Synthesis and Evaluation of Cyclic Acetals of Serine Hydroxylamine for Amide-Forming KAHA Ligations

Synthesis ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 51 (05) ◽  
pp. 1273-1283 ◽  
Simon Baldauf ◽  
Jeffrey Bode

The α-ketoacid–hydroxylamine (KAHA) ligation allows the coupling of unprotected peptide segments. The most widely used variant employs a 5-membered cyclic hydroxylamine that forms a homoserine ester as the primary ligation product. While very effective, monomers that give canonical amino acid residues are in high demand. In order to preserve the stability and reactivity of cyclic hydroxylamines, but form a canonical amino acid residue upon ligation, we sought to prepare cyclic derivatives of serine hydroxylamine. An evaluation of several cyclization strategies led to cyclobutanone ketals as the leading structures. The preparation, stability, and amide-forming ligation of these serine-derived ketals are described.

2002 ◽  
Vol 29 (10) ◽  
pp. 1131 ◽  
Xiao-Ping Li ◽  
Alba Phippard ◽  
Jae Pasari ◽  
Krishna K. Niyogi

In land plants, photosystem II subunit S (PsbS) plays a key role in xanthophyll- and pH-dependent non-photochemical quenching (qE) of excess absorbed light energy. Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. npq4 mutants are defective in the psbS gene and have impaired qE. Exactly how the PsbS protein is involved in qE is unclear, but it has been proposed that PsbS binds H+ and/or de-epoxidized xanthophylls in excess light as part of the qE mechanism. To identify amino acid residues that are important for PsbS function, we sequenced the psbS gene from eight npq4 point mutant alleles isolated by forward genetics screening, including two new alleles. In the four transmembrane helices of PsbS, several amino acid residues were found to affect the stability and/or function of the protein. By comparing the predicted amino acid sequences of PsbS from several plant species and studying the proposed topological structure of PsbS, eight possible H+-binding amino acid residues on the lumenal side of the protein were identified and then altered by site-directed mutagenesis in vitro. The mutant psbS genes were transformed into npq4-1, a psbS deletion mutant, to test the stability and function of the mutant PsbS proteins in�vivo. The results demonstrate that two conserved, protonatable amino acids, E122 and E226, are especially critical for the function of PsbS.

2016 ◽  
Vol 45 (23) ◽  
pp. 9436-9445 ◽  
Takaaki Miyamoto ◽  
Yuta Fukino ◽  
Shinichiro Kamino ◽  
Masashi Ueda ◽  
Shuichi Enomoto

The stability of Cu2+–ATCUN complexes under physiologically relevant conditions is enhanced by inserting bulky and hydrophobic residues at positions 1 and 2 of the ATCUN peptide.

2001 ◽  
Vol 45 (12) ◽  
pp. 3437-3444 ◽  
Umadevi S. Sajjan ◽  
Linh T. Tran ◽  
Nuria Sole ◽  
Christopher Rovaldi ◽  
Alan Akiyama ◽  

ABSTRACT Antimicrobial peptides are a source of novel agents that could be useful for treatment of the chronic lung infections that afflict cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Efficacy depends on antimicrobial activity against the major pathogens of CF patients, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Haemophilus influenzae, in the environment of the CF patient's airway. We describe the in vitro efficacies of derivatives of histatins, which are histidine-rich peptides produced by the salivary glands of humans and higher primates. P-113, a peptide containing 12 of the 24 amino acid residues of the parent molecule, histatin 5, retained full antibacterial activity and had a good spectrum of activity in vitro against the prominent pathogens of CF patients. However, P-113 was not active in the presence of purulent sputum from CF patients. In contrast, P-113d, the mirror-image peptide with the amino acid residues in the d configuration, was stable in sputum, was as active as P-113 against pathogens of CF patients in the absence of sputum and retained significant activity in the presence of sputum from CF patients. Recombinant human DNase, which effectively liquefies sputum, enhanced the activity of P-113d in undiluted sputum against both exogenous (added) bacteria and endogenous bacteria. Because of its properties, P-113d shows potential as an inhalant in chronic suppressive therapy for CF patients.

2007 ◽  
Vol 2007 ◽  
pp. 1-23 ◽  
G. R. Hemalatha ◽  
D. Satyanarayana Rao ◽  
L. Guruprasad

We have identified four repeats and ten domains that are novel in proteins encoded by theBacillus anthracisstr.Amesproteome using automated in silico methods. A “repeat” corresponds to a region comprising less than 55-amino-acid residues that occur more than once in the protein sequence and sometimes present in tandem. A “domain” corresponds to a conserved region with greater than 55-amino-acid residues and may be present as single or multiple copies in the protein sequence. These correspond to (1) 57-amino-acid-residue PxV domain, (2) 122-amino-acid-residue FxF domain, (3) 111-amino-acid-residue YEFF domain, (4) 109-amino-acid-residue IMxxH domain, (5) 103-amino-acid-residue VxxT domain, (6) 84-amino-acid-residue ExW domain, (7) 104-amino-acid-residue NTGFIG domain, (8) 36-amino-acid-residue NxGK repeat, (9) 95-amino-acid-residue VYV domain, (10) 75-amino-acid-residue KEWE domain, (11) 59-amino-acid-residue AFL domain, (12) 53-amino-acid-residue RIDVK repeat, (13) (a) 41-amino-acid-residue AGQF repeat and (b) 42-amino-acid-residue GSAL repeat. A repeat or domain type is characterized by specific conserved sequence motifs. We discuss the presence of these repeats and domains in proteins from other genomes and their probable secondary structure.

