methyl ester
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
pp. 275-280
Jean-Bernard Asse ◽  
G. Mengata Mengounou ◽  
Adolphe Moukengue Imano

Fuel ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 310 ◽  
pp. 122296
Rozina ◽  
Mushtaq Ahmad ◽  
Saira Asif ◽  
Jiří Jaromír Klemeš ◽  
Muhammad Mubashir ◽  

C. Sivakandhan ◽  
P. V. Elumalai ◽  
M. Murugan ◽  
A. Saravanan ◽  
P. S. Ranjit ◽  

Fermentation ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 23
Karthick Murugan Palanisamy ◽  
Gaanty Pragas Maniam ◽  
Ahmad Ziad Sulaiman ◽  
Mohd Hasbi Ab. Rahim ◽  
Natanamurugaraj Govindan ◽  

Biomass and lipid production by the marine centric diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana were characterized in media based on palm oil mill effluent (POME) as a source of key nutrients. The optimal medium comprised 20% by volume POME, 80 µM Na2SiO3, and 35 g NaCl L−1 in water at pH ~7.7. In 15-day batch cultures (16:8 h/h light–dark cycle; 200 µmol photons m−2 s−1, 26 ± 1 °C) bubbled continuously with air mixed with CO2 (2.5% by vol), the peak concentration of dry biomass was 869 ± 14 mg L−1 corresponding to a productivity of ~58 mg L−1 day−1. The neutral lipid content of the biomass was 46.2 ± 1.1% by dry weight. The main components of the esterified lipids were palmitoleic acid methyl ester (31.6% w/w) and myristic acid methyl ester (16.8% w/w). The final biomass concentration and the lipid content were affected by the light–dark cycle. Continuous (24 h light) illumination at the above-specified irradiance reduced biomass productivity to ~54 mg L−1 day−1 and lipid content to 38.1%.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Lyndsey L. Anderson ◽  
Michael Udoh ◽  
Declan Everett-Morgan ◽  
Marika Heblinski ◽  
Iain S. McGregor ◽  

Abstract Objective Cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), a precursor cannabinoid in Cannabis sativa, has recently been found to have anticonvulsant properties in the Scn1a+/- mouse model of Dravet syndrome. Poor brain penetration and chemical instability of CBGA limits its potential as an anticonvulsant therapy. Here, we examined whether CBGA methyl ester, a more stable analogue of CBGA, might have superior pharmacokinetic and anticonvulsant properties. In addition, we examined whether olivetolic acid, the biosynthetic precursor to CBGA with a truncated (des-geranyl) form, might possess minimum structural requirements for anticonvulsant activity. We also examined whether olivetolic acid and CBGA methyl ester retain activity at the epilepsy-relevant drug targets of CBGA: G-protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) and T-type calcium channels. Methods The brain and plasma pharmacokinetic profiles of CBGA methyl ester and olivetolic acid were examined following 10 mg/kg intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration in mice (n = 4). The anticonvulsant potential of each was examined in male and female Scn1a+/- mice (n = 17–19) against hyperthermia-induced seizures (10–100 mg/kg, i.p.). CBGA methyl ester and olivetolic acid were also screened in vitro against T-type calcium channels and GPR55 using intracellular calcium and ERK phosphorylation assays, respectively. Results CBGA methyl ester exhibited relatively limited brain penetration (13%), although somewhat superior to that of 2% for CBGA. No anticonvulsant effects were observed against thermally induced seizures in Scn1a+/- mice. Olivetolic acid also showed poor brain penetration (1%) but had a modest anticonvulsant effect in Scn1a+/- mice increasing the thermally induced seizure temperature threshold by approximately 0.4°C at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Neither CBGA methyl ester nor olivetolic acid displayed pharmacological activity at GPR55 or T-type calcium channels. Conclusions Olivetolic acid displayed modest anticonvulsant activity against hyperthermia-induced seizures in the Scn1a+/- mouse model of Dravet syndrome despite poor brain penetration. The effect was, however, comparable to the known anticonvulsant cannabinoid cannabidiol in this model. Future studies could explore the anticonvulsant mechanism(s) of action of olivetolic acid and examine whether its anticonvulsant effect extends to other seizure types.

2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (4) ◽  
pp. 527-535
Malik F. H. Ferdosi ◽  
Iqra Haider Khan ◽  
Arshad Javaid ◽  
Hafiz M. Saeed ◽  
Ifrayeem Butt ◽  

Bergenia ciliata is a weed of hilly areas of Pakistan that generally grows in rock crevices. In the present study, flowers of this weeds were collected from Murree. The dried flowers were extracted in methanol and subjected to GC-MS analysis that showed 7 compounds in it. The predominant compound was hexanedioic acid, bis(2-ethylhexyl) ester (48.88%) followed by γ-sitosterol (22.56%). Moderately occurring compound was cyclohexane, 1,3,5-triphenyl- (12.87%). The remaining compounds namely n-hexadecanoic acid (4.97%), pentadecanoic acid, 14-methyl-, methyl ester (3.77%), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z)-  (2.94%) and 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z)- (2.92%) were categorized as less abundant compounds. Literature survey indicated that these compounds possess antimicrobial, larvicidal, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and/or antidiabetic properties.

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