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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
M. Attaullah ◽  
S. Gul ◽  
D. Bibi ◽  
A. Andaleeb ◽  
I. Ilahi ◽  

Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the diversity, distribution (C) and relative abundance (RA) of the mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae) of Malakand and Dir Lower, Pakistan. Collection of specimens (n = 1087) was made during September 2018 to July 2019 at six different habitats including freshwater bodies, rice fields, animal sheds, indoors, drains and sewage waters. Specimens were collected through light traps, pyrethrum spray, aspirators and nets and subsequently killed, preserved and then arranged in entomological boxes for identification. Three genera were identified namely Culex, Anopheles and Aedes. A total of fourteen species were identified namely: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) and An. annularis (van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus was found constantly distributed in the study area with RA = 16.5% and C = 100%. An. annularis was found as a satellite species, sporadically distributed in the study area having RA = 0.9% and C = 17%. Diversity indices of mosquitoes in the studied habitats were found as, Shannon-Wiener Index (2.415), Simpson Index (9.919), Fisher’s Index (2.269) and Margalef’s Index (1.859). A statistically significant difference was recorded in mosquito diversity in the six habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, chi-squared, H = 17.5, df = 5, P = 0.003 at α = 0.05). The present study encompasses mosquito fauna of Malakand, Pakistan with respect to diversity, relative abundance and distribution in diverse habitats and all seasons of the year. This will assist scientists working in various fields related with epidemiology, medical and veterinary entomology, ecology and allied areas of biological sciences.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 666
Maciej Jedliński ◽  
Marta Mazur ◽  
Krzysztof Schmeidl ◽  
Katarzyna Grocholewicz ◽  
Roman Ardan ◽  

The aim of the study was to analyze retention protocols and materials for fixed retainers used by clinicians providing orthodontic treatment in Poland. The survey was carried out from February to April 2021. The questionnaire was designed using the Google Forms tool. After validation, the questionnaire was delivered to verified active orthodontists gathered in a closed social media group of 615 members. Finally, 104 answers were received. Answers to individual questions were provided in percentages and tabularized. A chi-squared test of proportion was used to compare: the proportion of clinicians using retainers of different characteristics and the proportions of clinicians indicating the superiority of a given clinical solution. Rectangular steel braided wire was rated as most reliable. However, doctors who declared to use gold chain were mostly solely using this type of wire. Multistranded round wire was rated the worst. Fiber-reinforced composite was mainly used in periodontal patients. The protocols used by Polish orthodontic practitioners relied on double long-term retention with regular follow-up. The most popular material was stainless steel braided rectangular wire bonded with a flowable composite. Most clinicians believed they could maintain the treatment results, but they declared that patients’ cooperation was a challenge.

2022 ◽  
pp. 193864002110659
Matthew S. Broggi ◽  
Syed Tahmid ◽  
John Hurt ◽  
Rishin J. Kadakia ◽  
Jason T. Bariteau ◽  

Background The effects of preoperative depression following ankle fracture surgery remains unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between preoperative depression and outcomes following ankle fracture surgery. Methods This retrospective study used the Truven MarketScan database to identify patients who underwent ankle fracture surgery from January 2009 to December 2018. Patients with and without a diagnosis of preoperative depression were identified based on International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes. Chi-squared and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the association between preoperative depression and postoperative complications following ankle fracture surgery. Results In total, 107,897 patients were identified for analysis, 13,981 of whom were diagnosed with depression (13%). Preoperative depression was associated with the increased odds for postoperative infection (odds ratio [OR]: 1.33, confidence interval [CI]: 1.20-1.46), wound complications (OR: 1.13, CI: 1.00-1.28), pain-related postoperative emergency department visits (OR: 1.58, CI: 1.30-19.1), 30-day and 90-day readmissions (OR: 1.08, CI: 1.03-1.21 and OR: 1.13, CI: 1.07-1.18), sepsis (OR: 1.39, CI: 1.12-1.72), and postoperative development of complex regional pain syndrome (OR: 1.46, CI: 1.18-1.81). Conclusion Preoperative depression is associated with increased complications following ankle fracture surgery. Further studies are warranted to investigate the degree to which depression is a modifiable risk factor. Level of Evidence: 3

Patience Mwesigye ◽  
Baljot Sekhon ◽  
Amit Punni ◽  
Gemma McDonnell ◽  
Omar Salman ◽  

Abstract Background The COVID-19 pandemic and its associated morbidity, mortality, and economic disruption has reignited interest in simple protective and preventive measures. Aims The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of hand hygiene in a sample of medical students in Ireland and members of the public to evaluate these within the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. We also explored any differences between the two groups. Methods A 35-question survey was formulated and circulated to potential participants comprising Irish medical students and members of the public. The data was analysed using Microsoft Excel with P-values being calculated using chi-squared goodness-of-fit analysis. Results There were 356 responses to the survey, categorised into medical students and general public populations. Incomplete surveys were removed leaving 303 responses. There was no statistical difference between the groups for attitudes and self-reported practices towards hand hygiene. Statistical differences were found between the two groups in terms of knowledge. Conclusions The study showed that medical students and the public had a good knowledge base and positive attitude in regards to hand hygiene. Both groups displayed consensus that the practices are essential, especially within the current pandemic context. However, larger studies, involving multiple universities and a larger portion of the public, may be useful to ascertain whether there is a true difference in the KAP between healthcare students and the general public.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 ◽  
pp. 2
Andrew Wormald ◽  
Philip McCallion ◽  
Mary McCarron

