Canonical Amino Acid
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2021 ◽  
Vol 85 (2) ◽  
pp. 351-358
Author(s):  
Fumihito Hasebe

ABSTRACT Methionine is a canonical amino acid. The protein MetX is a homoserine O-acyltransferase utilized in the methionine biosynthetic pathway. The metW gene is found adjacent to the metX gene in some bacteria, but its functions are unclear. In this study, I focused on the function of MetW and MetX from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PaMetW and PaMetX). I demonstrated that PaMetW interacted with and activated the homoserine O-succinyltransferase (HST) activity of PaMetX. Furthermore, I elucidated that the HST activity of PaMetX in complex with PaMetW was inhibited by the addition of S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (SAH), although PaMetX alone showed no feedback inhibition. Since PaMetW possesses a glycine-rich sequence annotated as a SAM/SAH binding site, I also investigated the relationship between this glycine-rich sequence and the inhibition caused by SAH. I revealed that alanine mutation of PaMetW Gly24 reduced the inhibitory effect of SAH. These results suggest that MetW is a regulatory protein of MetX.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Husam Auhim ◽  
Bella L Grigorenko ◽  
Tessa Harris ◽  
Ozan Aksakal ◽  
Igor Polyakov ◽  
...  

Fluorescent proteins (FPs) have revolutionised the life sciences, but the mechanism of chromophore maturation is still not fully understood. Here we show that incorporation of a photo-responsive non-canonical amino acid...


The Analyst ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jun Yao ◽  
Xiangyi Huang ◽  
Jicun Ren

FCS with the BONCAT strategy is a promising approach for analysis of newly synthesized proteins and also be extended to further application for studying physiological or pathological processes related to proteins or other metabolic molecular changes.


2020 ◽  
Author(s):  
Anne Zemella ◽  
Theresa Richter ◽  
Lena Thoring ◽  
Stefan Kubick

Fluorescent labeling of de novo synthesized proteins is in particular a valuable tool for functional and structural studies of membrane proteins. In this context, we present two methods for the site-specific fluorescent labeling of difficult-to-express membrane proteins in combination with cell-free protein synthesis. The cell-free protein synthesis system is based on Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells (CHO) since this system contains endogenous membrane structures derived from the endoplasmic reticulum. These so-called microsomes enable a direct integration of membrane proteins into a biological membrane. In this protocol the first part describes the fluorescent labeling by using a precharged tRNA, loaded with a fluorescent amino acid. The second part describes the preparation of a modified aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase and a suppressor tRNA that are applied to the CHO cell-free system to enable the incorporation of a non-canonical amino acid. The reactive group of the non-canonical amino acid is further coupled to a fluorescent dye. Both methods utilize the amber stop codon suppression technology. The successful fluorescent labeling of the model G protein-coupled receptor adenosine A2A (Adora2a) is analyzed by in-gel-fluorescence, a reporter protein assay, and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Moreover, a ligand-dependent conformational change of the fluorescently labeled Adora2a was analyzed by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET).


2020 ◽  
Author(s):  
Anne Zemella ◽  
Theresa Richter ◽  
Lena Thoring ◽  
Stefan Kubick

This is part 3.4 of the "A Combined Cell-Free Protein Synthesis and Fluorescence-Based Approach to Investigate GPCR Binding Properties" collection of protocols: https://www.protocols.io/view/a-combined-cell-free-protein-synthesis-and-fluores-bqntmven Collection Abstract: Fluorescent labeling of de novo synthesized proteins is in particular a valuable tool for functional and structural studies of membrane proteins. In this context, we present two methods for the site-specific fluorescent labeling of difficult-to-express membrane proteins in combination with cell-free protein synthesis. The cell-free protein synthesis system is based on Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells (CHO) since this system contains endogenous membrane structures derived from the endoplasmic reticulum. These so-called microsomes enable a direct integration of membrane proteins into a biological membrane. In this protocol the first part describes the fluorescent labeling by using a precharged tRNA, loaded with a fluorescent amino acid. The second part describes the preparation of a modified aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase and a suppressor tRNA that are applied to the CHO cell-free system to enable the incorporation of a non-canonical amino acid. The reactive group of the non-canonical amino acid is further coupled to a fluorescent dye. Both methods utilize the amber stop codon suppression technology. The successful fluorescent labeling of the model G protein-coupled receptor adenosine A2A (Adora2a) is analyzed by in-gel-fluorescence, a reporter protein assay, and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Moreover, a ligand-dependent conformational change of the fluorescently labeled Adora2a was analyzed by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET). For Introduction and Notes, please see: https://www.protocols.io/view/a-combined-cell-free-protein-synthesis-and-fluores-bqntmven/guidelines


2020 ◽  
Author(s):  
Anne Zemella ◽  
Theresa Richter ◽  
Lena Thoring ◽  
Stefan Kubick

