Calcium Chloride
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Maria Dulce Antunes ◽  
Ana Clara Guimarães ◽  
Custódia Gago ◽  
Adriana Guerreiro ◽  
Jorge Panagopoulos ◽  

The present research intents to study the evolution of the skin fatty acids and physiological disorders through cold storage in ‘Golden Delicious’ apples treated with 1-MCP and calcium. Harvested fruit were treated with calcium chloride (Ca), 1-MCP (MCP), Ca+MCP or no treatment (control) then subjected to cold storage at 0.5 ºC for 6 months. Fatty acids composition, Malondialdehyde (MDA) and the physiological disorders bitter pit (BP), superficial scald and diffuse skin browning (DSB) were measured at harvest and after storage plus 7 days shelf-life at room temperature ≈22 ºC. Palmitic acid decreased and linoleic acid increased through time, while oleic and stearic acids had few changes. Unsaturated/saturated fatty acids and MDA increased through time, despite Ca and Ca+MCP were related to lower MDA and lower BP and rotten fruit, after cold storage and shelf-life. In those treatments, the unsaturated/saturated fatty acids were higher, mainly due to higher linoleic acid and lower palmitic acids. Further research is needed to clarify the changes in membrane properties and the effect of some treatments in response to chilling injury through storage.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 ◽  
pp. 151
Gabriela Cormick ◽  
Natalia Matamoros ◽  
Iris B. Romero ◽  
Surya M. Perez ◽  
Cintia White ◽  

Background: Food fortification is an effective strategy that has been recommended for improving population calcium inadequate intakes. Increasing calcium concentration of water has been proposed as a possible strategy to improve calcium intake. The objective of this study was to determine the sensory threshold of different calcium salts added to drinking water using survival analysis. Methods: We performed the triangle test methodology for samples of water with added calcium using three different calcium salts: calcium chloride, calcium gluconate and calcium lactate. For each salt, a panel of 54 consumers tested seven batches of three water samples. Data were adjusted for chance and sensory threshold was estimated using the survival methodology and a discrimination of 50%. Results: The threshold value estimation for calcium gluconate was 587 ± 131 mg/L of water, corresponding to 25% discrimination, for calcium lactate was 676 ± 186 mg/L, corresponding to 50% discrimination, and for calcium chloride was 291 ± 73 mg/L, corresponding to 50% discrimination. Conclusions: These results show that water with calcium added in different salts and up to a concentration of 500 mg of calcium/L of water is feasible. The calcium salt allowing the highest calcium concentration with the lowest perceived changes in taste was calcium gluconate. Future studies need to explore stability and acceptability over longer periods of time.

Rayane de Lima Moura Paiva ◽  
Adriana Paiva Souza Martins ◽  
Lucas Rosse Caldas ◽  
Oscar A.M. Reales ◽  
Romildo Dias Toledo Filho

The incorporation of sustainable materials in the civil construction sector has grown in recent years to minimize environmental impacts. Among these materials, the use of earth, a local raw material that does not require much energy for its processing, appears as an advantageous and promising alternative. Earth mortars stabilized with natural binders, when compared to conventional mortars, can have technological, economic and environmental advantages. The objective of this work was to develop an earth-based mortar stabilized with mineral binders using a 1:3 binder to aggregate mass proportion, and to evaluate its fresh and hardened state properties, as well as its environmental impacts using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) with a cradle to gate scope. The selected materials were divided in four groups: (i) cement, hydrated lime, fly ash and metakaolinite (binders), (ii) natural sand and coarse fraction of the earth (aggregates), (iii) calcium chloride and superplasticizer (additives) and (iv) water. In the matrix formulation the clay fraction from earth constituted the majority of the binder. The selection of supplementary cementitious materials as additional binders provided improvements in workability and mechanical properties of the mortar. A mix design was carried out using different cement (5; 7.5 and 10%) and fly ash (11; 13.5 and 16%) mass percentages. The water/binder material ratio, superplasticizer content and calcium chloride content were 0.65; 2% and 1%, respectively. The results showed that an increase in fly ash content combined with a decrease in cement content provided an increase in workability and a decrease in mechanical properties of mortars. Nevertheless, the mechanical performance of the mortars remained above the minimum values prescribed in Brazilian construction codes. From the results analysis it was concluded that partial replacement of cement by fly ash provided greater workability in the fresh state and reduced the environmental impacts of the earth-based mortar.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-12
Nannan Yu ◽  
Hao Gong ◽  
Heng Yuan ◽  
Yingjie Bao ◽  
Weidong Wang

