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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Joan Colom ◽  
Daniela Freitas ◽  
Annie Simon ◽  
Andre Brodkorb ◽  
Martin Buckley ◽  
...  

Spore-based probiotics offer important advantages over other probiotics as they can survive the harsh gastric conditions of the stomach and bile salts in the small intestine, ultimately germinating in the digestive tract. A novel clinical trial in 11 ileostomy participants was conducted to directly investigate the presence and germination of the probiotic strain Bacillus subtilis DE111® in the small intestine. Three hours following ingestion of DE111®, B. subtilis spores (6.4 × 104 ± 1.3 × 105 CFU/g effluent dry weight) and vegetative cells (4.7 × 104 ± 1.1 × 105 CFU/g effluent dry weight) began to appear in the ileum effluent. Six hours after ingestion, spore concentration increased to 9.7 × 107 ± 8.1 × 107 CFU/g and remained constant to the final time point of 8 h. Vegetative cells reached a concentration of 7.3 × 107 ± 1.4 × 108 CFU/g at 7 h following ingestion. These results reveal orally ingested B. subtilis DE111® spores are able to remain viable during transit through the stomach and germinate in the small intestine of humans within 3 h of ingestion.


Kultivasi ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ratih Rahhutami ◽  
Aline Sisi Handini ◽  
Dwi Astutik

AbstrakPemanfaatan limbah organik dari perkebunan sebagai media tanam pakcoy (Brassica chinensis L.) diharapkan dapat ditingkatkan dengan penggunaan pupuk organik serta pupuk hayati. Penelitian disusun menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) pola faktorial. Faktor pertama adalah dosis asam humat meliputi 1, 3, dan 5 g. Faktor kedua adalah dosis Trichoderma sp., meliputi 50, 100, dan 150 mL. Data yang diperoleh kemudian dianalisis ragam pada taraf nyata 5%. apabila terdapat pengaruh nyata, dilanjutkan dengan uji DMRT. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aplikasi asam humat dan Trichoderma sp. memiliki pengaruh mandiri dan tidak terdapat interaksi. Dosis asam humat 3 g per tanaman menghasilkan jumlah daun, panjang daun, tinggi tanaman, tinggi tanaman, bobot basah, dan bobot kering tanaman lebih tinggi dibanding dosis 1 dan 5 g. Perlakuan Trichoderma sp. dosis 50 mL per tanaman memiliki pengaruh lebih baik terhadap jumlah daun, panjang daun, tinggi tanaman, dan bobot basah tanaman.Kata Kunci: hortikultura, jamur, morfologi, senyawa organik Abstract The utilization of organic farm estate as pakcoy (Brassica chinensis L.) growing media may improved by using biofertilizer and organic fertilizer. The research used factorial randomized block design. First factor was humic acid dosage, which included 1, 3, and 5 g of humic acid. Second factor was Trichoderma sp. dosage, which included 50, 100, and 150 mL of Trichoderma sp. Data were analyzed using ANOVA at 5% level, then continued by DMRT test. The results showed that the application of humic acid and Trichoderma sp. had single effects and there was no interaction. The dosage of humic acid 3 g per plant had higher number of leaves, leaf length, plant height, wet weight, and dry weight than other dosages. The treatment of Trichoderma sp. at dosage of 50 mL per plant had a better effect on the number of leaves, leaf length, plant height, and plant wet weight.Keywords: fungi,  horticulture, morphology, organic compounds


Jurnal Agro ◽  
10.15575/9518 ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-13
Author(s):  
Nurmalita Waluyo ◽  
Noladhi Wicaksana ◽  
Anas Anas ◽  
Iteu M. Hidayat

