Food Insecurity
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2022 ◽  
Vol 32 ◽  
pp. 100609
Marwa Diab-El-Harake ◽  
Samer Kharroubi ◽  
Jumanah Zabaneh ◽  
Lamis Jomaa

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Silondile Luthuli ◽  
Lyn Haskins ◽  
Sphindile Mapumulo ◽  
Christiane Horwood

Abstract Background The child support grant (CSG) is the largest unconditional cash transfer program in Africa and aims to alleviate poverty and improve child health and nutrition in low-income families in South Africa. Among informal working women, the CSG is an important source of income after childbirth when informal workers are unable to work, but reports suggest that women experience delays in accessing the CSG. We explore experiences and challenges of accessing the CSG among informal workers in Durban, South Africa. Methods We undertook a longitudinal mixed-methods cohort study. Women informal workers were recruited during pregnancy and followed-up for up to one year after the baby was born. Quantitative questionnaires and semi-structured in-depth interviews were used to collect data about women’s plans for applying for the CSG, the application process, use of the CSG in the household, and household food insecurity. Interviews were conducted in IsiZulu by experienced researchers. Descriptive analysis of quantitative data used SPSS v26, and framework analysis using NVIVO v12.3 was used for qualitative analysis. Results Twenty-four informal working women were enrolled. The CSG received for older children was reported as an important and reliable source of income for mothers after childbirth. However, delays receiving the CSG for the new baby meant this support was unavailable to first-time mothers. The complex application process for the CSG required mothers to travel to various government departments to complete the required documentation, often taking the baby with them. This was costly and time-consuming for mothers who were already vulnerable, and led to delays in obtaining CSG funds. Many women experienced moderate or severe food insecurity before and after the baby was born. As a result, some mothers had to return to work earlier than planned, disrupting childcare and breastfeeding. Conclusions Cash transfer programmes can effectively support low income households and improve outcomes for mothers and children. In South Africa there is a need for innovative approaches to streamline CSG applications, so women can access the funds immediately post-delivery to fill a resource gap and provide support at a vulnerable time for mothers and their children.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Sally Mackay ◽  
Sarah Gerritsen ◽  
Fiona Sing ◽  
Stefanie Vandevijvere ◽  
Boyd Swinburn

Abstract Background The INFORMAS [International Network for Food and Obesity/Non-communicable Diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support] Healthy Food Environment Policy Index (Food-EPI) was developed to evaluate the degree of implementation of widely recommended food environment policies by national governments against international best practice, and has been applied in New Zealand in 2014, 2017 and 2020. This paper outlines the 2020 Food-EPI process and compares policy implementation and recommendations with the 2014 and 2017 Food-EPI. Methods In March–April 2020, a national panel of over 50 public health experts participated in Food-EPI. Experts rated the extent of implementation of 47 “good practice” policy and infrastructure support indicators compared to international best practice, using an extensive evidence document verified by government officials. Experts then proposed and prioritized concrete actions needed to address the critical implementation gaps identified. Progress on policy implementation and recommendations made over the three Food-EPIs was compared. Results In 2020, 60% of the indicators were rated as having “low” or “very little, if any” implementation compared to international benchmarks: less progress than 2017 (47%) and similar to 2014 (61%). Of the nine priority actions proposed in 2014, there was only noticeable action on one (Health Star Ratings). The majority of actions were therefore proposed again in 2017 and 2020. In 2020 the proposed actions were broader, reflecting the need for multisectoral action to improve the food environment, and the need for a mandatory approach in all policy areas. Conclusions There has been little to no progress in the past three terms of government (9 years) on the implementation of policies and infrastructure support for healthy food environments, with implementation overall regressing between 2017 and 2020. The proposed actions in 2020 have reflected a growing movement to locate nutrition within the wider context of planetary health and with recognition of the social determinants of health and nutrition, resulting in recommendations that will require the involvement of many government entities to overcome the existing policy inertia. The increase in food insecurity due to COVID-19 lockdowns may provide the impetus to stimulate action on food polices.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-11
Juliana Santos Bóia ◽  
Vitoria Eduarda Fernandes de Morais ◽  
Aparecido Ignacio Junior ◽  
Sabrina Alves Lenquiste ◽  
Rayana Loch Gomes

The aim was to verify the association between food insecurity (FI) and food consumption of elderly people assisted by a Family Health Strategy (FHE). Sixteen elderly people, of both sexes, with a mean age of 69.13 years and BMI of 29.23 kg/m2 were evaluated. The Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale, food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour food recall were used. Weight and height were taken from the patients' records. It was observed that 37.5% of the elderly were in mild AI, 31.25% in moderate AI, 18.75% in severe AI and only 12.5% in food security. Individuals do not consume skimmed milk and have frequent intake of eggs, sausages, margarine, refined cereals, industrialized beverages, sweets and candies. And little or no use of olive oil and whole grains. No significant association between AI and food consumption. It is concluded that there was no association between food insecurity and food consumption in elderly people assisted by an ESF.