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 258
Ching-Cheng Huang

This study presents a designed alginate-based polymeric composite foam material containing decellularized elastic cartilage microscaffolds from porcine elastic cartilage by using supercritical fluid and papain treatment for medical scaffold biomaterials. The microstructure and thermal property of the designed alginate-based polymeric composite foam materials with various controlled ratios of alginate molecules and decellularized elastic cartilage microscaffolds were studied and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and differential thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA/DTG). The microstructure and thermal property of the composite foam materials were affected by the introduction of decellularized elastic cartilage microscaffolds. The designed alginate-based polymeric composite foam materials containing decellularized elastic cartilage microscaffolds were ionically cross-linked with calcium ions by soaking the polymeric composite foam materials in a solution of calcium chloride. Additional calcium ions further improved the microstructure and thermal stability of the resulting ionic cross-linked alginate-based polymeric composite foam materials. Furthermore, the effect of crosslinking functionality on microstructures and thermal properties of the resulting polymeric composite foam materials were studied to build up useful information for 3D substrates for cultivating and growing cartilage cells and/or cartilage tissue engineering.

Harpreet Kaur ◽  
Dnyaneshwar K. Solanke

Ethanol (also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol) is an organic chemical compound S. cerevisiae is the most employed yeast for ethanol production at the industrial level though ethanol is produced by an array of other yeasts, bacteria, and fungi. This paper reviews the current and nonmolecular trends in ethanol production using S. cerevisiae. Ethanol has been produced from a wide range of substrates such as molasses, starch-based substrate, sweet sorghum cane extract, lignocellulose, and other wastes The study was carried out on ethanol production from Immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae The immobilization was done with calcium chloride and sodium alginate the beads were formed. Fermentation was carried out for 7 to 8 days at 28°C then distillation was done and final ethanol produce was checked with an alcohol meter and ethanol produce was 13% from immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The process parameters optimized were substrate conc, pH, and urea conc. The values of the process parameters are 30% substrate conc, pH 4.5, and urea conc 0.5%.

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 19
Shehu A. Tadda ◽  
Xiaohua Kui ◽  
Hongjuan Yang ◽  
Min Li ◽  
Zhehong Huang ◽  

As an emerging technology, shoot encapsulation has been employed in germplasm conservation, distribution, and micropropagation of elite plant species. However, the production of synthetic seeds of sweet potato via non-zygotic embryogenesis requires a large number of embryos per cultured callus suspension and is labour-intensive. Here, we reported a simple method of encapsulating in vitro derived vegetable sweet potato nodal segments with sodium alginate, calcium chloride (CaCl2), and Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts. The nodes encapsulated with 4% sodium alginate (w/v) and 100 mM CaCl2 were the most suitable for propagation. They had uniform spherical beads and took the least number of days to shoot and root emergence. These plantlets produced more leaves, roots, and long shoots. Further evaluation of the MS salts concentration revealed that the plantlets encapsulated and grown with ½ MS salts had the least days to shoot and root emergence. They also had a longer shoot, the highest conversion rate (99%), and the least leaf abscission (17%). Thus, the sweet potato nodal segments encapsulated with 4% sodium alginate, 100 mM CaCl2, and ½ MS salts could be used as excellent material for micropropagation, germplasm conservation, and exchange of sweet potato planting materials.