Bawang merah (Allium cepa L. var aggregatum) salah satu komoditas hortikultura banyak di konsumsi. Peningkatan permintaan dalam kuantitas dan kualitas untuk komoditas ini meningkatkan ketersediaan varietas unggul. Penelitian dilakukan untuk menduga keragaman genotipe dan fenotipe serta nilai heritabilitas karakter pertumbuhan, komponen hasil dan hasil bawang merah di tiga lokasi dataran tinggi (Lembang 1.250 m dpl, Kab. Bandung Barat; Pacet 971 m dpl, Kab. Bandung; dan Samarang, 970 m dpl, Kab. Garut). Penelitian dilaksanakan dari September sampai Nopember 2019. Materi genetik yaitu 12 genotipe bawang merah terdiri dari 7 klon: B1, B19, B63, B72, B77, B102, dan B222, serta 5 varietas: Trisula, Bali Karet, Maja Cipanas, Bima Brebes dan Sumenep. Rancangan percobaan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) dengan 3 ulangan. Hasil analisis ragam menunjukan genotipe berpengaruh sangat nyata terhadap seluruh karakter pertumbuhan, komponen hasil, dan hasil. Nilai koefisisen keragaman genotipe dan fenotipe yang tinggi diperlihatkan oleh karakter persentase tanaman berbunga (48,10 % dan 49,01 %), berat basah per umbi (29,71 % dan 30,87 %), dan berat kering per umbi (33,17 % dan 34,29 %). Nilai duga heritabilitas arti luas (Hbs) karakter pada 12 genotipe bawang merah berkisar antara 45,08-96,30 %. Semua karakter yang diuji memiliki nilai heritabilitas tinggi kecuali untuk karakter jumlah daun per rumpun nilai heritabilitasnya sedang. Seleksi bawang merah di dataran tinggi dapat dilakukan pada generasi awal.AbstractShallots (Allium cepa L. var aggregatum) are one of the most widely consumed horticultural commodities in Indonesia. Increased demand in quantity and quality for this commodity improved availability varieties. A study was conducted to estimate variability of genotypes and phenotypes as well as the heritability value of growth characters, yield components, and yields of shallot at three highland locations (Lembang 1.250 m asl, West Bandung District; Pacet 971 m asl, Bandung District; and Samarang 970 m asl, Garut District). The research was conducted from September to November 2019. The genetic material studied was 12 genotypes of shallots consisting of 7 clones: B1, B19, B63, B72, B77, B102, and B222, and 5 varieties: Trisula, Bali Karet, Maja Cipanas, Bima Brebes, and Sumenep. Every experiments in all locations was arranged in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with 3 replications. The analysis of variance results showed that the genotype had a very significant effect on all growth characters, yield components, and yields. High variation coefficient values of genotype and phenotype was found in the character of percentage of flowering plants (48.10% and 49.01%), freshweight per bulb (29.71% and 30.87%), and dry weight per bulb (33.17% and 34.29%). All characters tested had a wide phenotific variability. The estimated value of heritability (broad meaning) of the characters in 12 shallot genotypes ranged from 45.08 to 96.30%. All characters tested has high heritability except for the number of leaves per clump the heritability was moderate. The study is the shallot selection in the highlands can be carried out in the early generations.


Author(s):  
Changjing Liu ◽  
Weiguo Lin ◽  
Chongran Feng ◽  
Xiangshuai Wu ◽  
Xiaohu Fu ◽  
...  

Grafting is an effective way to increase plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stressors, it is widely used in watermelon production. However, grafting is labor intensive due to the additional time is required, such as the management of rootstock regrowth. This study used a new grafting tool to destroy (remove) the epidermis of pumpkin and bottle gourd rootstock cotyledon base during grafting, we called this a new grafting method. Compared with the traditional grafting (100%), the new grafting method had significantly lower rate of rootstock regrowth (2-23%), higher watermelon scion dry weight and leaf area. In addition, the time used for the new hole insertion and one cotyledon grafting method to destroy (remove) the epidermis of rootstock cotyledon base (4.2 s/plant, 4.2 s/plant) is significantly shorter than the time required to remove the rootstock regrowth manually in the traditional grafting (9.3 s/plant, 8.8 s/plant). Thus, this study developed a new grafting method for watermelon to inhibit rootstock regrowth and enhance scion growth, and this new method is cost-effective for grafted watermelon seedlings.


Jurnal Agro ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 130-141
Author(s):  
Salamet Ginandjar ◽  
Budy Frasetya Taufik Qurrohman ◽  
Panji Rahmatullah

