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2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Tanmay Ilame ◽  
Arpita Ghosh

PurposeWater is a vital natural resource without which life on earth would be impossible. Properties of synthetic dyes like high stability and noxious nature make it difficult to remove them from the effluent. This review focuses on the removal of synthetic dyes using nanoparticles (NPs) based on the adsorption principle.Design/methodology/approachAdsorption technique is widely used to remove synthetic dyes from their aqueous solution for decades. Synthetic dye removal using NPs is promising, less energy-intensive and has become popular in recent years. NPs are in high demand for treating wastewater using the adsorption principle due to their tiny size and vast surface area. To maximise environmental sustainability, the utilisation of green-produced NPs as efficient catalysts for dye removal has sparked attention amongst scientists.FindingsThis review has prioritised research and development of optimal dye removal systems that can be used to efficiently remove a large quantity of dye in a short period while safeguarding the environment and producing fewer harmful by-products. The removal efficiency of synthetic dye using different NPs in wastewater treatment varies mostly between 75% to almost 100%. This review will aid in the scaling up of the wastewater treatment process.Research limitations/implicationsThere is a lack of research emphasis on the safe disposal of NPs once the reuse efficiency significantly drops. The relevance of cost analysis is equally critical, yet only a few papers discuss cost-related information.Originality/valueComprehensive and planned research in this area can aid in the development of long-term wastewater treatment technology to meet the growing need for safe and reliable water emphasising reuse and desorption efficiency of the NPs.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Maria-Theresia Verwega ◽  
Carola Trahms ◽  
Avan N. Antia ◽  
Thorsten Dickhaus ◽  
Enno Prigge ◽  
...  

Earth System Sciences have been generating increasingly larger amounts of heterogeneous data in recent years. We identify the need to combine Earth System Sciences with Data Sciences, and give our perspective on how this could be accomplished within the sub-field of Marine Sciences. Marine data hold abundant information and insights that Data Science techniques can reveal. There is high demand and potential to combine skills and knowledge from Marine and Data Sciences to best take advantage of the vast amount of marine data. This can be accomplished by establishing Marine Data Science as a new research discipline. Marine Data Science is an interface science that applies Data Science tools to extract information, knowledge, and insights from the exponentially increasing body of marine data. Marine Data Scientists need to be trained Data Scientists with a broad basic understanding of Marine Sciences and expertise in knowledge transfer. Marine Data Science doctoral researchers need targeted training for these specific skills, a crucial component of which is co-supervision from both parental sciences. They also might face challenges of scientific recognition and lack of an established academic career path. In this paper, we, Marine and Data Scientists at different stages of their academic career, present perspectives to define Marine Data Science as a distinct discipline. We draw on experiences of a Doctoral Research School, MarDATA, dedicated to training a cohort of early career Marine Data Scientists. We characterize the methods of Marine Data Science as a toolbox including skills from their two parental sciences. All of these aim to analyze and interpret marine data, which build the foundation of Marine Data Science.


Author(s):  
Igor A. Narkevich ◽  
Oksana D. Nemyatykh ◽  
Irina I. Basakina ◽  
Anastasiya I. Fitisova

The Russian market of biologically active additives, which include pancreatine and pancreatic enzymes — amylase, protease, lipase, has been analyzed. It was established that the study group is represented by a wide range (approximately 150 names), which is represented mainly by foreign manufacturers (approximately 80%). The monotonous tendency to increase sales by volume in all regions of the Russian Federation over the past 5 years has been analyzed. It should be noted that, today consumer preferences biologically active additives of domestic production despite the significant share of imported dietary supplements in the supply structure. High demand is primarily due to the accessibility and increased trust and loyalty of modern consumers to national producers of biologically active additives .


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (4) ◽  
Author(s):  
Aisa O. Manlosa ◽  
Anna-Katharina Hornidge ◽  
Achim Schlüter