Crystals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1572
Shihua Liang ◽  
Xueli Xiao ◽  
Zhanlin Li ◽  
Deluan Feng

Microbial-induced carbonate precipitation is an environmentally friendly foundation treatment technology that effectively improves soil engineering performance. The various nutrient components of liquid curing compounds significantly influence the curing effect. On the basis of penetration, dry density, water absorption, and unconfined compressive strength tests, this study showed the effect of nutrient solution composition, including urea, calcium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, ammonium chloride, and nutrient broth, on the physicomechanical properties of bio-cemented sand. The morphological differences of calcium carbonate precipitates under nutrient solution composition were compared through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed that the curing effect of compound nutrient solution was improved compared with the basic nutrient solution (urea and calcium chloride). Among the individual components added, ammonium chloride had the most remarkable effect, followed by sodium bicarbonate and nutrient broth. Among the paired components added, sodium bicarbonate + ammonium chloride had the most significant effect, followed by sodium bicarbonate + nutrient broth and ammonium chloride + nutrient broth. The strength of bio-cemented sand cured with compound nutrient solution containing five components could reach 3.43 MPa, which was 1.92 times higher than the strength of the basic nutrient solution. As shown by the SEM image, the calcium carbonate precipitation in the solidified sand was distributed in the clearance of sand particles, effectively bonding the sand particles. The calcium carbonate obtained by the composition of the compound nutrient solution precipitated the sand particles, and some of the sand particles were wrapped. Moreover, the amount of precipitation was evidently greater than that of the basic nutrient solution. Compared with the basic nutrient solution, the compound nutrient solution effectively reduced the apparent porosity and average pore size of the sand. Thus, the curing effect of the compound nutrient solution was better than that of the basic nutrient solution.

2021 ◽  
Vol 37 (37) ◽  
pp. 123-130
Mahmoudi Meimand Mohammad Javad ◽  
Malekzade Khalil ◽  
Hossein Shamshiri Mohammad ◽  
Reza Dehghani Mohammad ◽  

Shoot tip necrosis (STN) is one of the main physiological disorders in the micropropagation of pistachios. In the current study, the effects of CaNO3.4H2O at 196 mg/L and 291 mg/L, H3BO3 at 196 mg/L and 291 mg/L, and CaCl2.2H2O at 2,980 mg/L on STN and hyperhydricity reduction of Pistacia vera L., ‘Badami’ and ‘UCB1’ rootstocks were assessed, compared to the MS standard medium containing 3% sucrose, 0.7% agar supplemented with benzyladenine (BA) (1.5 mg/L), indole butyric acid (IBA) (0.1 mg/L). For ventilation parameter, filter container vessels with a 50-µm microporous polypropylene membrane (Pardis®) were used. Based on the results, an increase in calcium chloride content of the MS standard medium prevented hyperhydricity in the UCB1 rootstock, whereas it increased STN, yellow leaves, decreasing the multiplication of shoots in the ‘Badami’ rootstock. The results also showed that increasing boric acid from 196 mg/L up to 291 mg/L decreased STN in the UCB1 rootstock and increased this disorder by 37% in the ‘Badami’ rootstock. Ventilation showed no significantly reducing effect on the percentage of STN in the regenerated shoots of the ‘Badami’ rootstock, whilst it decreased the STN of the ‘UCB1’ rootstock to the lowest percentage. For the ‘Badami’ rootstock, CaNO3.4H2O at 196 mg/L led to the highest proliferation rate, shoot height, shoot diameter, and leaf number, but for the ‘UCB1’ rootstock, an increase in the concentration of CaNO3.4H2O up to 291 mg/L under ventilated conditions resulted in an increase in proliferation, shoot height, and shoot diameter.

Anzhela S. Shurshina ◽  
Elena I. Kulish ◽  

The transport properties of medicinal films based on sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose and the antibiotic amikacin sulfate have been studied in this work. It has been shown that the process of sorption of water vapor by such films and the release of a drug from them proceeds in an abnormal diffusion mode, which is explained by the slowdown of relaxation processes in glassy polymers, which include the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose. An increase of the amount of the introduced drug is accompanied by a regular decrease in the diffusion coefficients of both the process of sorption of water vapor and the release of amikacin from the films. It is noted that the formed films of sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose-amikacin sulfate dissolve in water during the day and do not provide a prolonged release of the drug. To reduce the solubility of the films in water, the surface modification of the polymer film with calcium chloride has been carried out. It has been found that the modification does not lead to a change in the diffusion mode, but is accompanied by a regular change in the diffusion coefficients – the longer the formed films were kept in a calcium chloride solution, the lower the diffusion coefficients of the sorption of water vapor by medicinal films and the diffusion coefficients of the release of the drug amikacin from the film. It is argued that the surface modification of polymer films based on the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose is an effective way of imparting to them the effect of prolonging the release of a drug.

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