health promotion
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Author(s):  
Shiori Miura ◽  
Akira Sasaki ◽  
Shuya Kasai ◽  
Takayuki Sugawara ◽  
Yasunori Maeda ◽  
...  

AbstractAge-related hearing loss (ARHL) is a complex multifactorial disorder. Studies in animals, including mitochondria-mutator mice, and in human suggest that oxidative stress and mitochondrial disturbance play an important role in the pathoetiology of ARHL. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups are populations with genetically similar traits, and they have been reported to affect the mitochondrial function of oxidative phosphorylation. To gain further insights into the relationships between mitochondrial haplotypes and the susceptibility to cochlear aging, in this study, we aimed to elucidate how the differences in mtDNA haplogroups may affect ARHL development in Japanese general population. We focused on early onset ARHL, as the same mtDNA haplogroup can show either a negative or positive effect on systemic co-morbidities of ARHL that appear later in life. A total of 1167 participants of the Iwaki Health Promotion Project were surveyed in 2014, and 12 major haplotype groups (D4a, D4b, D5, G1, G2, M7a, M7b, A, B4, B5, N9, and F) were selected for the analysis. A total of 698 subjects aged 30 to 65 years were included in the statistical analysis, and the hearing loss group consisted of 112 males (40.3%) and 111 females (26.4%). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the male subjects belonging to haplogroup A had a significantly increased risk of hearing loss, whereas the female subjects belonging to haplogroup N9 had a significantly decreased risk of hearing loss. These results suggested that the mtDNA haplogroup may be an indicator for future risk of morbidity associated with ARHL.


Author(s):  
Ann-Christin Kordsmeyer ◽  
Ilona Efimov ◽  
Julia Christine Lengen ◽  
Volker Harth ◽  
Stefanie Mache

On the general labor market, social firms provide 30–50% of people with different types of disabilities the opportunity to gain employment. However, the topic of workplace health promotion (WHP), needs for improvement and accompanied challenges are neglected in the current research and were the focus of the present study. Therefore, data triangulation was used between July and December 2020 by combining three focus groups with employees (n = 14 employees) with 16 interviews with supervisors from several social firms in Northern Germany (e.g., from catering, cleaning or bicycle repair sectors). 17 semi-structured telephone interviews with experts in the field of WHP or social firms were added. All approaches were audio-taped, transcribed and anonymized. To analyze the data, Mayring’s qualitative content analysis was used. The results indicated that several offers for WHP, including sport, nutrition and relaxation, were offered, as well as those on smoking cessation, cooperation with external organizations or training and education offers. Needs for improvement were stated referring to additional sport offers, support for implementing a healthy diet, offers for relaxation, financial incentives or collaborations with external organizations. A low take-up of offers; a lack of resources, structures or management support; compatibility of offers with work time and organization; challenges with available trainings or the consideration of individual needs and capacities were highlighted as challenges. Overall, there is a need for further interventional and longitudinal research on WHP in social firms.


2022 ◽  
Vol 81 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Hlupheka L. Sithole

Background: There are many fragmented public health policies that give directives towards various aspects of healthcare needs and implementation. However, none of these policies make specific reference to eye health promotion (EHP) as an enabler for individuals to take control of the determinants of their eye health (EH) needs.Aim: The current study sought to identify EHP messages in the various available policy documents at both national and provincial health department levels with a view to assessing awareness on the available gaps for the development of an integrated EHP policy in South Africa.Setting: The study used documents provided by the National Department of Health and those that were available online from various other provincial Departments of Health in the country.Methods: Content analysis of EH policies requested from the Directorate of Chronic Diseases, Disabilities and Geriatrics was conducted. Various other health policies that were enacted post-1994 and endorsed by the National and Provincial Departments of Health were also considered for analysis.Results: Twenty-four documents were considered for content analysis. The national guidelines on eye healthcare made reference to EH activities such as immunisation of children, vision screening of the elderly, vitamin A supplementation and maternal services to detect sexually transmitted diseases, amongst others. Of the 20 national and provincial health documents analysed, only four made reference to EH. None of these documents made any specific reference to EHP.Conclusion: Although four national guidelines contain content related to EHP, the fragmentation and lack of integration with other health policy documents may lead to eye healthcare messages not being prioritised for dissemination even where they are highly required. Also, public eye healthcare services in general will continue to lag behind as is the case in most provinces in South Africa.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 25-26
Author(s):  
Devangi Patel ◽  
Kayleigh Beaveridge ◽  
Zoe O'Neill ◽  
Ilka Lowensteyn ◽  
Mohammed Kaouache ◽  
...  