RSC Advances ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (35) ◽  
pp. 21629-21641
Chao Xia ◽  
Pingping Wen ◽  
Yaming Yuan ◽  
Xiaofan Yu ◽  
Yijing Chen ◽  

The relative number of peptides modified by the amino acid residues of actin from raw beef patties and those cooked at different roasting temperatures.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
pp. 369-376
O.A. Zav’yalova ◽  
Yu.A. Marsyanova ◽  
Yu.V. Abalenikhinа ◽  
A.F. Ishtulin ◽  

BACKGROUND: The constancy of the protein composition of the body is one of the most important conditions for normal vital activity. Deviations in the content of the main bioelements, in particular, mixed valence metals, caused by environmental factors, improper nutrition and other factors, lead to various disorders. One of the properties of metals of mixed valence is the abil-ity to cause metal-catalyzed oxidation of proteins in joint action with active forms of oxygen. It seems interesting to study the oxidative modification of the amino acid residues of albumin and the change in its properties. AIM: To study the effect of reactive oxygen intermediates generated by the Fenton reaction in the presence of Fe2+ and Cu2+ on the oxidative modification of amino acid residues of bovine serum albumin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out on bovine serum albumin (BSA), which was incubated for 2 hours in a mixture of Fenton's reagents – FeSO4 + H2O2 and in a mixture of СuSO4 + H2O2. The quantitative protein content in the samples was determined with the bromcresol green reagent (Albumin-Olvex). The content of carbonyl derivatives of proteins was estimated by the method of R.L. Levine modified by E.E. Dubinina. The content of thiol groups in albumin samples from the control and experimental groups was determined by the Ellman method with DTNB (under non-denaturing conditions. RESULTS: The presented results demonstrate that under the action of Cu2+ ions, the formation of carbonyl derivatives of aliphatic amino acids of albumin is less than in the presence of Fe2+, which can be explained by the different degrees of albumin affinity to metals of variable valence. The rate of mobility of oxidatively modified albumin in polyacrylamide gel decreases, which is explained by protein aggregation due to bityrosine cross-links. CONCLUSION: Variable valence metals affect the modification of albumin. The change in the functional properties of the protein is of physiological significance, including the case of extracellular mobilization of iron and copper.

1987 ◽  
Vol 241 (1) ◽  
pp. 229-235 ◽  
P E Butler ◽  
M J McKay ◽  
J S Bond

Meprin is an intrinsic protein of the brush border, a specialized plasma membrane, of the mouse kidney. It is a metalloendopeptidase that contains 1 mol of zinc and 3 mol of calcium per mol of the 85,000-Mr subunit. The enzyme is isolated, and active, as a tetramer. The behaviour of the enzyme on SDS/polyacrylamide gels in the presence and absence of beta-mercaptoethanol indicates that the subunits are of the same Mr (approx. 85,000) and held together by intersubunit S–S bridges. Eight S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine residues were detected after reduction of the enzyme with beta-mercaptoethanol and carboxymethylation with iodoacetate. The enzyme is a glycoprotein and contains approx. 18% carbohydrate. Most of the carbohydrate is removed by endoglycosidase F, indicating that the sugar residues are N-linked. The isoelectric point of the enzyme is between pH 4 and 5, and the purified protein yields a pattern of evenly spaced bands in this range on isoelectric focusing. The peptide-bond specificity of the enzyme has been determined by using the oxidized B-chain of insulin as substrate. In all, 15 peptide degradation products were separated by h.p.l.c. and analysed for their amino acid content and N-terminal amino acid residue. The prevalent peptide-bond cleavages were between Gly20 and Glu21, Phe24 and Phe25 and between Phe25 and Tyr26. Other sites of cleavage were Leu6-Cysteic acid7, Ala14-Leu15, His10-Leu11, Leu17-Val18, Gly8-Ser9, Leu15-Tyr16, His5-Leu6. These results indicate that meprin has a preference for peptide bonds that are flanked by hydrophobic or neutral amino acid residues, but hydrolysis is not limited to these bonds. The ability of meprin to hydrolyse peptide bonds between small neutral and negatively charged amino acid residues distinguishes it from several other metalloendopeptidases.

2015 ◽  
Vol 39 (2) ◽  
pp. 938-952 ◽  
Awanish Kumar ◽  
Anjeeta Rani ◽  
Pannuru Venkatesu

Direct interactions between the anion and the catalytic amino acid residues lead to denaturation of CT.

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