Methods for the Concentration of Bovine Ac-Globulin (Factor V)

1961 ◽  
Vol 06 (03) ◽  
pp. 435-444 ◽  
Ricardo H. Landaburu ◽  
Walter H. Seegers

SummaryAn attempt was made to obtain Ac-globulin from bovine plasma. The concentrates contain mostly protein, and phosphorus is also present. The stability characteristics vary from one preparation to another, but in general there was no loss before 1 month in a deep freeze or before 1 week in an icebox, or before 5 hours at room temperature. Reducing agents destroy the activity rapidly. S-acetylmercaptosuccinic anhydride is an effective stabilizing agent. Greatest stability was at pH 6.0.In the purification bovine plasma is adsorbed with barium carbonate and diluted 6-fold with water. Protein is removed at pH 6.0 and the Ac-globulin is precipitated at pH 5.0. Rivanol and alcohol fractionation is followed by chromatography on Amberlite IRC-50 or DEAE-cellulose. The final product is obtained by isoelectric precipitation.

1969 ◽  
Vol 21 (02) ◽  
pp. 203-216 ◽  
J. H Milstone ◽  
N Oulianoff

SummaryBovine prothrombin was prepared by adsorption on barium sulfate. After elution, it was passed through thick filter-cakes of Standard Super-Cel, which removed some venom substrate (factor X). Almost all the remaining venom substrate was removed by repeated passage through columns of DEAE-cellulose. Finally, the ratio of venom substrate to prothrombin was considerably less than 1/1,000 that of plasma. The prothrombin was also poor in factor V. It yielded very little thrombin upon incubation with Russell’s viper venom, factor V, phospholipid and calcium chloride. However, inclusion of bovine plasma at a final dilution of 1/10,000 caused the mixture to produce thrombin rapidly. This system offers promise for the assay of venom substrate in plasma.Thrombokinase derived from bovine plasma was able, at 0.000071 mg/ml, to substitute for both the venom and its substrate in thrombin-producing systems. However, with this small amount of thrombokinase, phospholipid was indispensable. The system was sensitive to 0.00001 mg phospholipid/ml.With 1,000 times as much thrombokinase, prothrombin was activated without addition of accessory factors, in the presence of oxalate. Removal of venom substrate did not affect this response of prothrombin. Nor did removal of venom substrate from the prothrombin prevent its activation by crystallized trypsin in the presence of oxalate.

2016 ◽  
Vol 113 (32) ◽  
pp. 8921-8926 ◽  
Roland Bliem ◽  
Jessi E. S. van der Hoeven ◽  
Jan Hulva ◽  
Jiri Pavelec ◽  
Oscar Gamba ◽  

Interactions between catalytically active metal particles and reactant gases depend strongly on the particle size, particularly in the subnanometer regime where the addition of just one atom can induce substantial changes in stability, morphology, and reactivity. Here, time-lapse scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT)-based calculations are used to study how CO exposure affects the stability of Pt adatoms and subnano clusters at the Fe3O4(001) surface, a model CO oxidation catalyst. The results reveal that CO plays a dual role: first, it induces mobility among otherwise stable Pt adatoms through the formation of Pt carbonyls (Pt1–CO), leading to agglomeration into subnano clusters. Second, the presence of the CO stabilizes the smallest clusters against decay at room temperature, significantly modifying the growth kinetics. At elevated temperatures, CO desorption results in a partial redispersion and recovery of the Pt adatom phase.

1970 ◽  
Vol 24 (03/04) ◽  
pp. 334-337 ◽  
R Honorato

Summary1. A technique to obtain human serum rich in factor V is described.2. Calcium increases the stability of factor V in the serum.

1997 ◽  
Vol 3 (S2) ◽  
pp. 729-730
K.S. Ailey ◽  
K.L. More ◽  
R.A. Lowden

The mechanical reliability of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) at elevated temperatures in oxidative environments is primarily dependent upon the chemical and structural stability of the fiber/matrix interface. Graphitic carbon coatings have traditionally been used to control the interfacial properties in CMCs, however, their use is limited in high temperature oxidative environments due to the loss of carbon and subsequent oxidation of the fiber and matrix. Thus, BN is being investigated as an alternative interfacial coating since it has comparable room temperature properties to carbon with improved oxidation resistance. The stability of BN interfaces in SiC/SiC composites is being investigated at elevated temperatures in either flowing oxygen or environments containing water vapor. The effect of several factors on BN stability, including crystallographic structure, extent of BN crystallization, and impurity content, are being evaluated.Nicalon™ fiber preforms were coated with ≈ 0.4 μm of BN by CVD using BCl3, NH3, and H2 at 1373 K. The coated preforms were densified using a forced-flow chemical vapor infiltration (FCVI) technique developed at ORNL.

