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2022 ◽  
Vol 295 ◽  
pp. 110879
Author(s):  
Danyan Chen ◽  
Junhua Zhang ◽  
Bo Zhang ◽  
Zhisheng Wang ◽  
Libo Xing ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Armando Mendoza-Flores ◽  
Clara Elizabeth Galindo-Sánchez ◽  
M. del Pilar Sánchez-Saavedra

Abstract The irradiance level used to the microalgae cultures can modify the growth and proximate composition, however, this response is specie specific. The dinoflagellate group had the potential to be used as a source to biofuel production. In this study was evaluated the effect of five irradiance levels (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 µmol photon m-2 s­-1) on the growth rate, proximal composition, pigment content, and photosynthesis of Amphidinium carterae. The highest cell concentration was for the cultures at 150 µmol photon m-2 s-1 (130 × 103 cells mL-1), and the lowest values for 50 µmol photon m-2 s-1 (49 × 103 cells mL-1). The cultures maintained under the low irradiance (50 µmol photon m-2 s-1) had the highest values of total dry weight (TDW) (13418 pg cell-1), organic dry weight (ODW) (3836 pg cell-1), and inorganic dry weight (IDW) (9582 pg cell-1). The protein content as the general trend increases significantly concerning the irradiance level, with the higher values (87.47 pg cell-1) at high irradiance (250 µmol photon m-2 s-1). Carbohydrate content was different by the effect of irradiance, with the higher values (32.85 pg cell-1) at the low irradiance used (50 µmol photon m-2 s-1). Lipid content was modified by the effect of irradiance, with the highest values (534.74 pg cell-1) at the low irradiance used (50 µmol photon m-2 s-1). As a general trend, the high irradiances increased the photosynthesis curves. These findings demonstrate that the strain of A. carterae used in this work can grow in high irradiances (100 to 250 µmol photon m-2 s-1) and increase significantly the lipid content on low irradiance used (50 µmol photon m-2 s-1).


Biocelebes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 148-156
Author(s):  
Amalia Puji` Cahyani ◽  
Asri Pirade Paserang ◽  
Meryany Ananda ◽  
Wahyu Harso

Biofertilizer can be used to replace chemical fertilizer so that soil quality is maintained and soil pollution can be avoided. The study aimed to determine the effect of biofertilizers with different compositions of microorganisms on the growth of maize plants. The research was carried out in a greenhouse. Maize plants were fertilized by two kinds of biofertilizers with different compositions of microorganisms. The first biofertilizer contained  Azotobacter sp,  Azospirillum sp,  Rhizobium sp,  Trichoderma sp,  and Lactobacillus sp, and the second biofertilizer contained Strenotrophomonas sp. and  Paenibacillus polymyxa. As controls, maize plants were fertilized by sterilized those biofertilizers. The results showed that the second biofertilizer increased the dry weight of the maize plant. Meanwhile, the first biofertilizer did not increase it. Several things must be considered in the application of biofertilizers, such as the composition of microorganisms, type of plant, level of fertilization, and the method of applying fertilizer to the plant.


Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 483
Author(s):  
Sofia Zazouli ◽  
Mohammed Chigr ◽  
Patrícia A. B. Ramos ◽  
Daniela Rosa ◽  
Maria M. Castro ◽  
...  

Zizyphus lotus L. is a perennial shrub particularly used in Algerian folk medicine, but little is known concerning the lipophilic compounds in the most frequently used parts, namely, root bark, pulp, leaves and seeds, which are associated with health benefits. In this vein, the lipophilic fractions of these morphological parts of Z. lotus from Morocco were studied by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), and their antiproliferative and antimicrobial activities were evaluated. GC–MS analysis allowed the identification and quantification of 99 lipophilic compounds, including fatty acids, long-chain aliphatic alcohols, pentacyclic triterpenic compounds, sterols, monoglycerides, aromatic compounds and other minor components. Lipophilic extracts of pulp, leaves and seeds were revealed to be mainly composed of fatty acids, representing 54.3–88.6% of the total compounds detected. The leaves and seeds were particularly rich in unsaturated fatty acids, namely, (9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid (2431 mg kg−1 of dry weight) and (9Z)-octadec-9-enoic acid (6255 mg kg−1 of dry weight). In contrast, root bark contained a high content of pentacyclic triterpenic compounds, particularly betulinic acid, accounting for 9838 mg kg−1 of dry weight. Root bark extract showed promising antiproliferative activity against a triple-negative breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) = 4.23 ± 0.18 µg mL−1 of extract. Leaf extract displayed interesting antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis, presenting minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values from 1024 to 2048 µg mL−1 of extract. Our results demonstrate that Zizyphus lotus L. is a source of promising bioactive components, which can be exploited as natural ingredients in pharmaceutical formulations.