AbstractAquaculture is the most rapidly growing food production sector globally. In certain coastal social-ecological systems, this has resulted in significant changes and sustainability challenges. In particular, coastal environments which used to support only capture fisheries are becoming sites for brackish water aquaculture production; this impacts the sustainability of aquatic food production. Sustainability challenges associated with aquaculture expansion and intensification necessitate a contextually rooted understanding of institutions and institutional changes which can be used as an informed basis for leveraging institutions to achieve desirable sustainability outcomes in the aquatic food sector. This research used a qualitative empirical case study involving in-depth interviews, participant observation, and analysis of institutional documents in the region of Central Luzon, Philippines. It applied the inter-institutional systems concept which considers multiple institutions with distinct but linked purposes and functions in the societal spheres of state, market, and civil society. The study found that aquaculture emerged as an important livelihood because of rice farmers’ need to adapt to saltwater intrusion into what were formerly rice farms. It grew into an industry due to developments in the availability and accessibility of inputs such as fingerlings and feeds. This process was also driven by the high demand and high profitability of fish farming at the time. Regulatory institutions have not adequately adapted to protect the environment. Market institutions adapted but the changes mostly benefited consignacions (middlemen) and large-scale players. However, organised groups of collaborating smallholder fishers and fish farmers are helping to address the disadvantages they face.


Oryx ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Author(s):  
Emily Neil ◽  
Elizabeth Greengrass

Abstract The Babile Elephant Sanctuary in Ethiopia was established in 1970 specifically to protect its elephants Loxodonta africana. They were once part of a larger population that ranged in eastern Ethiopia and northern Somalia but that was largely extirpated during the 20th century. Since its establishment, the Sanctuary has experienced severe anthropogenic pressure, inadequate government support, and civil conflict. Mapping was undertaken to analyse the rate of human immigration into the Sanctuary in 2006, 2014 and 2017, as part of an assessment of the Sanctuary's effectiveness in protecting its resident elephant population and in mitigating anthropogenic pressures. From 2006 to 2017 the number of illegal houses in the Sanctuary increased from 18,000 to > 50,000, of which > 32,000 were in the area in which elephants range. This settlement, coupled with high demand for natural resources, has resulted in significant habitat destruction and could also have exacerbated human–elephant conflict. Elephant conservation and monitoring by the Born Free Foundation were challenging because of ethnic conflict; rural and political stability is required if efforts to protect wildlife are to be successful. Unless these issues are resolved and the integrity of the Sanctuary is restored, this elephant population will be extirpated in the near future.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Takahiro Kuwashiro ◽  
Kazuhiro Tanabe ◽  
Chihiro Hayashi ◽  
Tadataka Mizoguchi ◽  
Kota Mori ◽  
...  

Background: There is high demand for blood biomarkers that reflect the therapeutic response or predict the outcomes of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS); however, few biomarkers have been evidentially verified to date. This study evaluated two proteins, oxidized albumin (OxHSA) and cartilage acidic protein-1 (CRTAC1), as potential prognostic markers of AIS.Methods: The ratio of OxHSA to normal albumin (%OxHSA) and the level of CRTAC1 in the sera of 74 AIS patients were analyzed on admission (day 0), and at 1 and 7 days after admission. AIS patients were divided into two groups according to their modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months after discharge: the low-mRS (mRS < 2) group included 48 patients and the high-mRS (mRS ≥ 2) group included 26 patients. The differences in %OxHSA and CRTAC1 between the two groups on days 0, 1, and 7 were evaluated.Results: The mean %OxHSA values of the high-mRS group on days 0, 1, and 7 were significantly higher than those of the low-mRS group (p < 0.05). The CRTAC1 levels continuously increased from day 0 to day 7, and those of the high-mRS group were significantly higher than those of the low-mRS group on day 7 (p < 0.05).Conclusions: These results suggest that higher %OxHSA and CRTAC1 are associated with poor outcomes in AIS patients. An index that combines %OxHSA and CRTAC1 can accurately predict the outcomes of AIS patients.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Dengfeng Guan ◽  
Shane A. McCarthy ◽  
Zemin Ning ◽  
Guohua Wang ◽  
Yadong Wang ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Efficient and effective genome scaffolding tools are still in high demand for generating reference-quality assemblies. While long read data itself is unlikely to create a chromosome-scale assembly for most eukaryotic species, the inexpensive Hi-C sequencing technology, capable of capturing the chromosomal profile of a genome, is now widely used to complete the task. However, the existing Hi-C based scaffolding tools either require a priori chromosome number as input, or lack the ability to build highly continuous scaffolds. Results We design and develop a novel Hi-C based scaffolding tool, pin_hic, which takes advantage of contact information from Hi-C reads to construct a scaffolding graph iteratively based on N-best neighbors of contigs. Subsequent to scaffolding, it identifies potential misjoins and breaks them to keep the scaffolding accuracy. Through our tests on three long read based de novo assemblies from three different species, we demonstrate that pin_hic is more efficient than current standard state-of-art tools, and it can generate much more continuous scaffolds, while achieving a higher or comparable accuracy. Conclusions Pin_hic is an efficient Hi-C based scaffolding tool, which can be useful for building chromosome-scale assemblies. As many sequencing projects have been launched in the recent years, we believe pin_hic has potential to be applied in these projects and makes a meaningful contribution.