This is part 3.2 of the "A Combined Cell-Free Protein Synthesis and Fluorescence-Based Approach to Investigate GPCR Binding Properties" collection of protocols: https://www.protocols.io/view/a-combined-cell-free-protein-synthesis-and-fluores-bqntmven Collection Abstract: Fluorescent labeling of de novo synthesized proteins is in particular a valuable tool for functional and structural studies of membrane proteins. In this context, we present two methods for the site-specific fluorescent labeling of difficult-to-express membrane proteins in combination with cell-free protein synthesis. The cell-free protein synthesis system is based on Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells (CHO) since this system contains endogenous membrane structures derived from the endoplasmic reticulum. These so-called microsomes enable a direct integration of membrane proteins into a biological membrane. In this protocol the first part describes the fluorescent labeling by using a precharged tRNA, loaded with a fluorescent amino acid. The second part describes the preparation of a modified aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase and a suppressor tRNA that are applied to the CHO cell-free system to enable the incorporation of a non-canonical amino acid. The reactive group of the non-canonical amino acid is further coupled to a fluorescent dye. Both methods utilize the amber stop codon suppression technology. The successful fluorescent labeling of the model G protein-coupled receptor adenosine A2A (Adora2a) is analyzed by in-gel-fluorescence, a reporter protein assay, and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Moreover, a ligand-dependent conformational change of the fluorescently labeled Adora2a was analyzed by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET). For Introduction and Notes, please see: https://www.protocols.io/view/a-combined-cell-free-protein-synthesis-and-fluores-bqntmven/guidelines


2020 ◽  
Author(s):  
Anne Zemella ◽  
Theresa Richter ◽  
Lena Thoring ◽  
Stefan Kubick

This is part 3.1 of the "A Combined Cell-Free Protein Synthesis and Fluorescence-Based Approach to Investigate GPCR Binding Properties" collection of protocols: https://www.protocols.io/view/a-combined-cell-free-protein-synthesis-and-fluores-bqntmven Collection Abstract: Fluorescent labeling of de novo synthesized proteins is in particular a valuable tool for functional and structural studies of membrane proteins. In this context, we present two methods for the site-specific fluorescent labeling of difficult-to-express membrane proteins in combination with cell-free protein synthesis. The cell-free protein synthesis system is based on Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells (CHO) since this system contains endogenous membrane structures derived from the endoplasmic reticulum. These so-called microsomes enable a direct integration of membrane proteins into a biological membrane. In this protocol the first part describes the fluorescent labeling by using a precharged tRNA, loaded with a fluorescent amino acid. The second part describes the preparation of a modified aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase and a suppressor tRNA that are applied to the CHO cell-free system to enable the incorporation of a non-canonical amino acid. The reactive group of the non-canonical amino acid is further coupled to a fluorescent dye. Both methods utilize the amber stop codon suppression technology. The successful fluorescent labeling of the model G protein-coupled receptor adenosine A2A (Adora2a) is analyzed by in-gel-fluorescence, a reporter protein assay, and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Moreover, a ligand-dependent conformational change of the fluorescently labeled Adora2a was analyzed by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET). For Introduction and Notes, please see: https://www.protocols.io/view/a-combined-cell-free-protein-synthesis-and-fluores-bqntmven/guidelines


2020 ◽  
Author(s):  
Anne Zemella ◽  
Theresa Richter ◽  
Lena Thoring ◽  
Stefan Kubick

This is part 3.3 of the "A Combined Cell-Free Protein Synthesis and Fluorescence-Based Approach to Investigate GPCR Binding Properties" collection of protocols: https://www.protocols.io/view/a-combined-cell-free-protein-synthesis-and-fluores-bqntmven Collection Abstract: Fluorescent labeling of de novo synthesized proteins is in particular a valuable tool for functional and structural studies of membrane proteins. In this context, we present two methods for the site-specific fluorescent labeling of difficult-to-express membrane proteins in combination with cell-free protein synthesis. The cell-free protein synthesis system is based on Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells (CHO) since this system contains endogenous membrane structures derived from the endoplasmic reticulum. These so-called microsomes enable a direct integration of membrane proteins into a biological membrane. In this protocol the first part describes the fluorescent labeling by using a precharged tRNA, loaded with a fluorescent amino acid. The second part describes the preparation of a modified aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase and a suppressor tRNA that are applied to the CHO cell-free system to enable the incorporation of a non-canonical amino acid. The reactive group of the non-canonical amino acid is further coupled to a fluorescent dye. Both methods utilize the amber stop codon suppression technology. The successful fluorescent labeling of the model G protein-coupled receptor adenosine A2A (Adora2a) is analyzed by in-gel-fluorescence, a reporter protein assay, and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Moreover, a ligand-dependent conformational change of the fluorescently labeled Adora2a was analyzed by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET). For Introduction and Notes, please see: https://www.protocols.io/view/a-combined-cell-free-protein-synthesis-and-fluores-bqntmven/guidelines


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