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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 180-188
Author(s):  
Silé Souam Nguélé ◽  
Adrienne Ngaringuem ◽  
Kounnezouné Patalet ◽  
Kanezouné Gongnet ◽  
Djaury Dadji-a ◽  
...  

Introduction: Hypotrophy is a public health problem in developing countries. Its etiology is multifactorial and it may be associated with high morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and evolutionary profile of hypotrophic newborns at term. Methodology: this was a prospective, descriptive and analytical study conducted in the neonatology department of the MCUH of N'Djamena from 01/06/2018 to 31/05/2019. It involved 109 hypotrophic newborns at term hospitalized. Results: The frequency of hypotrophy was 7.8%, the risk factors were: housewife status (81.7%), low level of education (67%), poor pregnancy follow-up (59.7%), malaria (40.4%), urogenital infections (22%) and anemia (22%) during pregnancy. Hypotrophy was harmonious in 58.7% of cases, the sex ratio was 1.14 and visible congenital malformations were observed in 12.7% of cases. The main reasons for hospitalization were neonatal infections (64.2%), perinatal asphyxia (14.7%) and hypothermia (11.9%). Lethality was 16.5% and associated with multiparity, poor pregnancy follow-up, vaginal delivery, home delivery, pathological Apgar score, notion of resuscitation, existence of malformation, respiratory distress and perinatal asphyxia. Conclusion: Better monitoring of pregnancy, use of family planning by couples, delivery in an institutionalized setting, and reinforcement of the technical platform of the neonatology department will reduce neonatal morbidity and mortality related to hypotrophy.


Author(s):  
Rei-Hsing Hu ◽  
Chia-Ta Wu ◽  
Ting-Shuan Wu ◽  
Feng-Yih Yu ◽  
Jiunn-Liang Ko ◽  
...  

BackgroundAllergic asthma, a chronic airway inflammatory disease, is a critical public health problem. Indoor house dust mites (HDMs) could cause allergic asthma. The prevalence of sensitization to Dermatophagoides microceras (Der m) was approximately 80% and is related to the immunoglobulin E crossing-reactivity of mites belonging to the same genus, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) and Dermatophagoides farina (Der f). However, studies on Der m are scant.MethodsWe used integrated OMICs approaches to identify and characterize the group 2 mite allergen-like protein in Der m (Der m 2). We established a Der m 2-induced allergic asthma mouse model and treated the mice with a fungal immunomodulatory protein (FIP-fve) isolated from Flammulina veluptipes to evaluate the allergenicity of Der m 2 and the immunomodulatory effects of FIP-fve.ResultsBy performing de novo draft genome assembly and comparative genome analysis, we identified the putative 144-amino acid Der m 2 in silico and further confirmed its existence through liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Der m 2 is a lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-binding protein. Thus, we examined the LPS-binding activity of recombinant Der m 2 by performing molecular docking analysis, co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP), and a pull-down assay. Der m 2 elicited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8 in BEAS-2B cells, a human bronchial epithelial cell line, and induced airway hyperresponsiveness in mice. Furthermore, in mice sensitized with Der m 2, the administration of FIP-fve in either the earlier stage or the late stage, FIP-fve alleviated allergic asthma by moderating airway inflammation and remodeling.ConclusionsDer m 2 induced inflammatory responses in cell and mouse models. FIP-fve alleviated inflammation in Der m 2-induced asthma in mice by exerting an immunomodulatory effect.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 973
Author(s):  
Federica Barbagallo ◽  
Sandro La La Vignera ◽  
Rossella Cannarella ◽  
Laura M. Mongioì ◽  
Vincenzo Garofalo ◽  
...  

Obesity is a major current public health problem of global significance. A progressive sperm quality decline, and a decline in male fertility, have been reported in recent decades. Several studies have reported a strict relationship between obesity and male reproductive dysfunction. Among the many mechanisms by which obesity impairs male gonadal function, sirtuins (SIRTs) have an emerging role. SIRTs are highly conserved nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacetylases that play a role in gene regulation, metabolism, aging, and cancer. SIRTs regulate the energy balance, the lipid balance, glucose metabolism, and adipogenesis, but current evidence also indicates a role for SIRTs in male reproduction. However, the majority of the studies have been conducted in animal models and very few have been conducted with humans. This review shows that SIRTs play an important role among the molecular mechanisms by which obesity interferes with male fertility. This highlights the need to deepen this relationship. It will be of particular interest to evaluate whether synthetic and/or natural compounds capable of modifying the activity of SIRTs may also be useful for the treatment of obesity and its effects on gonadal function. Although few studies have explored the role of SIRT activators in obesity-induced male infertility, some molecules, such as resveratrol, appear to be effective in modulating SIRT activity, as well as counteracting the negative effects of obesity on male fertility. The search for strategies to improve male reproductive function in overweight/obese patients is a challenge and understanding the role of SIRTs and their activators may open new interesting scenarios in the coming years.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 253-260
Author(s):  
Manpreet Singh

