Amino Acid Residue
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Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (23) ◽  
pp. 7150
Atteeque Ahmed ◽  
Aamer Saeed ◽  
Omar M. Ali ◽  
Zeinhom M. El-Bahy ◽  
Pervaiz Ali Channar ◽  

This article describes the design and synthesis of a series of novel amantadine-thiourea conjugates (3a–j) as Jack bean urease inhibitors. The synthesized hybrids were assayed for their in vitro urease inhibition. Accordingly, N-(adamantan-1-ylcarbamothioyl)octanamide (3j) possessing a 7-carbon alkyl chain showed excellent activity with IC50 value 0.0085 ± 0.0011 µM indicating that the long alkyl chain plays a vital role in enzyme inhibition. Whilst N-(adamantan-1-ylcarbamothioyl)-2-chlorobenzamide (3g) possessing a 2-chlorophenyl substitution was the next most efficient compound belonging to the aryl series with IC50 value of 0.0087 ± 0.001 µM. The kinetic mechanism analyzed by Lineweaver–Burk plots revealed the non-competitive mode of inhibition for compound 3j. Moreover, in silico molecular docking against target protein (PDBID 4H9M) indicated that most of the synthesized compounds exhibit good binding affinity with protein. The compound 3j forms two hydrogen bonds with amino acid residue VAL391 having a binding distance of 1.858 Å and 2.240 Å. The interaction of 3j with amino acid residue located outside the catalytic site showed its non-competitive mode of inhibition. Based upon these results, it is anticipated that compound 3j may serve as a lead structure for the design of more potent urease inhibitors.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (21) ◽  
pp. 6709
Jijing Wang ◽  
Susanna L. Lundström ◽  
Sven Seelow ◽  
Sergey Rodin ◽  
Zhaowei Meng ◽  

Isoaspartate (isoAsp) is a damaging amino acid residue formed in proteins mostly as a result of spontaneous deamidation of asparaginyl residues. An association has been found between isoAsp in human serum albumin (HSA) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here we report on a novel monoclonal antibody (mAb) 1A3 with excellent specificity to isoAsp in the functionally important domain of HSA. Based on 1A3 mAb, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed, and the isoAsp occupancy in 100 healthy plasma samples was quantified for the first time, providing the average value of (0.74 ± 0.13)%. These results suggest potential of isoAsp measurements for supplementary AD diagnostics as well as for assessing the freshness of stored donor blood and its suitability for transfusion.

2021 ◽  
Vol 118 (43) ◽  
pp. e2115430118
Shun-Jia Chen ◽  
Leehyeon Kim ◽  
Hyun Kyu Song ◽  
Alexander Varshavsky

N-degron pathways are proteolytic systems that recognize proteins bearing N-terminal (Nt) degradation signals (degrons) called N-degrons. Our previous work identified Gid4 as a recognition component (N-recognin) of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteolytic system termed the proline (Pro)/N-degron pathway. Gid4 is a subunit of the oligomeric glucose-induced degradation (GID) ubiquitin ligase. Gid4 targets proteins through the binding to their Nt-Pro residue. Gid4 is also required for degradation of Nt-Xaa-Pro (Xaa is any amino acid residue) proteins such as Nt-[Ala-Pro]-Aro10 and Nt-[Ser-Pro]-Pck1, with Pro at position 2. Here, we show that specific aminopeptidases function as components of the Pro/N-degron pathway by removing Nt-Ala or Nt-Ser and yielding Nt-Pro, which can be recognized by Gid4-GID. Nt-Ala is removed by the previously uncharacterized aminopeptidase Fra1. The enzymatic activity of Fra1 is shown to be essential for the GID-dependent degradation of Nt-[Ala-Pro]-Aro10. Fra1 can also trim Nt-[Ala-Pro-Pro-Pro] (stopping immediately before the last Pro) and thereby can target for degradation a protein bearing this Nt sequence. Nt-Ser is removed largely by the mitochondrial/cytosolic/nuclear aminopeptidase Icp55. These advances are relevant to eukaryotes from fungi to animals and plants, as Fra1, Icp55, and the GID ubiquitin ligase are conserved in evolution. In addition to discovering the mechanism of targeting of Xaa-Pro proteins, these insights have also expanded the diversity of substrates of the Pro/N-degron pathway.