F1000Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
pp. 39
Tamiru Yazew

Background Acute and chronic child undernutrition is a continuous problem in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study was initiated to compare the prevalence of underweight and its associated factors among children aged 6-23 months in the Kuyu district, North Shewa zone, Oromia, Ethiopia. Methods An observational community-based study was conducted on 612 children (304 from household security and 308 from household food insecurity). A structured and standardize questionnaire was used in this study. Anthropometric measurements were generated using WHO standardize. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the independent variables associated with underweight (weight-for-age) among children in household food security and insecurity, a p value less than 0.05 with 95%CI was considered as statistically significant. Results The results indicated that 30.9% [95%CI; 25.7, 36.2] and 36.7% [95% CI; 31.8, 42.5] of children were underweight for their age in household food security and insecurity. Low wealth status (AOR=3.2; 95%CI: 1.099, 9.275), poor dietary diets (AOR=5.2; 95%CI: 2.046, 13.27), and lack of breastfeeding for two years (AOR= 2.1; 95%CI= 1.78, 5, 42) were associated with underweight children in household food security. Whereas lack of antenatal care visits (AOR=0.52; 95%CI: 0.12, 0.68) and poor dietary diets (AOR=3.01; 95%CI= 2.1, 17.4) were other independent variables associated with underweight children in household food insecurity. Conclusions This study established that there was a high prevalence of underweight in children from Oromia.  Therefore, introducing household income generating activities are vital interventions in order to overcome the problem of undernutrition in this region.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Tamiru Yazew

Undernutrition is the most difficult and widespread public health concern in low-income nations including Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the associated risk factors of stunting and wasting among children aged 6–59 months in Jima Geneti district, Western Oromia, Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 children from December 1 to 28, 2020. A multiple-stage sampling method was performed to select children from each kebele. Anthropometric measurements were taken, and the nutritional status was generated using WHO Anthro v. 3.2.1. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS version 20.0. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify the associated risk factors of stunting and wasting among children in the study area. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05 . The study results showed that the prevalence of stunting and wasting among children was 27% and 11.8%, respectively. The findings of this study also revealed that the prevalence of household food insecurity and poor dietary diets was 19.6% and 52.2%, respectively. Low wealth status (AOR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 5.55) and poor dietary diets (AOR = 4.7; 95% CI: 2.5, 8.83) were associated risk factors for stunting. However, child meal frequency (AOR = 3.9; 95% CI: 1.23, 12.6), and children who did feed leftover food (AOR = 2.75; 95% CI: 1.02, 7.44) were associated risk factors for wasting. Poor dietary diets (AOR = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.06, 6.66) were also associated risk factors for wasting. The findings of this study concluded that the prevalence of stunting and wasting was high in the study area. Therefore, addressing family-level risk factors which are major drivers of children’s nutritional status is crucial to ensure the nutritional status of children.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-53
Matthew Greene ◽  
Bailey Houghtaling ◽  
Claire Sadeghzadeh ◽  
Molly De Marco ◽  
De’Jerra Bryant ◽  

Abstract African Americans experience high rates of obesity and food insecurity in part due to structural racism, or overlapping discriminatory systems and practices in housing, education, employment, health care, and other settings. Nutrition education and nutrition-focused policy, systems, and environmental changes may be able to address structural racism in the food environment. This scoping review aimed to summarize the available literature regarding nutrition interventions for African Americans that address structural racism in the food environment and compare them to the “Getting to Equity in Obesity Prevention” framework of suggested interventions. An electronic literature search was conducted with the assistance of a research librarian encompassing 6 databases—MEDLINE, PyscINFO, Agricola, ERIC, SocINDEX, and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses. A total of 30 sources were identified detailing interventions addressing structural barriers to healthy eating. The majority of nutrition interventions addressing structural racism consisted of policy, systems, and/or environmental changes in combination with nutrition education, strategies focused on proximal causes of racial health disparities. Only two articles each targeted the “reduce deterrents” and “improve social and economic resources” aspects of the framework, interventions which may be better suited to addressing structural racism in the food environment. Because African Americans experience high rates of obesity and food insecurity and encounter structural barriers to healthy eating in the food environment, researchers and public health professionals should address this gap in the literature.

Joel Berg ◽  
Angelica Gibson

Many industrialized nations have followed the lead of the United States (US) in reducing workers’ wages and cutting government safety nets, while giving their populaces the false impression that non-governmental organizations can meet the food and basic survival needs of their low-income residents. The history of the last 50 years and the global COVID-19 pandemic demonstrate why that is a mistake, leading to vastly increased household food insecurity, poverty, and hunger. This paper takes a close look at US data to help to better understand the significant impact US federal government policy measures had on limiting hunger throughout the pandemic and how we can learn from these outcomes to finally end hunger in America and other developed nations. The top three policy prescriptions vital in ending household food insecurity in the US and industrialized countries are as follows: (1) to create jobs; raise wages; make high quality healthcare and prescription medicine free; and ensure that high quality childcare, education, transportation, and broad-band access are affordable to all; (2) to enact a comprehensive “Assets Empowerment Agenda” to help low-income people move from owing to owning in order to develop middle-class wealth; and (3) when the above two steps are inadequate, ensure a robust government safety net for struggling residents that provides cash, food, and housing assistance.

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