to avoid the pitfall of cutting registered nurse staffing and instead focus on streamlining overhead operations in order to increase operating efficiency without compromising quality. This paper was accepted by Stefan Scholtes, healthcare management.


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