1989 ◽  
Vol 35 (12) ◽  
pp. 2313-2316 ◽  
S E Hankinson ◽  
S J London ◽  
C G Chute ◽  
R L Barbieri ◽  
L Jones ◽  

Abstract We examined the stability of lipids, carotenoids, alpha-tocopherol, and endogenous hormones in plasma prepared from whole blood that had been mailed to a central location for processing. Initially, to simulate transport conditions, whole-blood samples were stored in the laboratory, either at room temperature or cooled, for up to 72 h before processing. In the latter samples, lipid concentrations changed up to 1.4% per day, carotenoids up to -5.5%, and hormones up to 9.5%. In a second study, analyte concentrations in plasma from cooled whole blood mailed via overnight courier were compared with those from plasma that had been immediately separated, frozen, and mailed via overnight courier. Concentrations of cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein subfraction 3, apolipoprotein B, and retinol were stable. Overall, for each marker except estradiol, the between-person variation was at least twice the within-person variation. In a third study, at least 340 micrograms of DNA was recovered from 30 mL of cool-shipped whole blood. Our results indicate that shipping whole-blood samples by overnight courier is feasible for assay of several biochemical markers of interest in epidemiological research.

2002 ◽  
Vol 48 (12) ◽  
pp. 2242-2247 ◽  
Bobby L Boyanton ◽  
Kenneth E Blick

Abstract Background: The stability and stoichiometric changes of analytes in plasma and serum after prolonged contact with blood cells in uncentrifuged Vacutainer® tubes were studied. Methods: We simultaneously investigated the stability of 24 analytes (a) after prolonged contact of plasma and serum with blood cells and (b) after immediate separation of plasma and serum (centrifuged twice at 2000g for 5 min). We verified biochemical mechanisms of observed analyte change by concomitant measurement of pH, Pco2, and Po2. Hemolysis was qualitatively and semiquantitatively assessed. All specimens were maintained at room temperature (25 °C) and analyzed in duplicate 0.5, 4, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48, and 56 h after collection. Statistically significant changes from the 0.5 h mean were determined using repeated-measures ANOVA. The significant change limit was applied to determine clinically significant changes in measured analytes. Results: Fifteen of 24 analytes in plasma and serum maintained in contact with cells showed clinically relevant changes, with the degree of change more pronounced in most plasma specimens. All analytes in plasma and serum immediately separated from cells after collection were stable. Conclusion: Storage of uncentrifuged specimens beyond 24 h caused significant changes in most analytes investigated because of (a) glucose depletion and Na+,K+-ATPase pump failure; (b) the movement of water into cells, causing hemoconcentration; and (c) leakage of intracellular constituents and metabolites. Immediate separation of plasma or serum from cells provides optimal analyte stability at room temperature. When prolonged contact of plasma or serum with cells is unavoidable, use of serum is recommended because of the higher instability of plasma analytes.

1987 ◽  
Vol 33 (12) ◽  
pp. 2299-2300 ◽  
R F Murphy ◽  
F M Balis ◽  
D G Poplack

Abstract We studied the stability of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in plasma and whole blood kept at room temperature and on ice for 1 to 24 h. At room temperature, there was a steady loss of 94% of the parent drug over 24 h in whole blood and 52% in plasma. In the presence of an excess of uracil, 5-FU was stable for 24 h, suggesting that the loss of 5-FU is the result of enzymatic degradation. 5-FU is more stable in whole blood and plasma when samples are kept cold. For blood and plasma samples maintained on ice, the loss was only 30% and 10% of the parent drug in the respective samples over 24 h. Frozen plasma samples (-20 degrees C) were stable for five weeks. Blood specimens collected for quantifying 5-FU should be immediately placed on ice, and the plasma should be separated and frozen as promptly as possible.

2018 ◽  
Vol 62 (9) ◽  
Ronilda D'Cunha ◽  
Thanh Bach ◽  
Beth Ann Young ◽  
Peizhi Li ◽  
Demet Nalbant ◽  

ABSTRACT Although the stability of β-lactam antibiotics is a known issue, none of the previously reported bioanalytical methods had an adequate evaluation of the stability of these drugs. In the current study, the stability of cefepime, meropenem, piperacillin, and tazobactam under various conditions was comprehensively evaluated. The evaluated parameters included stock solution stability, short-term stability, long-term stability, freeze-thaw stability, processed sample stability, and whole-blood stability. When stored at −20°C, the stock solution of meropenem in methanol was stable for up to 3 weeks, and the stock solutions of cefepime, piperacillin, and tazobactam were stable for up to 6 weeks. All four antibiotics were stable in human plasma for up to 3 months when stored at −80°C and were stable in whole blood for up to 4 h at room temperature. Short-term stability results indicated that all four β-lactams were stable at room temperature for 2 h, but substantial degradation was observed when the plasma samples were stored at room temperature for 24 h, with the degradation rates for cefepime, meropenem, piperacillin, and tazobactam being 30.1%, 75.6%, 49.0%, and 37.7%, respectively. Because the stability information is method independent, our stability results can be used as a reference by other research groups that work with these antibiotics.

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