scoping reviews
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Lucia Kantorová ◽  
Tereza Friessová ◽  
Simona Slezáková ◽  
Alena Langaufová ◽  
Jiří Kantor ◽  

This is a protocol for a scoping review that aims to determine how guideline authors using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations (GRADE) approach have addressed previously identified challenges related to public health. The Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) methodology for scoping reviews will be followed. We will search and screen titles of guidelines for all languages published in 2013–2021 in: the GIN library, BIGG database, Epistemonikos GRADE guidelines repository, GRADEpro Database, MAGICapp, NICE and WHO websites. Two reviewers will independently screen full texts of the documents identified. The following information will be extracted: methods used for identifying different stakeholders and incorporating their perspectives; methods for identification and prioritization of non-health outcomes; methods for determining thresholds for decision-making; methods for incorporating and grading evidence from non-randomized studies; methods for addressing concerns with conditional recommendations in public health; methods for reaching consensus; additional methodological concerns; and any modifications made to GRADE. A combination of directed content analysis and descriptive statistics will be used for data analysis, and the findings presented narratively in a tabular and graphical form. In this protocol, we present the pilot results from 13 identified eligible guidelines issued between January and August 2021. We will publish the full review results when they become available.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261962
Pathmavathy Namasivayam ◽  
Dung T. Bui ◽  
Christine Low ◽  
Tony Barnett ◽  
Heather Bridgman ◽  

Introduction After-hours services are essential in ensuring patients with life limiting illness and their caregivers are supported to enable continuity of care. Telehealth is a valuable approach to meeting after-hours support needs of people living with life-limiting illness, their families, and caregivers in rural and remote communities. It is important to explore the provision of after-hours palliative care services using telehealth to understand the reach of these services in rural and remote Australia. A preliminary search of databases failed to reveal any scoping or systematic reviews of telehealth in after-hours palliative care services in rural or remote Australia. Aim To review and map the available evidence about the use of telehealth in providing after-hours palliative care services in Australian rural and remote communities. Methods The proposed scoping review will be conducted using the Arksey and O’Malley methodological framework and in accordance with the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology for scoping reviews. The reporting of the scoping review will be guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR). This review will consider research and evaluation of after-hours services using telehealth for palliative care stakeholders in rural and remote Australia. Peer reviewed studies and grey literature published in English from 2000 to May 2021 will be included. Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL Complete, Embase via Ovid, PsycINFO via Ovid, Emcare via Ovid, Medline via Ovid, and grey literature will be searched for relevant articles. Titles and abstracts will be screened by two independent reviewers for assessment against the inclusion criteria. Data will be extracted and analysed by two reviewers using an adapted data extraction tool and thematic analysis techniques. Diagrams, tables, and summary narratives will be used to map, summarise and thematically group the characteristics of palliative care telehealth services in rural and remote Australia, including stakeholders’ perceptions and benefits and challenges of the services.

Hinke M. van der Werf ◽  
Marie Louise A. Luttik ◽  
Alice de Boer ◽  
Petrie F. Roodbol ◽  
Wolter Paans

This scoping review provides an overview of the impact of growing up with a chronically ill family member on young adults (18–25 years old), and their specific needs. Young adults represent an important life stage involving a transition to adulthood, during which individuals’ family situations can affect their future. We searched relevant studies following the guideline of Arskey and O’Mailley’s methodological framework and the PRISMA statement guidelines for scoping reviews in PubMed, PsychInfo and reference lists to identify articles for inclusion. Studies from 2005 to 2020 were included in this review. Of the 12 studies, six qualitative studies, five quantitative studies and one mixed method study were included. Eight studies discussed the impact, including consequences at a physical and mental level, at their personal development and future perspectives, but also positive effects, such as being capable of organizing their lives. Four studies discussed the needs of young adult carers, including emotional needs, support needs with regard to stimulating autonomy (arising from internal conflicts) and developing their own identity, and the concerned attitude of involved professionals. An unambiguous definition of the target group and further well-designed research are needed to improve clarity about the role of support, so that future professionals can adequately address the needs and wishes of young adults who grow up with an ill family member.

2022 ◽  
Karan Varshney ◽  
Prerana Ghosh ◽  
Helena Stiles ◽  
Rosemary Iriowen

AbstractPeople living with HIV (PLWH) are particularly vulnerable to worsened outcomes of COVID-19. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to provide a scoping review of the literature to assess the risk factors for COVID-19 mortality among PLWH. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR), searches were conducted in PubMed, Scopus, Global Health, and WHO Coronavirus Database. Articles were eligible for inclusion if they were in English, included PLWH who died after COVID-19 infection, and described risk factors for mortality. Results were descriptively synthesized and pooled thereafter. Study quality was assessed using the Joanna Brigg Institute’s critical appraisal tools. 20 studies were eligible for inclusion, with the pooled death rate being 11.7%. Age was a major risk factor, especially after 50 (23.2%) and after 70 (41.8%), and males had a death rate nearly double that of females. As total comorbidities increased, the death rate also greatly increased; among those with comorbidities, the highest fatality rates were those with cardiovascular disease (30.2%), chronic kidney disease (23.5%), obesity (22.4%), and diabetes (18.4%). Other risk factors for mortality among PLWH included having a Black racial background, being an injection drug user, being a smoker, and having a CD4 cell count below 200. There is a need to better study confounding factors, and to understand how vaccination influences mortality risk. Overall, the findings highlight a need to ensure that focus is placed on the varying demographics of PLWH amidst COVID-19 control efforts.