Author(s):  
Pinky Raihing ◽  
A. Vijayalakshmi

Background: Composting is the process of breaking down of organic matter using living organisms which can be used as manure for soil conditioning. Vermicomposting is the rapid decomposition of biowastes using earthworm species which will enhance the growth and yield of plants. Methods: The vermicomposting of vegetable and fruit wastes was carried out during summer season (May-July) and by using the vermicompost a pot culture experiment was conducted in black gram for three months from August to October, 2019. The treatments consist of combinations of vermicomposted wastes and cowdung along with bioinoculants, Soil served as control. The biometric parameters such as root length, shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight on 15, 35, 55 DAS and yield characters like number of pods/plants, number of seeds/pods, pod length, weight of seed/pod, pod fresh weight and pod dry weight were recorded and statistically analysed. The present study has been attempted to convert the vegetables and fruit waste into compost as manure and analyse its effect on vegetative growth and yield parameters of Black gram (Vigna mungo L.). Result: The highest value of shoot length, root length, fresh weigh and dry weight were noted in fruit waste + cow dung + Pleurotus eous (APK1) + Trichoderma asperelloides + Eudrilus eugeniae on 15, 35 and 55 day after sowing (DAS) and the least was reported in control (only soil). The application of T8 treatment reported the highest yield characters which were followed by other treatments and control on 15, 35 and 55 DAS. The study concluded that T8 (F.W + cow dung + P. eous + T. asperelloides + Eudrilus eugeniae) is an effective biocompost for the growth and yield of black gram (Vigna mungo L.) which is eco-friendly.


Author(s):  
Dragana Miljakovic ◽  
Jelena Marinković ◽  
Maja Ignjatov ◽  
Dragana Milosević ◽  
Zorica Nikolić ◽  
...  

The competitiveness of Bradyrhizobium japonicum inoculation strain against indigenous rhizobia was examined in a soil pot experiment. The effect of inoculation strain was evaluated under different soil conditions: with or without previously grown soybean and applied commercial inoculant. Molecular identification of inoculation strain and investigated rhizobial isolates, obtained from nodules representing inoculated treatments, was performed based on 16S rDNA and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) sequencing. Inoculation strain showed a significant effect on the investigated parameters in both soils. Higher nodule occupancy (45% vs. 18%), nodule number (111% vs. 5%), nodule dry weight (49% vs. 9%), shoot length (15% vs. 7%), root length (31% vs. 13%), shoot dry weight (34% vs. 11%), shoot nitrogen content (27% vs. 2%), and nodule nitrogen content (9% vs. 5%) was detected in soil without previously grown soybean and applied commercial inoculant. Soil had a significant effect on the shoot, root and nodule nitrogen content, while interaction of experimental factors significantly altered dry weight and nitrogen content of shoots, roots and nodules, as well as number of nodules. Nodulation parameters were significantly related with shoot dry weight, shoot and nodule nitrogen content. Symbiotic performance of inoculation strains in the field could be improved through co-selection for their competitiveness and effectiveness.  


Author(s):  
MR Munna ◽  
SA Trisa ◽  
MM Islam ◽  
MJ Islam ◽  
DC Pal ◽  
...  

A pot experiment was carried out in the net house of the Department of Soil, Water and Environment, University of Dhaka to evaluate the effectS of different organic manures on the growth performance, biomass production, NPKS content in leaf, stem and root of Burmese grapes (Baccaurea ramiflora) and some chemical properties of post- harvest soil. Two-month old Burmese grapes seedlings were planted in different organic manure-treated soils (viz. ACI, BGF, Bhola, Green Life, Kazi, Modern, Mazim, Payel, Payel Earth, and Shebok). A significant variation was observed among the treatments. Compared to control treatment, application of organic manures exhibited a significant influence on the physiological growth, viz. plant height (30.4 - 34.06 cm), leaf area (64.2 - 71.30 cm2/plant), leaf area index (0.17 - 0.19), fresh weight (32.2 - 53.06 g/plant), and dry weight (22.09 - 41.24 g/plant) after 120 days of the experiment. The highest plant height, leaf area, leaf area index, fresh weight, and dry weight were recorded in Kazi, BGF, Payel and Payel Earth, respectively. Similarly, the concentrations of N, P, K, and S in leaf, stem and root, and their uptakes were found significantly higher than the control. The highest N, P, K and S uptake by leaf, stem and root ranged from 37.66 - 41.69 kg/ha, 0.70 - 0.92 g/ha, 66.19 - 84.926 kg/ha and 6.82 - 10.11 kg/ha, respectively. Protein content was the highest in Payel in leaf (8%) and root (5%), and stem (7%) in Modern manure treatment. The overall results revealed that Kazi and Payel manures might be better for raising strong and healthy Burmese grape seedlings. J. Biodivers. Conserv. Bioresour. Manag. 2021, 7(1): 63-72