Qi Qi ◽  
Hongjie Pan ◽  
Ning Jiang ◽  
Meixin Zhang ◽  
Shenfei Sun ◽  

AbstractOxidative stress is one of the major causes leading to male infertility including asthenozoospermia. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been widely recognized to be a potent antioxidant whose role is partially implemented by protein S-sulfhydration. However, protein S-sulfhydration has not been reported in germ cells. Therefore, we investigated whether asthenozoospermia could be associated with sperm protein S-sulfhydration. S-sulfhydrated proteins in human sperm were enriched via biotin-switch assay and analyzed using LC-MS/MS spectrometry. Two hundred forty-four S-sulfhydrated proteins were identified. Importantly, we validated that sperm histones H3.1 and H3.3 were the S-sulfhydrated proteins. Their S-sulfhydrated amino acid residue was Cysteine111. Abundances of S-sulfhydrated H3 (sH3) and S-sulfhydrated H3.3 (sH3.3) were significantly down-regulated in asthenozoospermic sperm, compared with the fertile controls, and were significantly correlated with progressive motility. Retinoic acid (RA) up-regulated level of sH3.3 in primary round spermatids and the C18-4 cells (a mouse spermatogonial stem cell line). Overexpression of the mutant H3.3 (Cysteine111 was replaced with serine) affected expression of 759 genes and raised growth rate of C18-4 cells. For the first time, S-sulfhydration H3 and H3.3 were demonstrated in the present study. Our results highlight that aberrant S-sulfhydration of H3 is a new pathophysiological basis in male infertility.

2021 ◽  
Masaki Sasai

When the mixture solution of cyanobacterial proteins, KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC, is incubated with ATP in vitro, the phosphorylation level of KaiC shows stable oscillations with the temperature-compensated circadian period. We analyzed this temperature compensation by developing a theoretical model describing the feedback relations among reactions and structural transitions in the KaiC molecule. The model showed that the reduced structural cooperativity should weaken the negative feedback coupling among reactions and structural transitions, which enlarges the oscillation amplitude and period, explaining the observed significant period extension upon single amino-acid residue substitution. We propose that an increase in thermal fluctuations similarly attenuates the reaction-structure feedback, explaining the temperature compensation in the KaiABC clock. The model suggests that the ATPase reactions in the CI domain of KaiC affect the period depending on how the reaction rates are modulated. The KaiABC clock provides a unique opportunity to analyze how the reaction-structure coupling regulates the system-level synchronized oscillations of molecules.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 ◽  
Donald Poirier

: Despite the significant number of irreversible inhibitors developed over the years, strong prejudices remain for this type of therapeutic molecule, particularly in the area of drug development. New generations of covalent targeted inhibitors are, however, in development, and interest is increasingly growing. In fact, the new generation of covalent inhibitors has a weakly reactive species (warhead) that is able, in a particular context, to selectively form a chemical bond with a given amino acid residue, which can be irreversible or reversible. In addition to new selective warheads, new amino acids are also targeted. In the following text, we will focus on covalent targeted inhibitors that selectively alkylate histidine.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (19) ◽  
pp. 10829
Palmiro Poltronieri ◽  
Masanao Miwa ◽  
Mitsuko Masutani

Among the post-translational modifications of proteins, ADP-ribosylation has been studied for over fifty years, and a large set of functions, including DNA repair, transcription, and cell signaling, have been assigned to this post-translational modification (PTM). This review presents an update on the function of a large set of enzyme writers, the readers that are recruited by the modified targets, and the erasers that reverse the modification to the original amino acid residue, removing the covalent bonds formed. In particular, the review provides details on the involvement of the enzymes performing monoADP-ribosylation/polyADP-ribosylation (MAR/PAR) cycling in cancers. Of note, there is potential for the application of the inhibitors developed for cancer also in the therapy of non-oncological diseases such as the protection against oxidative stress, the suppression of inflammatory responses, and the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. This field of studies is not concluded, since novel enzymes are being discovered at a rapid pace.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 42-50
Fitri Lianingsih