2021 ◽  
Vol 117 (11/12) ◽  
Author(s):  
Abdullahi A. Yusuf

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 – the causative agent of COVID-19 – can be prevented through non-pharmaceutical interventions such as observing proper hand hygiene using alcohol-based hand rubs/sanitisers (ABHRs) as recommended by the WHO and local health authorities. However, this recommendation has led to high demand for ABHRs and proliferation of sub-standard products, which do not contain the recommended amount of alcohol. Fifty products of different origins and formulations obtained off-the-shelf and in public places in and around Pretoria (South Africa) were analysed for their alcohol content using gas chromatography. Ethanol was the most common alcohol used in the products, followed by isopropanol. Only 21 (42%) of the products analysed contained at least 70% alcohol; of these only 14 (28%) met the WHO recommended 80±5% alcohol content to have a virucidal effect on SARS-CoV-2. Of the 41 commercial off-the-shelf products analysed, 27 (66%) contained less than 70% alcohol in comparison to 13% of homemade products. Only 18% of gel products contained 70% alcohol, compared with 47% for liquid-based products. Most of the products did not contain the appropriate or correct declaration as recommended by the South African National Standards (SANS 289 and 490). The proliferation of substandard ABHRs is of great public health concern and calls for stricter regulations and enforcement in order to protect consumers, their rights and well-being during and post the COVID-19 pandemic period. However, in the interim, formulation of ABHRs using the WHO guidelines should be mandatory, as such formulations, when made correctly, do have the required virucidal effect against SARS-CoV-2.


Food Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (S4) ◽  
pp. 15-20
Author(s):  
N.A. Zakri ◽  
S. Adam

The oil palm industry is among the important sectors in Malaysia. The productions of palm oil keep increasing year by year due to high demand from other countries, generating an abundance of wastes from the field and the mill. These wastes may significantly affect the environment. Composting is one of the methods to reduce the volume of waste. The compost material is widely used especially in agriculture activities due to its properties which have been enhanced during the composting process. Empty fruit bunch (EFB) compost mostly returns to the soil as mulch to conserve soil moisture and acts as organic fertilizer since it contains high nutrients needed by the plant. Currently, the depletion of fertile soil leads to less availability of growing medium, especially in the nursery. The properties of the growing medium are important to ensure better root development of seedlings and subsequently affect the overall plant growth. Therefore, numerous studies have been conducted to identify the suitable growing medium as a substitute for topsoil which is currently limited to raising seedlings in the nursery. This review examines the current methods of composting EFB and provides summarized research information on the effect of EFB compost on oil palm seedling growth. The oil palm wastes that are properly managed could produce value-added by-products and promotes sustainable agriculture practices.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 416-420
Author(s):  
Emmanuel Kobina Mesi Edzie ◽  
Klenam Dzefi-Tettey ◽  
Philip Narteh Gorleku ◽  
Frank Naku Ghartey ◽  
Madison Adanusa ◽  
...  

Background: The demand for geriatric care has been on the increase throughout the world, especially in the developing, low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), due to increasing life expectancy, improvement in technology in healthcare industry coupled with increasing numbers of healthcare personnel. Nonetheless, these increases in the resources to the healthcare industry are still woefully inadequate in the developing and LMICs, compared to the high demand for such services, thereby exposing the drastic challenges and gaps in geriatric services in these countries. Case Presentation: A 74-year-old woman apparently well, who was relocated from the rural area by her biological daughter, with the intention of giving her better care in a comfortable city environment. She was initially appreciative of the relocation. However, the situation went sour when her daughter and son-in-law resumed work after their annual leave period. They started locking her up in a well-furnished mansion with everything she may need until they returned from work. Consistently for eight working days, she was kept under lock and key because they did not want her to roam around the community, they thought was not familiar to her with the intention of keeping her safe. Everything was fine until they returned from work one day to find that she had soiled the house with her excrement, apparently as a protest against her consistent lock-up. This necessitated their visit to the hospital. A diagnosis of social isolation was made after clinical and mental state examination and appropriate interventions were instituted. The patient consequently became fine in the new environment. Conclusion: This case has been presented in order to emphasize the need to improve the systems for geriatric care which is of public health concern, especially as the life expectancy of the developing, low- and middle-income countries keep improving.


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