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2022 ◽  
Vol 204 ◽  
pp. 112021
Arce Domingo-Relloso ◽  
Anne Bozack ◽  
Samara Kiihl ◽  
Zulema Rodriguez-Hernandez ◽  
Pilar Rentero-Garrido ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 521 ◽  
pp. 230972
Mohammad Zhiani ◽  
Saeid Barzi ◽  
Ali Ahmadi ◽  
Francesco Vizza ◽  
Hussein Gharibi ◽  

Medicina ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 58 (1) ◽  
pp. 95
Katarzyna Van Damme-Ostapowicz ◽  
Mateusz Cybulski ◽  
Mariusz Kozakiewicz ◽  
Elżbieta Krajewska-Kułak ◽  
Piotr Siermontowski ◽  

Background and Objectives: Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was identified as a cell adhesion molecule that helps to regulate inflammation-associated vascular adhesion and the transendothelial migration of leukocytes, such as macrophages and T cells. VCAM-1 is expressed by the vascular system and can be induced by reactive oxygen species, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), which are produced by many cell types. The newest data suggest that VCAM-1 is associated with the progression of numerous immunological disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, transplant rejection and cancer. The aim of this study was to analyze the increase in VCAM-1 expression and the impact of exposure in a hyperbaric chamber to VCAM-1 levels in human blood serum. Materials and Methods: The study included 92 volunteers. Blood for the tests was taken in the morning, from the basilic vein of fasting individuals, in accordance with the applicable procedure for blood collection for morphological tests. In both groups of volunteers, blood was collected before and after exposure, in heparinized tubes to obtain plasma and hemolysate, and in clot tubes to obtain serum. The level of VCAM-1 was determined using the immunoenzymatic ELISA method. Results: The study showed that the difference between the distribution of VCAM-1 before and after exposure corresponding to diving at a depth of 30 m was at the limit of statistical significance in the divers group and that, in most people, VCAM-1 was higher after exposure. Diving to a greater depth had a much more pronounced impact on changes in VCAM-1 values, as the changes observed in the VCAM-1 level as a result of diving to a depth of 60 m were statistically highly significant (p = 0.0002). The study showed an increase in VCAM-1 in relation to the baseline value, which reached as much as 80%, i.e., VCAM-1 after diving was almost twice as high in some people. There were statistically significant differences between the results obtained after exposure to diving conditions at a depth of 60 m and the values measured for the non-divers group. The leukocyte level increased statistically after exposure to 60 m. In contrast, hemoglobin levels decreased in most divers after exposure to diving at a depth of 30 m (p = 0.0098). Conclusions: Exposure in the hyperbaric chamber had an effect on serum VCAM-1 in the divers group and non-divers group. There is a correlation between the tested morphological parameters and the VCAM-1 level before and after exposure in the divers group and the non-divers group. Exposure may result in activation of the endothelium.

2022 ◽  
Cynthia Hajal ◽  
Giovanni S. Offeddu ◽  
Yoojin Shin ◽  
Shun Zhang ◽  
Olga Morozova ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 631
Wannaporn Ittiprasert ◽  
Chawalit Chatupheeraphat ◽  
Victoria H. Mann ◽  
Wenhui Li ◽  
André Miller ◽  

The efficiency of the RNA-guided AsCas12a nuclease of Acidaminococcus sp. was compared with SpCas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes, for functional genomics in Schistosoma mansoni. We deployed optimized conditions for the ratio of guide RNAs to the nuclease, donor templates, and electroporation parameters, to target a key schistosome enzyme termed omega-1. Programmed cleavages catalyzed by Cas12a and Cas9 resulted in staggered- and blunt-ended strand breaks, respectively. AsCas12a was more efficient than SpCas9 for gene knockout, as determined by TIDE analysis. CRISPResso2 analysis confirmed that most mutations were deletions. Knockout efficiency of both nucleases markedly increased in the presence of single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide (ssODN) template. With AsCas12a, ssODNs representative of both the non-CRISPR target (NT) and target (T) strands were tested, resulting in KO efficiencies of 15.67, 28.71, and 21.43% in the SpCas9 plus ssODN, AsCas12a plus NT-ssODN, and AsCas12a plus T-ssODN groups, respectively. Trans-cleavage against the ssODNs by activated AsCas12a was not apparent in vitro. SpCas9 catalyzed more precise transgene insertion, with knock-in efficiencies of 17.07% for the KI_Cas9 group, 14.58% for KI_Cas12a-NT-ssODN, and 12.37% for KI_Cas12a-T-ssODN. Although AsCas12a induced fewer mutations per genome than SpCas9, the phenotypic impact on transcription and expression of omega-1 was similar for both nucleases.

2022 ◽  
Lin Lin ◽  
Franca Witjas ◽  
Konrad Fischer ◽  
Marten Engelse ◽  
Annemarie de Graaf ◽  

Abstract Genetically tailored pigs to eliminate human immune rejection of xenografts is one promising solution to the global donor organ shortage. The development of xenograft transplantation has however been hampered by incomplete understanding of its immune rejection and the inability to test this in a human transplantation setting. Here we use an ex vivo organ perfusion system with human whole blood to assess the initial immune activation within the xenograft endothelium at single cell transcriptome level. Renal injury, complement deposition, coagulation and lymphocyte influx are all strongly reduced in genetically modified pig kidneys with porcine MHC class I and three xenoantigens (GGTA1, CMAH, B4GALNT2) eliminated (4KO) compared to wildtype (WT) pig kidneys after 6-hours human blood perfusion. Single cell RNA sequencing of endothelial cells (EC) from 4KO and WT pig kidneys respectively reveal that there is a compartment (cortex, glomeruli and medulla) specific endothelial activation, with cortical and glomeruli endothelial cells being more affected. Differential gene expression analysis shows a downregulation of endothelial transcriptome activation response to human blood perfusion in the 4KO ECs. Pathway enrichment analysis further identify the NF-kB pathway as strongly activated in human blood perfused WT ECs but diminished in the 4KO. In conclusion, the 4KO pig model has strongly reduced endothelial immune activation response when perfused with human whole blood, that goes beyond prevention of humoral rejection. Our data support further development of the 4KO for use in clinical transplantation.

Reo Takamatsu ◽  
Kenichi Higuchi ◽  
Tatsunori Suzuki ◽  
Dairoku Muramatsu

2022 ◽  
Weichao Wang ◽  
Xian Liu ◽  
Changwen Zhang ◽  
Fei Sheng ◽  
Shanjun Song ◽  

Currently, almost all available cancer biomarkers are based on concentrations of compounds, often suffering from low sensitivity, poor specificity, and false positive or negative results. Stable isotopic composition of elements...

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