The novel coronavirus 2019 (SARS-CoV-2) is one of the viruses that can infect humans and cause high mortality worldwide. The protease (Mpro) is key SARS-CoV-2 an enzyme mediates the viral replication and the transcription. Mpro is currently used as the candidate for the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine because Mpro is one of the key enzymes in the viral life cycle that essential for interactions between the virus and host cell receptor during viral entry. The Mpro can be a target protein to design the novel drug of SARS-CoV-2. The drug design from natural products that are considered to have low toxicity is needed against the virus. The study aims to determines the potential pharmacology of Trisindoline 1 compound from the sponge Hyrtios altum against SARS-CoV-2 and to find the amino acid residues between interaction ligand-protein receptors. The methods of this study use the virtual screening of Auto Dock Vina and visualization the amino acid residue using Bio via Discovery Studio. The result of this study was the selected marine compound from Trisindoline 1 may have potential to developed as inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2.Keywords: In Silico, Mpro, Sars Cov 2, Trisindoline 1, Sponges

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (19) ◽  
pp. 5855
Ramón Rial ◽  
Michael González-Durruthy ◽  
Manuel Somoza ◽  
Zhen Liu ◽  
Juan M. Ruso

In this work we present a computational analysis together with experimental studies, focusing on the interaction between a benzothiazole (BTS) and lysozyme. Results obtained from isothermal titration calorimetry, UV-vis, and fluorescence were contrasted and complemented with molecular docking and machine learning techniques. The free energy values obtained both experimentally and theoretically showed excellent similarity. Calorimetry, UV-vis, and 3D/2D-lig-plot analysis revealed that the most relevant interactions between BTS and lysozyme are based on a predominance of aromatic, hydrophobic Van der Waals interactions, mainly aromatic edge-to-face (T-shaped) π-π stacking interactions between the benzene ring belonging to the 2-(methylthio)-benzothiazole moiety of BTS and the aromatic amino acid residue TRP108 of the lysozyme receptor. Next, conventional hydrogen bonding interactions contribute to the stability of the BTS-lysozyme coupling complex. In addition, mechanistic approaches performed using elastic network models revealed that the BTS ligand theoretically induces propagation of allosteric signals, suggesting non-physiological conformational flexing in large blocks of lysozyme affecting α-helices. Likewise, the BTS ligand interacts directly with allosteric residues, inducing perturbations in the conformational dynamics expressed as a moderate conformational softening in the α-helices H1, H2, and their corresponding β-loop in the lysozyme receptor, in contrast to the unbound state of lysozyme.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (10) ◽  
pp. 3397
Peiao Zhang ◽  
Jihui Gao ◽  
Huilian Che ◽  
Wentong Xue ◽  
Dong Yang

Crustacean allergy, especially to shrimp, is the most predominant cause of seafood allergy. However, due to the high flexibility of immunoglobulin E (IgE), its three-dimensional structure remains unsolved, and the molecular mechanism of shrimp allergen recognition is unknown. Here a chimeric IgE was built in silico, and its variable region in the light chain was replaced with sequences derived from shrimp tropomyosin (TM)-allergic patients. A variety of allergenic peptides from the Chinese shrimp TM were built, treated with heating, and subjected to IgE binding in silico. Amino acid analysis shows that the amino acid residue conservation in shrimp TM contributes to eliciting an IgE-mediated immune response. In the shrimp-allergic IgE, Glu98 in the light chain and other critical residues that recognize allergens from shrimp are implicated in the molecular basis of IgE-mediated shrimp allergy. Heat treatment could alter the conformations of TM allergenic peptides, impact their intramolecular hydrogen bonding, and subsequently decrease the binding between these peptides and IgE. We found Glu98 as the characteristic amino acid residue in the light chain of IgE to recognize general shrimp-allergic sequences, and heat-induced conformational change generally desensitizes shrimp allergens.

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