Tanaman selada merupakan sayuran yang dikonsumsi dalam bentuk segar. Karakteristiknya sebagai tanaman akumulator nitrat perlu diimbangi pemupukan N dan aplikasi Silika (Si) sesuai kebutuhan tanaman. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari interaksi ekstrak silika sekam padi (ESSP) dan N-total, serta memperoleh konsentrasi  ESSP dan N-total yang tepat untuk menghasilkan panen selada yang tinggi tetapi aman bagi kesehatan. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap Faktorial, faktor pertama adalah konsentrasi ESSP (0 ppm, 30 ppm, 60 ppm, 90 ppm) dan faktor kedua adalah konsentrasi N-total (100 ppm, 200 ppm, 300 ppm), setiap kombinasi perlakuan diulang 3 kali. Parameter yang diamati yaitu tinggi tanaman 35 hari setelah tanam (HST), luas daun, berat kering tanaman, berat segar tanaman, kandungan nitrat pada daun selada. Data dianalisis dengan analisis varians taraf 5% dilanjutkan dengan Uji Jarak Berganda Duncan pada taraf nyata 5%, sedangkan parameter kandungan nitrat dianalisis secara deskriptif. Berdasarkan hasil analisis varians konsentrasi ESSP dan konsentrasi N-total berinteraksi pada tinggi tanaman dan berpengaruh mandiri terhadap berat kering tanaman dan berat segar tanaman. Aplikasi ekstrak silika sekam padi 30 ppm meningkatkan hasil panen 28% lebih tinggi dan menurunkan 12% kandungan nitrat tanaman selada pada N total 100-300 ppm.AbstractLettuce is a freshly consumed vegetable. Its characteristics as a nitrate accumulator plant need to be balanced with N fertilization and Silica (Si) applications according to the plant required. This research aimed to study the interaction between rice husk silica extract (ESSP) and total N to obtain the right ESSP and total N concentrations to produce high yield lettuce and safely consumed it. This study used a factorial completely randomized design. The first factor was ESSP concentrations (0 ppm, 30 ppm, 60 ppm, 90 ppm) and the second factor was total N concentrations (100 ppm, 200 ppm, 300 ppm). Each treatment combination was repeated 3 times. The parameters observed were plant height in 35 days after planting, leaf area, plant dry weight, fresh plant weight, and nitrat e content in lettuce leaves. The  data  were  analyzed  by analysis of variance at the 5%, and post-test by DMRT at the 5% significant level, the nitrate content used descriptive analysis. Based on the analysis of variance, ESSP concentration and total N concentration interacted on plant height. The ESSP concentration and total N concentration independently affected plant dry weight and fresh plant weight. Application of 30 ppm rice husk silica extract increased 28% higher yield and decreased 12% nitrate content of lettuce plants at N-total of 100-300 ppm.


Marine Drugs ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (8) ◽  
pp. 436
Author(s):  
Jin-Young Yang ◽  
Sun Young Lim

Fucoidans are cell wall polysaccharides found in various species of brown seaweeds. They are fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSPs) and comprise 5–20% of the algal dry weight. Fucoidans possess multiple bioactivities, including antioxidant, anticoagulant, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, anti-lipidemic, anti-metastatic, anti-diabetic and anti-cancer effects. Dietary fucoidans provide small but constant amounts of FCSPs to the intestinal tract, which can reorganize the composition of commensal microbiota altered by FCSPs, and consequently control inflammation symptoms in the intestine. Although the bioactivities of fucoidans have been well described, there is limited evidence to implicate their effect on gut microbiota and bowel health. In this review, we summarize the recent studies that introduce the fundamental characteristics of various kinds of fucoidans and discuss their potential in altering commensal microorganisms and influencing intestinal diseases.


2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (8) ◽  
Author(s):  
M. Marcolin ◽  
J. A. Massaroto ◽  
R. N. Souza ◽  
R. R. Rocha

The objective of this study was to evaluate the vegetative and productive performance of papaya seedlings in response to different volumes of containers. The experiment was conducted in a seedling production nursery at the State University of Mato Grosso (UNEMAT), Campus de Nova Mutum - MT, using a completely randomized design with five replications, in which four sizes of polyethylene bags were tested in the production of seedlings: 10 x 16 cm, 15 x 21 cm, 17 x 27 cm and 20 x 21 The plots were composed of 3 plants. The parameters evaluated at 70 days after sowing were: plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, root length, green matter mass and percentage of dry weight of the stem, leaves and roots. The container 17 x 27 cm stood out from the other containers, except for the characteristics of the length of the stem, percentage of dry mass of the stem and leaves where it was equivalent to the container 20 x 21 cm and the percentage of dry mass where all containers were equivalent. The experiment showed that the 17 x 27 cm container is the most recommended for the cultivation of papaya seedlings cultivar Sunrise Solo.


HortScience ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Author(s):  
Daniel Oscar Pereira Soares ◽  
Karla Gabrielle Dutra Pinto ◽  
Laís Alves da Gama ◽  
Carla Coelho Ferreira ◽  
Prasanta C. Bhowmik ◽  
...  

Cassava production in Amazonas state deserves to be highlighted due to its great historical, social, and economic importance. Weed competition severely constrains cassava production in Amazonas. The use of cover crops is safe and very efficient at eliminating weeds while keeping the soil covered. The objective of this study was to evaluate physical properties of soil and glyphosate residues in storage roots as a function of the weed management in cassava. The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with five treatments and five repetitions. The treatments were biological control with two species of cover plants (Brachiaria ruziziensis and Mucuna pruriens), chemical control, mechanical control, and treatment with no weed control. The cover crops characteristics evaluated were dry weight, the percentage of cover, and rate of decomposition of plant residues. In the soil, the bulk density and total porosity were determined. The contamination of the storage roots was evaluated based on the analysis of glyphosate residue. Brachiaria ruziziensis presented more dry weight and higher percentage of cover compared with M. pruriens, and both cover crops showed very similar decomposition rates. The physical properties of soil were unaffected by any treatment evaluated. There was no detection of glyphosate and its metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), in any treatment evaluated. Chemical control with glyphosate is not able to contaminate cassava storage roots.