2022 ◽  
Vol 46 ◽  
pp. 1-16
Author(s):  
Hirusha Randimal Algewatta ◽  
Priyan Perera

The absence of robust species-specific methods to estimate the number of animals in seizures of pangolin scales is a major barrier to effective law enforcement. Therefore, studies focused on developing methods to establish accurate conversion parameters are a priority. This study proposes improved methods to estimate the number of pangolins in the illegal trade to inform law-enforcing authorities. Based on the observations of 25 specimens, Indian pangolins were on average found to possess 511 scales. Three morph-types of scales were identified: broad rhombic (n=411), elongated kite shape (n=69), and folded scales (n=31). The mean dry weight of the three-scale morph-types was 7.5 g, 4.9 g, and 6.2 g. Based on the average frequency and mean dry weight of each scale morph type, the species-specific dry weight of scales for Indian pangolins was 3.6 kg. Accordingly, we propose new and improved methods based on scale morph-type frequencies and species-specific dry weight of scales to estimate the number of Indian pangolins from quantities of scales. Their accuracy was compared with current methods, and the improved methods were found to be more accurate.


Food Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 20-26
Author(s):  
A. Sassi ◽  
Normah H. ◽  
M.M.A.K. Khattak ◽  
Hanapi M.J.

Anacardium occidentale young leaves are consumed traditionally as part of a Southeast Asian diet. The regular consumption is believed to have beneficial effects on health in general and potentially against type 2 Diabetes mellitus due to its high content of polyphenols. This study was aimed to investigate the polyphenol content of the plant using two methanol extracts; Free Phenolic Extract (FPE) and Bound Phenolic Extract (BPE) as well as highlight the presence of six phenolic acids and flavonoids namely; gallic acid, sinapinic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, quercetin and kaempferol using High performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (HPLC-UV-Vis). The results for polyphenols and flavonoids content showed high amounts of total polyphenols in BPE with 8.5±0.57 mg GAE/g as well as high amounts of total flavonoids in both extracts FPE and BPE with 0.58±0.06 and 0.86±0.05 mg QE/g respectively (p<0.05). The presence of these polyphenols was further confirmed by measuring the antioxidant activity through the scavenging of the free radical DPPH which showed an IC50 value for FPE (5.17±0.64 µg/ mL, BPE (4.96±0.12 µg/mL) compared to the positive control ascorbic acid (4.91±0.43 µg/mL). The high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array confirmed the presence of all four targeted phenolic acids with the highest amount showing in gallic acid and sinapinic acid in BPE with 148.12±6.44 µg gallic acid/g dry weight and 47.02±1.94 µg sinapinic acid/g dry weight respectively. As for flavonoids, quercetin was present in both extracts with 20.38±1.22 µg/g dry weight in BPE and 5.21±0.1 µg/g dry weight in FPE while Kaempferol was not detectable in either extract. These findings confirmed the importance of A. occidentale as a rich source of polyphenols which can be further investigated to determine its effects in-vitro and in-vivo on non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes.


Author(s):  
Shelby M. Gruss ◽  
Manoj Ghaste ◽  
Joshua R. Widhalm ◽  
Mitchell R. Tuinstra

AbstractCyanogenic glucosides (CGs) play a key role in host-plant defense to insect feeding; however, the metabolic tradeoffs between synthesis of CGs and plant growth are not well understood. In this study, genetic mutants coupled with nondestructive phenotyping techniques were used to study the impact of the CG dhurrin on fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)] (FAW) feeding and plant growth in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. A genetic mutation in CYP79A1 gene that disrupts dhurrin biosynthesis was used to develop sets of near-isogenic lines (NILs) with contrasting dhurrin contents in the Tx623 bmr6 genetic background. The NILs were evaluated for differences in plant growth and FAW feeding damage in replicated greenhouse and field trials. Greenhouse studies showed that dhurrin-free Tx623 bmr6 cyp79a1 plants grew more quickly than wild-type plants but were more susceptible to insect feeding based on changes in green plant area (GPA), total leaf area, and total dry weight over time. The NILs exhibited similar patterns of growth in field trials with significant differences in leaf area and dry weight of dhurrin-free plants between the infested and non-infested treatments. Taken together, these studies reveal a significant metabolic tradeoff between CG biosynthesis and plant growth in sorghum seedlings. Disruption of dhurrin biosynthesis produces plants with higher growth rates than wild-type plants but these plants have greater susceptibility to FAW feeding.


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