Background: Loneliness has been associated with hypervigilance and sad passivity. The physiological and psychological reactions of people with an intellectual disability to loneliness have never been investigated. This research aims to explore the outcomes of loneliness for an ageing intellectual disability population. Methods: In Ireland, data from a nationally representative data set of people aged over 40 years with an intellectual disability (N=317) was applied to a social environment model that describes the effects of loneliness in five pre-disease pathways health behaviours, exposure to stressful life events, coping, health and recuperation. The data was tested through chi-squared, ANCOVA and binary logistic regression. Results: Being lonely predicted raised systolic blood pressure (A.O.R=2.051, p=0.039), sleeping difficulties (AOR=2.526, p=0.002) and confiding in staff (AOR=0.464 p=0.008). Additionally, participants who did moderate activity had significantly higher loneliness scores (F=4.171, p<0.05). Conclusions: The analysis supports the concept of hypervigilance in older people with an intellectual disability and limited support for the use of coping mechanisms that differ from those found in the wider population. Future research needs to investigate the longitudinal relationships between loneliness and health.

2022 ◽  
Bryan Terlizzi ◽  
T Cade Abrams ◽  
Ryan S Sacko ◽  
Amy F Hand ◽  
Kyle Silvey ◽  

ABSTRACT Introduction The development of functional motor competence (FMC; i.e., neuromuscular coordination and control required to meet a wide range of movement goals) is critical to long-term development of health- and performance-related physical capacities (e.g., muscular strength and power, muscular endurance, and aerobic endurance). Secular decline in FMC among U.S. children and adolescents presents current and future challenges for recruiting prospective military personnel to successfully perform the physical demands of military duty. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between FMC and physical military readiness (PMR) in a group of Cadets enrolled in an Army Reserve Officer Training Corps program. Materials and Methods Ninety Army Reserve Officer Training Corps Cadets from a southeastern university and a military college in the southeast (females = 22; Mage = 19.5 ± 2.5) volunteered for participation in the study. Cadets performed a battery of eight FMC assessments consisting of locomotor, object projection, and functional coordination tasks. To assess PMR, Cadets performed the Army Combat Fitness Test (ACFT). Values from all FMC assessments were standardized based on the sample and summed to create a composite FMC score. ACFT scores were assigned to Cadets based upon ACFT scoring standards. We used Pearson correlations to assess the relationships between individual FMC assessment raw scores, FMC composite scores, and total ACFT points. We also evaluated the potential impact of FMC on ACFT in the entire sample and within each gender subgroup using hierarchical linear regression. Finally, we implemented a 3 × 2 chi-squared analysis to evaluate the predictive utility of FMC level on pass/fail results on the ACFT by categorizing Cadets’ composite FMC score into high (≥75th percentile) moderate (≥25th percentile and &lt;75th percentile), and low (&lt;25th percentile) based on the percentile ranks within the sample. ACFT pass/fail results were determined using ACFT standards, requiring a minimum of 60 points on each the ACFT subtests. Results FMC composite scores correlated strongly with total ACFT performance (r = 0.762) with individual FMC tests demonstrating weak-to-strong relationships ACFT performance (r = 0.200–0.769). FMC uniquely accounted for 15% (95% CI: −0.07 to 0.36) of the variance in ACFT scores in females (R2 = 0.516, F2,19 = 10.11, P &lt; 0.001) and 26% (95% CI: 0.09–0.43) in males (R2 = 0.385, F2,65 = 20.37, P &lt; 0.001), respectively, above and beyond the impact of age. The 3 × 2 chi-squared analysis demonstrated 74% of those with low, 28% with moderate, and 17% with high FMC failed the ACFT (χ2 [1, N = 90] = 27.717, V = 0.555, P &lt; 0.001). Conclusion FMC composite scores are strongly correlated with ACFT scores, and low levels of FMC were a strong predictor of ACFT failure. These data support the hypothesis that the development of sufficient FMC in childhood and adolescence may be a critical antecedent for PMR. Efforts to improve FMC in children and adolescents may increase PMR of future military recruits.

