Cultivating social capital in diverse, low-income neighborhoods: The value of parks for parents with young children

2022 ◽  
Vol 219 ◽  
pp. 104313
Lauren E. Mullenbach ◽  
Lincoln R. Larson ◽  
Myron F. Floyd ◽  
Oriol Marquet ◽  
Jing-Huei Huang ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 026101832098398
Marjorie Murray ◽  
Daniela Tapia

Nadie es Perfecto (Nobody’s Perfect, or NEP) is a parenting skills workshop aimed at ‘sharing experiences and receiving guidance on everyday problems to strengthen child development’. This article explores this workshop in terms of its relationship with the daily lives of participants, based on one year of fieldwork focused on families with young children in a low-income neighbourhood in Santiago. While caregivers frame their parenting efforts as aiming to ‘hacer lo mejor posible’ (do their best) under difficult circumstances, our study found that facilitators take an anachronistic and homogenizing view of participants. Embracing a universalistic perspective of child development, they discourage participation and debate, focusing instead on providing concrete advice that limits the potential of the workshops. This article argues that by ignoring the different living situations of families in this socioeconomic context, NEP reproduces a prejudiced view of poor subjects that sees them as deficient and incapable of change.

Foods ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 8 (6) ◽  
pp. 221 ◽  
James Makame ◽  
Tanita Cronje ◽  
Naushad M. Emmambux ◽  
Henriette De Kock

Child malnutrition remains a major public health problem in low-income African communities, caused by factors including the low nutritional value of indigenous/local complementary porridges (CP) fed to infants and young children. Most African children subsist on locally available starchy foods, whose oral texture is not well-characterized in relation to their sensorimotor readiness. The sensory quality of CP affects oral processing (OP) abilities in infants and young children. Unsuitable oral texture limits nutrient intake, leading to protein-energy malnutrition. The perception of the oral texture of selected African CPs (n = 13, Maize, Sorghum, Cassava, Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP), Cowpea, and Bambara) was investigated by a trained temporal-check-all-that-apply (TCATA) panel (n = 10), alongside selected commercial porridges (n = 19). A simulated OP method (Up-Down mouth movements- munching) and a control method (lateral mouth movements- normal adult-like chewing) were used. TCATA results showed that Maize, Cassava, and Sorghum porridges were initially too thick, sticky, slimy, and pasty, and also at the end not easy to swallow even at low solids content—especially by the Up-Down method. These attributes make CPs difficult to ingest for infants given their limited OP abilities, thus, leading to limited nutrient intake, and this can contribute to malnutrition. Methods to improve the texture properties of indigenous CPs are needed to optimize infant nutrient intake.

1992 ◽  
Vol 28 (4) ◽  
pp. 644-653 ◽  
Nancy C. Jordan ◽  
Janellen Huttenlocher ◽  
Susan C. Levine

2015 ◽  
Vol 50 (4) ◽  
pp. 439-461 ◽  
Mariam Ashtiani ◽  
Cynthia Feliciano

Youth from advantaged backgrounds have more social relationships that provide access to resources facilitating their educational success than those from low-income families. Does access to and mobilization of social capital also relate to success among the few low-income youth who “overcome the odds” and persist in higher education? Using nationally representative longitudinal data over a 14-year period, this study shows that although access to social capital in families, schools, and communities is positively related to entry into higher education, most forms of adolescent social capital are not independently associated with degree attainment. However, the mobilization of social capital through certain types of mentorship benefits both the college entry and bachelor’s degree attainment of low-income youth, more so than for their more economically advantaged peers. Findings suggest that developing enduring mentoring relationships and new social resources rooted in the higher education context may be especially important in facilitating degree attainment for young adults from low-income backgrounds.

1998 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 23-31 ◽  
I Darnton-Hill ◽  
ET Coyne

AbstractObjective:To review current information on under- and over-malnutrition and the consequences of socioeconomic disparities on global nutrition and health.Design:Malnutrition, both under and over, can no longer be addressed without considering global food insecurity, socioeconomic disparity, both globally and nationally, and global cultural, social and epidemiological transitions.Setting:The economic gap between the more and less affluent nations is growing. At the same time income disparity is growing within most countries, both developed and developing. Concurrently, epidemiological, demographic and nutrition transitions are taking place in many countries.Results:Fully one-third of young children in the world's low-income countries are stunted because of malnutrition. One-half of all deaths among young children are, in part, a consequence of malnutrition. Forty per cent of women in the developing world suffer from iron deficiency anaemia, a major cause of maternal mortality and low birth weight infants. Despite such worrying trends, there have been significant increases in life expectancy in nearly all countries of the world, and continuing improvements in infant mortality rates. The proportion of children malnourished has generally decreased, although actual numbers have not in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia. Inequalities are increasing between the richest developed countries and the poorest developing countries. Social inequality is an important factor in differential mortality in both developed and developing countries. Many countries have significant pockets of malnutrition and increased mortality of children, while obesity and non-communicable disease (NCDs) prevalences are increasing. Not infrequently it is the poor and relatively disadvantaged sectors of the population who are suffering both. In the industrialized countries. cardiovascular disease incidence has declined, but less so in the poorer socioeconomic strata.conclusions:The apparent contradicitions found represent a particular point in time (population responses generally lag behind social and environmental transitions). They do also show encouraging evidence that interventions can have a positive impact, sometimes despite disadvantageous circumstances. However, it seems increasingly unlikely that food production will continue to keep up with population growth. It is also unlikely present goals for reducing protein-energy malnutrition prevalence will be reached. The coexistence of diseases of undernutrition and NCDs will have an impact on allocation of resources. Action needs to be continued and maintained at the international, national and individual level.

Shutao Wang ◽  
Cui Huang

This study aimed to determine whether learning engagement plays a mediating effect on the relationship between family capital and students’ higher education gains in mainland China. We used family capital, learning engagement, and higher education gains as measures and analyzed data using a structural equation model. Data were collected from 1334 students at a Chinese university. The results show that family cultural capital had the most significant effect on students’ learning engagement, while economic capital also played a positive role, and social capital had no significant impact. Learning engagement played a mediating role in the relationship between cultural capital and higher education gains, as did the relationship between economic capital and higher education gains. However, learning engagement did not have a mediating effect on the relationship between social capital and higher education gains. Our results show that we should focus on the importance of students’ learning engagement, improve the cultural capital of disadvantaged groups, and provide financial support for students from low-income families.

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