Thorben Simonsen ◽  
Jodi Sturge ◽  
Cameron Duff

Objectives: The purpose of this scoping review is to identify evidence on how characteristics of healing architecture in clinical contexts impact clinical practice and patient experiences. Based on these insights, we advance a more practice-based approach to the study of how healing architectures work. Background: The notion of “healing architecture” has recently emerged in discussions of the spatial organization of healthcare settings, particularly in the Nordic countries. This scoping review summarizes findings from seven articles which specifically describe how patients and staff experience characteristics of healing architecture. Methods: This scoping review was conducted using the framework developed by Arksey and O’Malley. We referred to the decision tool developed by Pollock et al. to confirm that this approach was the most appropriate evidence synthesis type to identify characteristics related to healing architecture and practice. To ensure the rigor of this review, we referred to the methodological guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis extension for Scoping Reviews. Results: There are two main findings of the review. First, there is no common or operative definition of healing architecture used in the selected articles. Secondly, there is limited knowledge of how healing architecture shapes clinical and patient outcomes. Conclusions: We conclude that further research is needed into how healing architectures make a difference in everyday clinical practices, both to better inform the development of evidence-based designs in the future and to further elaborate criteria to guide postoccupancy evaluations of purpose-built sites.

2022 ◽  
pp. 084456212110667
Aric Rankin ◽  
Andrea Baumann ◽  
Bernice Downey ◽  
Ruta Valaitis ◽  
Amy Montour ◽  

Background Healthcare systems are complex and as a result patients may experience fragmentation of services. Indigenous populations experience increasingly disproportionate health disparities compared to non-Indigenous populations. Patient navigation is known as a patient-centered approach to empower individuals to connect with appropriate services. Literature surrounding the Indigenous Patient Navigator (IPN) remains sparse necessitating this scoping review. Purpose: To map the current state of the role of the IPN internationally within Canada, United States, Australia and New Zealand. Methods Estalished methodological framework by Arksey and O’Malley and the PRISMA extension for scoping reviews was used. Results A total of 820 articles were reviewed from four databases, yielding sixteen articles. Conclusions The absence of published literature surrounding the IPN role in Australia and New Zealand was surprising considering similar histories of colonization. The term navigator was used most often and was typically used when describing lay/peer roles. Professional roles were described using specific role descriptions. Six IPN roles were identified including: (1) social service navigation, (2) wholistic support of Indigenous people, (3) advocacy/building capacity, (4) health assessment, (5) administrative navigation, and (6) outreach. Additionally, barriers and enablers IPNs address are identified. This scoping review will assist to promote and reinforce the IPN role.

Pflege ◽  
2022 ◽  
Miriam Markgraf ◽  
Josephine Telschow

Zusammenfassung. Hintergrund: In den Notaufnahmen deutscher Krankenhäuser werden zunehmend ältere Menschen aufgenommen, deren komplexe Bedürfnisse erweiterte pflegerische Kompetenzen erfordern. Fragestellung / Ziel: Ziel dieses Scoping Reviews war es, die in der Literatur beschriebenen erweiterten Tätigkeiten, die Pflegefachpersonen in Notfallsituationen geriatrischer Patient_innen übernehmen, und die erforderlichen Qualifikationen zu identifizieren und diese mit dem Stand in Deutschland zu vergleichen. Methoden: Die Literaturrecherche erfolgte in den Datenbanken MEDLINE und CINAHL. Außerdem wurde eine vorwärts- / rückwärtsgerichtete Zitationssuche durchgeführt. Um die Situation in Deutschland zu beschreiben, wurde eine Schneeballsuche über Google durchgeführt und Expertinnen kontaktiert. Die Datenextraktion erfolgte über ein hierfür erstelltes Formular. Ergebnisse: Es wurden 13 Studien mit sieben Aufgabenbereichen eingeschlossen: Informationssammlung, Ersteinschätzung, Koordination, medizinisch-pflegerische Versorgung, Behandlungsplan, Nachsorge und Schulung. Befähigende Qualifizierungen waren fachliche und akademische Weiterbildungen, die teils mit Berufserfahrung kombiniert sein mussten. In Deutschland werden Fachweiterbildungen angeboten. Akademische Spezialisierungen stellen die Ausnahme dar. Eine Tätigkeitsbeschreibung für die geriatrische Notfallpflege in Deutschland konnte nicht identifiziert werden. Schlussfolgerungen: International gibt es Tätigkeitsprofile, die häufig sowohl Berufserfahrung als auch eine Akademisierung erfordern. Für Deutschland konnte kein entsprechendes pflegerisches Rollenprofil identifiziert werden. Zudem bestehen keine spezifischen Qualifikationsmaßnahmen.