The pandemic has highlighted the need for accessible and effective health promotion as Canadians are isolated from their communities during social distancing measures. A web-based health promotion program in which participants also received individualized email-based health coaching from medical students has been available during the pandemic to empower veterans and their family members to engage in healthy lifestyle change. Health coaches’ email interactions with participants used techniques of motivational interviewing, including an empathetic style, statements of affirmation, and reflections. Open-ended questions were useful in gaining insight into the participant’s current lifestyle, including habits, challenges, and coping strategies. As services have transitioned online and individuals have become more isolated, the connection formed between online health coaches and individuals participating in the health promotion program became crucial in countering the mental and physical health repercussions of the pandemic. In a preliminary analysis, we show that web-based health promotion with health coaching, for Canadian Veterans and their families, leads to significant weight loss, increased activity and improvement in wellbeing metrics such as sleep and stress. The medical students acting as health coaches were able to gain a deeper understanding of the challenges involved in behaviour change, something that is seldom covered in detail in the medical school curricula. Medical students were also able to practice their motivational counseling skills surrounding lifestyle changes. Given the lack of available evidence for web-based health promotion that targets veterans and their families, these preliminary results appear promising, with longer-term follow-up planned for the next two years.


Author(s):  
Érica Panzani Duran ◽  
Curt Hemanny ◽  
Renata Vieira ◽  
Orlando Nascimento ◽  
Leonardo Machado ◽  
...  

Background: Research suggests the use of different forms of therapy as a way of decreasing dropout rates in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The psychotherapies to be assessed in this study are trial-based cognitive therapy (TBCT), mindfulness-based health promotion (MBHP) and positive psychotherapy (PPT). Objectives: (1) to assess the online efficacy of TBCT compared to MBHP and PPT to reduce the symptoms of PTSD in the context of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic; (2) to compare the efficacy of these psychotherapies in improving anxiety, depression, guilt and in promoting well-being; and (3) to describe how professionals perceive online treatment. Methods: A randomized, multicenter, single-blind clinical trial will be conducted, with three separate arms. An estimated sample of 135 patients will receive either TBCT, MBHP or PPT and will be treated through online, individual, weekly visits, totaling 14 sessions. The primary outcome will be CAPS-5 and secondary outcomes will be HADS and WHO-5. The variables used to mediate these outcomes will be the Trauma-Related Guilt Inventory (TRGI), Negative Core Beliefs Inventory (NCBI) and the California Psychotherapy Alliance Scale (CALPAS-P). Expected results: PTSD symptoms are expected to be reduced after TBCT, MBHP and PPT. No statistical difference is expected to be found among the three. Discussion: The present study will evaluate and contribute towards the development of new psychotherapeutic options for patients with PTSD. The results of this study will allow the dissemination of new effective and adaptable interventions for patients with PTSD.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jarmo O. Kuronen ◽  
Klas Winell ◽  
Jelena Hartsenko ◽  
Kimmo P. Räsänen

Abstract Background Overuse of alcohol is a significant risk factor for early retirement. This observational study investigated patient characteristics and work processes in occupational health care (OHC) affecting practices in tackling alcohol overuse. Methods The data were from 3089 patient contacts gathered for quality improvement purposes in fifteen OHC units during the years 2013–2019 in Finland. A two-proportion z-test was performed to find associations between reason for contact, and 17 other factors, and the probability of alcohol use being checked and overuse tackled. Results OHC personnel checked alcohol use twice as often with male patients as with female patients. Employees at risk of needing sick leave were checked for alcohol use more often (55.4, 95% confidence interval 49.2–61.6%) than those on > 30-day sick leave or working with permanent work disability (p < 0.01). Alcohol use was checked in 64.1% (59.5–68.7%) of patients while making an individual health promotion plan compared to 36.9% of those without a plan (33.1–40.6%, p < 0.0001). Patients with depression were actively checked for alcohol use, especially in cases of major depression (72.7%, 64.0–81.0%). Work processes in which OHC should have been more active in checking and tackling alcohol use included assessing the need for rehabilitation (36.5%, 32.0–41.0%) and health check-ups (HCUs) for mental reasons (43.8%, 38.1–49.4%). HCUs where alcohol overuse was detected led to brief interventions to tackle the overuse in 58.1% (43.4–72.9%) of cases. Conclusions The study showed factors that increased OHC personnel’s practices in checking and tackling alcohol use and work processes where the activity should be improved. Discussions about alcohol use took place more often with working-aged men than women, the younger the more. OHC personnel checked actively alcohol use with patients in danger of sick leave, patients treated for depression, while making an individual health promotion plan, and in planned HCUs with a confirmed protocol. More improvement is needed to conduct brief interventions in disability prevention processes, and especially when overuse is detected.


Author(s):  
Jieun Cha ◽  
Hyunju Kang ◽  
Juyoun Yu ◽  
Mi Jin Choi

Background: We aimed to explore the factors associated with health promotion behavior of international students in South Korea. Methods: The convenience sample of 263 participants was recruited from two universities in Gangwon-do and Jeollanam-do, South Korea. The data were collected by using structured questionnaires from Apr to Jun 2019. Demographic characteristics, health conception, acculturative stress, self-efficacy, interpersonal support, and health promotion behavior were assessed. T-test, ANOVA, and multiple regression analyses were used for statistical analyses. Results: Participants from Vietnam (P=.040), with more health conception (P<.001), more acculturative stress (P<.001), more self-efficacy (P<.001), and greater interpersonal support (P<.001) were more likely to engage in more health promotion behaviors. Conclusion: This study is meaningful as it collected the data on which to design health promotion programs for international students. Future studies are needed to investigate further factors relating to international students’ health promotion behavior, including internal and external environments.


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