Zeying Huang ◽  
Haijun Li ◽  
Jiazhang Huang

The nutrition facts table is a nutrition labeling tool designed to inform consumers of food nutritional contents and enable them to make healthier choices by comparing the nutritional values of similar foods. However, its adoption level is considerably low in China. This study employed the Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) algorithm to explore the factors associated with respondents’ adoption of nutrition facts table to compare the nutritional values of similar foods. Data were gathered through a nationally representative online survey of 1500 samples. Results suggested that consumers’ comprehension of the nutrition facts table was a direct explanatory factor for its use. The usage was also indirectly explained by people’s nutrition knowledge, the usage of nutrition facts table by their relatives and friends, and their focus on a healthy diet. Therefore, to increase the use of nutrition facts table by Chinese consumers, the first consideration should be given to enhancing consumers’ comprehension of the labeling

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
pp. 114
Selena O'Connell ◽  
Eimear Ruane-McAteer ◽  
Caroline Daly ◽  
Clíodhna O’Connor ◽  
Fiona Tuomey ◽  

Background A suicide death impacts upon the wellbeing of close family members and friends but has also been shown to affect many people outside of this immediate circle. This will be the first large-scale national study of adults bereaved or affected by suicide in Ireland, using a cross-sectional online survey. The overarching aim will be to gain insight into the experiences of supports received by people bereaved or affected by suicide and to identify the barriers to engagement following their loss. Methods A cross-sectional survey will be conducted among adults in Ireland who have been bereaved or affected by suicide. This project will seek to represent people with different demographics and backgrounds in the Irish population using a multifaceted approach to survey recruitment. A range of validated measures will be used to examine participants’ current wellbeing and grief experience. A combination of closed and open-ended questions will provide participants the opportunity to share their individual experiences, the services and supports available to them, and barriers and enablers to accessing supports. Results Quantitative data will be analysed using descriptive statistics. Chi-squared tests will be used to compare subgroups within categorical data items, and multivariable regression models will be used to examine differences in psychosocial and physical wellbeing across key groups. Qualitative content analysis will be used for qualitative responses to open-ended questions. Conclusions The survey will provide an in-depth understanding of the psychosocial and mental health impacts of suicide bereavement in Ireland; insight into the range of informal and formal supports accessed; and will identify unmet needs and challenges of accessing appropriate and timely supports. The findings will inform current national actions aimed at ensuring the standardisation and quality of the services and supports for those bereaved or affected by suicide.

2022 ◽  
Antoine El Khoury ◽  
Pascale Salameh ◽  
Sarah Hammoudeh ◽  
Ahmad El Mahmoud ◽  
Tonia Harb ◽  

Abstract Background: There is a well-established relationship between myocardial infarction and infection. Multiple articles describe the increased risk of myocardial infarction, both type 1 and 2, following an infectious process. However few articles have described the relation between concomitant myocardial infarction and infections on same admission mortality and complications. Methods: The aim is to assess the effect of an acquired or concomitant infection on complications and mortality during hospitalized cases of myocardial infarction. 1197 patients of different types of myocardial infarction were studied in correlation to infectious processes. Cultures from different sites were collected and isolation of various bacterial agents were studied. Mortality and various complications were compared between infected and non-infected subjects. Pearson's chi squared test was used to compare percentages (or the Fisher exact test when expected values were lower than 5). Moreover, means were compared through ANOVA, after checking data normality and homoscedasticity. A likelihood ratio backward stepwise method was used to conduct dichotomous logistic regressions, taking dichotomous outcomes as dependent variables, and sociodemographic and biological characteristics as independent variables (potential confounders).Results: Wound, sputum, blood and urine infections were associated with increased same admission mortality and complications. Microorganisms were then studied alone regardless of the site of infection and it was shown that Escherichia Coli, Escherichia Coli ESBL, Candida Albicans, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa and Staphylococcus of any type were significantly associated with same admission complications when associated with myocardial infarction. Length of stay was significantly elevated in patients with concomitant infection and it increased with the addition of positive cultures from different sites. Conclusion: Concomitant infections with myocardial infarction significantly increase the risk of same admission complications, mortality and length of stay regardless of the site of infection and type of microorganisms.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Sebastian Linke ◽  
Alexander Thürmer ◽  
Kevin Bienger ◽  
Christian Kleber ◽  
Petri Bellova ◽  

Abstract Background The presence or absence of an implant has a major impact on the type of joint infection therapy. Thus, the aim of this study was the examination of potential differences in the spectrum of pathogens in patients with periprosthetic joint infections (PJI) as compared to patients with native joint infections (NJI). Methods In this retrospective study, we evaluated culture-positive synovial fluid samples of 192 consecutive patients obtained from January 2018 to January 2020 in a tertiary care university hospital. For metrically distributed parameters, Mann–Whitney U was used for comparison between groups. In case of nominal data, crosstabs and Chi-squared tests were implemented. Results Overall, 132 patients suffered from periprosthetic joint infections and 60 patients had infections of native joints. The most commonly isolated bacteria were coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS, 28%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, 26.7%), and other bacteria, such as Streptococci (26.3%). We observed a significant dependence between the types of bacteria and the presence of a joint replacement (p < 0.05). Accordingly, detections of CNS occurred 2.5-fold more frequently in prosthetic as compared to native joint infections (33.9% vs. 13.4% p < 0.05). In contrast, S. aureus was observed 3.2-fold more often in NJIs as compared to PJIs (52.2% vs. 16.4%, p < 0.05). Conclusion The pathogen spectra of periprosthetic and native joint infections differ considerably. However, CNS and S. aureus are the predominant microorganisms in both, PJIs and NJIs, which may guide antimicrobial therapy until microbiologic specification of the causative pathogen.

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