Background: Fractures of the proximal femur, including fractures affecting the pertrochanteric region, have become a public health problem. Owing to aging of the population, we have to operate on even more elderly patients who sometimes present with significant co-morbidities. Although conventional implants have given good results in stable peritrochanteric fractures, proximal femur locking compression plate (PFLCP) which has been recently introduced is better suited for comminuted, unstable pertrochanteric fractures and osteoporotic bones. In PF-LCP, bone-implantconstruct so formed is mechanically stable and fixation failure due to screw loosening in osteoporotic bone can be reduced. Materials &Methods: This prospective study was conducted in our institute and was approved by local ethical committee. Twenty-five consecutive patients of either sex with age more than 60 years (range, 60-84) having pertrochanteric fractures were operated upon with PFLCP. A.O classification was followed in the study and Singh’s index for osteoporosis was calculated. Operating time, blood loss and any technical difficulty with the implant were recorded. Patients were followed clinically and radiologically for union at fracture site and implant-related complications for a period of 24 months. The Harris Hip Score was used to document hip functions at final follow-up. Observations: Amongst the 25 patients, the average operation time in our study was 66.60±10.57 minutes. The average radiological union was 3.40±0.63 months (13.6 weeks). Average time for full weight bearing was 13.12±1.90 weeks. There were two cases of wound infection, one case of coxa vara and one case of a proximal screw back-out. There was no case of plate lift or screw breakage. There was no case of non-union. Conclusion: The PFLCP can be a feasible alternative to the treatment of peritrochanteric fractures. Treatment with PFLCP can provide good-to-excellent healing in osteoporotic bones having comminuted and unstable peritrochanteric fractures, with a limited occurrence of complications.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 31-37
Author(s):  
Vijay Kumar ◽  
Swayambhu Shubham ◽  
Satyendra Narayan Singh

Background: UTI constitute a major public health problem in India accounting 2nd most common infection next to respiratory tract infection. They are responsible for increasing treatment cost and significant morbidity.Aim:-To determine the incidence of UTI, evaluation of pathogens responsible and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in the population.Methods:Urine samples were collected from 300 patients attending the OPD Patna medical college, Patna during the period of 18 months (January 2017 to June 2018) Antimicrobial sensitivity testing was done for the bacterial isolates present in the sample by Kirby- Bauer disc diffusion method. Only those samples were taken into consideration which develops count equal to or greater than 1*105CFU/ml as indicated by Kass.Results:Out of 300 samples collected 146 (48.66%)) yielded bacterial growth. Out of 146 culture isolates E.Coli was the most common pathogen followed by klebsiella, CoNS and staphylococcus. Antibiotic sensitivity was performed on all the isolates. It was observed that highest sensitivity was 49.31% to amikacin, gentamycin (45.89%), nitrofurantoin (38.35%) meropenem (27.39%).Conclusions:It was observed that high grade of resistance to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, chloramphenicol, cefotaxime, cefazolin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid and gentamycin is present as a result of misuse or improper use of antibiotic in the community. Hence urine culture is necessary for the diagnostic screening of UTI before the treatment.


2022 ◽  
Vol 48 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Antonio Nicolucci ◽  
Claudio Maffeis

AbstractThe dramatic increase in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents has become a major public health problem. Obesity in children and young adults is associated with an increased prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors. Obesity during adolescence represents a strong predictor of obesity and higher mortality in adulthood. Due to the serious implications of obesity in adolescents, effective treatments are urgently needed. Lifestyle interventions represent the recommended therapy. Nevertheless, real world data show that the majority of adolescents do not achieve weight loss in the long term, and are reluctant to participate in lifestyle interventions. Pharmacological treatment is recommended if a formal lifestyle modification program fails to limit weight gain or to improve comorbidities. However, until 2020 the European Medicines Agency (EMA) had not approved any pharmacotherapeutic agents for obesity in pediatric patients. On April 2021, EMA has authorized the use of Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 analog, for the treatment of obesity in adolescents (12–17 years). The efficacy and safety of Liraglutide were demonstrated in a randomized, double-blind trial, enrolling 251 adolescents. After 56 weeks, a reduction in BMI of at least 5% was observed in 43.3% of participants in the liraglutide group vs. 18.7% in the placebo group, and a reduction in BMI of at least 10% was observed in 26.1 and 8.1%, respectively. Gastrointestinal events were the events most frequently reported with liraglutide. Bariatric surgery represents another effective treatment for adolescents with severe obesity, with sustained benefits on weight loss and cardiometabolic risk factors. However, long-term safety and effectiveness data in adolescents are still scarce. Risks of bariatric surgery include the need for additional abdominal surgical procedures and specific micronutrient deficiencies. Hopefully, new pharmacological treatments in addition to lifestyle interventions will offer more chances of success.