2022 ◽  
pp. 019459982110688
Matthew J. Urban ◽  
Aoi Shimomura ◽  
Swapnil Shah ◽  
Tasher Losenegger ◽  
Jennifer Westrick ◽  

Objective To broadly synthesize the literature regarding rural health disparities in otolaryngology, categorize findings, and identify research gaps to stimulate future work. Study Design Scoping review. Data Sources A comprehensive literature search was performed in the following databases: PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Google Scholar, and CINAHL. Review Methods The methods were developed in concordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews checklist. Peer-reviewed, English-language, US-based studies examining a rural disparity in otolaryngology-related disease incidence, prevalence, diagnosis, treatment, or outcome were included. Descriptive studies, commentaries, reviews, and letters to the editor were excluded. Studies published prior to 1980 were excluded. Results The literature search resulted in 1536 unique abstracts and yielded 79 studies that met final criteria for inclusion. Seventy-five percent were published after 2010. The distribution of literature was as follows: otology (34.2%), head and neck cancer (20.3%), endocrine surgery (13.9%), rhinology and allergy (8.9%), trauma (5.1%), laryngology (3.8%), other pediatrics (2.5%), and adult sleep (1.3%). Studies on otolaryngology health care systems also accounted for 10.1%. The most common topics studied were practice patterns (41%) and epidemiology (27%), while the Southeast (47%) was the most common US region represented, and database study (42%) was the most common study design. Conclusion Overall, there was low-quality evidence with large gaps in the literature in all subspecialties, most notably facial plastic surgery, laryngology, adult sleep, and pediatrics. Importantly, there were few studies on intervention and zero studies on resident exposure to rural populations, which will be critical to making rural otolaryngology care more equitable in the future.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Rosario Fernández-Peña ◽  
María-Antonia Ovalle-Perandones ◽  
Pilar Marqués-Sánchez ◽  
Carmen Ortego-Maté ◽  
Nestor Serrano-Fuentes

Abstract Background In recent decades, the literature on Social Network Analysis and health has experienced a significant increase. Disease transmission, health behavior, organizational networks, social capital, and social support are among the different health areas where Social Network Analysis has been applied. The current epidemiological trend is characterized by a progressive increase in the population’s ageing and the incidence of long-term conditions. Thus, it seems relevant to highlight the importance of social support and care systems to guarantee the coverage of health and social needs within the context of acute illness, chronic disease, and disability for patients and their carers. Thus, the main aim is to identify, categorize, summarize, synthesize, and map existing knowledge, literature, and evidence about the use of Social Network Analysis to study social support and care in the context of illness and disability. Methods This scoping review will be conducted following Arksey and O'Malley's framework with adaptations from Levac et al. and Joanna Briggs Institute’s methodological guidance for conducting scoping reviews. We will search the following databases (from January 2000 onwards): PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science Core Collection, SCOPUS, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PROSPERO, and DARE. Complementary searches will be conducted in selected relevant journals. Only articles related to social support or care in patients or caregivers in the context of acute illnesses, disabilities or long-term conditions will be considered eligible for inclusion. Two reviewers will screen all the citations, full-text articles, and abstract the data independently. A narrative synthesis will be provided with information presented in the main text and tables. Discussion The knowledge about the scientific evidence available in the literature, the methodological characteristics of the studies identified based on Social Network Analysis, and its main contributions will highlight the importance of health-related research's social and relational dimensions. These results will shed light on the importance of the structure and composition of social networks to provide social support and care and their impact on other health outcomes. It is anticipated that results may guide future research on network-based interventions that might be considered drivers to provide further knowledge in social support and care from a relational approach at the individual and community levels. Trial registration Open Science Framework

Assessment ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 107319112110696
Philippa Neary

Children’s unique developmental and contextual needs make it challenging to measure empathy validly and reliably. This scoping review is the first to collate currently available information about self-report, other-report, and performance-based questionnaire measures of empathy for children aged up to 11 years. Following the guidelines for Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR; Tricco et al., 2018), a literature search using PsycINFO, Scopus, and Google Scholar identified 24 relevant measures of empathy in children, with publication years spanning 1958 to 2019. Questionnaires could broadly be classified into four groups, according to the extent to which they were developed with children’s developmental needs and contexts in mind, and were based on contemporary theory and research findings. There was a distinction between performance-based measures, which elicited children’s empathy-related responses to novel content and therefore assessed situational state empathy, and self- and other-report measures, which rated children’s general empathic tendencies and thus assessed dispositional trait empathy. Results highlighted the importance of researchers having clarity on their definition of empathy and choosing measures consistent with this, and the merit of utilizing a multimodal assessment approach.

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