Author(s):  
Nate Korth ◽  
Steve L Taylor ◽  
Jennifer L Clarke ◽  
Melanie Downs

Celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity are provoked by the consumption of gluten from wheat, barley, rye, and related grains. Affected individuals are advised to adhere to gluten-free diets. Recently, gluten-free foods have become a marketing trend with gluten-free options in both packaged foods and restaurants/ foodservice establishments. Pasta is one of the primary gluten-containing foods in diets in North America and Europe. Gluten-free pasta formulations are commercially available. In restaurants, multiple pasta dishes are often prepared simultaneously in large multi-compartment pots, with shared cooking water. The objective of this study was to determine if gluten transfer occurs between traditional and gluten-free pasta when cooked simultaneously. Pasta was boiled in a commercial, 4-compartment, 20-qt. cooking pot containing three batches of traditional penne pasta and one batch of gluten-free penne pasta. The amount of pasta (dry weight) was either 52 g (recommended serving size) or 140 g (typical restaurant portion). Five consecutive batches of pasta were boiled, with sampling of cooking water and gluten-free pasta at completion of cooking. Water and gluten-free pasta samples were tested for gluten using the Neogen Veratox for Gliadin ELISA kit. Gluten levels were low (<20 ppm) in both water and gluten-free pasta samples through five batches at the 52-g quantity. The gluten levels in the gluten-free pasta at the 52-g quantity slowly increased through five batches but never exceeded 20 ppm. With the 140-g quantity, the levels of gluten in the cooking water increased with each batch, exceeding 50 and 80 ppm after the fourth and fifth batches. The gluten levels in the gluten-free pasta at the 140-g quantity approached 20 ppm by the fourth batch and reached nearly 40 ppm after the fifth batch. While gluten transfer does not occur at a high rate, gluten-free pasta should be prepared in a separate cooking vessel in restaurant and foodservice operations.


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (15) ◽  
pp. 8369
Author(s):  
Chintan Kapadia ◽  
R. Z. Sayyed ◽  
Hesham Ali El Enshasy ◽  
Harihar Vaidya ◽  
Deepshika Sharma ◽  
...  

Salinity significantly impacts the growth, development, and reproductive biology of various crops such as vegetables. The cultivable area is reduced due to the accumulation of salts and chemicals currently in use and is not amenable to a large extent to avoid such abiotic stress factors. The addition of microbes enriches the soil without any adverse effects. The effects of microbial consortia comprising Bacillus sp., Delftia sp., Enterobacter sp., Achromobacter sp., was evaluated on the growth and mineral uptake in tomatoes (Solanum Lycopersicum L.) under salt stress and normal soil conditions. Salinity treatments comprising Ec 0, 2, 5, and 8 dS/m were established by mixing soil with seawater until the desired Ec was achieved. The seedlings were transplanted in the pots of the respective pH and were inoculated with microbial consortia. After sufficient growth, these seedlings were transplanted in soil seedling trays. The measurement of soil minerals such as Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, and pH and the Ec were evaluated and compared with the control 0 days, 15 days, and 35 days after inoculation. The results were found to be non-significant for the soil parameters. In the uninoculated seedlings’ (control) seedling trays, salt treatment significantly affected leaf, shoot, root dry weight, shoot height, number of secondary roots, chlorophyll, and mineral contents. While bacterized seedlings sown under saline soil significantly increased leaf (105.17%), shoot (105.62%), root (109.06%) dry weight, leaf number (75.68%), shoot length (92.95%), root length (146.14%), secondary roots (91.23%), and chlorophyll content (−61.49%) as compared to the control (without consortia). The Na and K intake were higher even in the presence of the microbes, but the beneficial effect of the microbe helps plants sustain in the saline environment. The inoculation of microbial consortia produced more secondary roots, which accumulate more minerals and transport substances to the different parts of the plant; thus, it produced higher biomass and growth. Results of the present study revealed that the treatment with microbial consortia could alleviate the deleterious effects of salinity stress and improve the growth of tomato plants under salinity stress. Microbial consortia appear to be the best alternative and cost-effective and sustainable approach for managing soil salinity and improving plant growth under salt stress conditions.


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