Author(s):  
Tejaswini Oduru ◽  
Alexis Jordan ◽  
Albert Park

Obesity is a modern public health problem. Social media images can capture eating behavior and the potential implications to health, but research for identifying the healthiness level of the food image is relatively under-explored. This study presents a deep learning architecture that transfers features from a 152 residual layer network (ResNet) for predicting the level of healthiness of food images that were built using images from the Google images search engine gathered in 2020. Features learned from the ResNet 152 were transferred to a second network to train on the dataset. The trained SoftMax layer was stacked on top of the layers transferred from ResNet 152 to build our deep learning model. We then evaluate the performance of the model using Twitter images in order to better understand the generalizability of the methods. The results show that the model is able to predict the images into their respective classes, including Definitively Healthy, Healthy, Unhealthy and Definitively Unhealthy at an F1-score of 78.8%. This finding shows promising results for classifying social media images by healthiness, which could contribute to maintaining a balanced diet at the individual level and also understanding general food consumption trends of the public.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 259-272
Author(s):  
Ginette Gladys Doue ◽  
Mariame Cisse ◽  
Rose-Monde Megnanou ◽  
Lessoy Thierry Zoue

Child malnutrition is still a public health problem in Côte d'Ivoire, mainly due to poor feeding practice linked to the low nutritional value of the staple foods used for child nutrition. However, the introduction of tigernut, proteins and lipids rich tuber, in the dietary habits of these children could constitute an interesting nutritional alternative to solve this problem. The objective of this work was to valorize the tigernut-based porridges for their use as complementary food in the diet of weaning children. To this end, physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics of four formulations AB1, AB4, RB2 and SB3 were studied. The atadjon formulations, especially AB1, presented the highest density in energy (95.70 Kcal/100g), protein (5.37 %), lipids (3.8 %) and the lowest contents in anti-nutrients with 2.17% in fiber, 36.6% in oxalates, 65.54% in tannin and 0% in phytates, contrary to the rice (RB2) and tigernut (SB3) control porridges. In addition, the atadjon formulations AB4 and AB1 were preferred to the control because of their sweet taste, tigernut flavor, brown color and flowability according to PCA analysis. Thus, this study indicates that these traditionally prepared porridges could be suitable for children receiving an average level of breastfeeding and three meals per day.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 809
Author(s):  
Sho Yokoe ◽  
Akira Hasuike ◽  
Norihisa Watanabe ◽  
Hideki Tanaka ◽  
Hiroyuki Karahashi ◽  
...  

Periodontitis is an inflammatory condition that causes the destruction of the supporting tissues of teeth and is a major public health problem affecting more than half of the adult population worldwide. Recently, members of the herpes virus family, such as the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), have been suggested to be involved in the etiology of periodontitis because bacterial activity alone does not adequately explain the clinical characteristics of periodontitis. However, the role of EBV in the etiology of periodontitis is unknown. This study aimed to examine the effect of inactivated EBV on the expression of inflammatory cytokines in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) and the induction of osteoclast differentiation. We found that extremely high levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 were induced by inactivated EBV in a copy-dependent manner in HGFs. The levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in HGFs were higher when the cells were treated with EBV than when treated with lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid. EBV induced IκBα degradation, NF-κB transcription, and RAW264.7 cell differentiation into osteoclast-like cells. These findings suggest that even without infecting the cells, EBV contributes to inflammatory cytokine production and osteoclast differentiation by contact with oral cells or macrophage lineage, resulting in periodontitis onset and progression.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Gary Peltz ◽  
Yalun Tan

The tremendous public health problem created by substance use disorders (SUDs) presents a major opportunity for mouse genetics. Inbred mouse strains exhibit substantial and heritable differences in their responses to drugs of abuse (DOA) and in many of the behaviors associated with susceptibility to SUD. Therefore, genetic discoveries emerging from analysis of murine genetic models can provide critically needed insight into the neurobiological effects of DOA, and they can reveal how genetic factors affect susceptibility drug addiction. There are already indications, emerging from our prior analyses of murine genetic models of responses related to SUDs that mouse genetic models of SUD can provide actionable information, which can lead to new approaches for alleviating SUDs. Lastly, we consider the features of murine genetic models that enable causative genetic factors to be successfully identified; and the methodologies that facilitate genetic discovery.


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