scholarly journals Position of the Mandibular Foramen in Different Facial Shapes Assessed by Cone-Beam Computed Tomography - A Cross-Sectional Retrospective Study

2019 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 544-550
Silvan Correa ◽  
Rogério H. Lopes Motta ◽  
Milena B. Fellipe Silva ◽  
Sidney R. Figueroba ◽  
Francisco C. Groppo ◽  

Purpose: The mandibular foramen, located on the internal surface of the mandibular ramus, is an important anatomical landmark for the success during the inferior alveolar nerve block. This cross-sectional retrospective study aimed to evaluate the location of the mandibular foramen through Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) in different facial shapes. Materials and Methods: The determination of the location of the mandibular foramen was performed using CBCT of mesocephalic, dolichocephalic and brachycephalic patients (n=40 each). The ramus width (W), the distance from the mandibular foramen to the deepest point of the anterior border of the mandibular ramus (D), the distance from the mandibular foramen to the lowest point of the mandibular notch (V) and the distance from the inferior border of the mandible to the lowest point in of the mandibular border (R), as well as the ratios W/D and V/R, were measured. ANCOVA, two-way ANOVA and Chi-square tests were used to analyze the variation among the facial shapes. Results: The ramus width (W) was greater (p<0.0001) in the brachycephalic (28.4±0.5 mm) than in both mesocephalic (26.8±0.36 mm) and dolichocephalic (25.5±0.39 mm) patients. D (p=0.0433) and R (p=0.0072) were also greater in the brachycephalic (17.7±0.36 mm; 43.4±0.75 mm, respectively) than dolichocephalic (16.5±0.3 mm; 40.3±0.63 mm, respectively), but both did not differ from mesocephalic (17.3±0.36 mm; 41.8±0.66 mm, respectively) patients. The other measurements (V, W/D and R/V) did not significantly differ among facial shapes. Conclusion: The localization of the mandibular foramen was, in the horizontal direction, more posterior in the brachycephalic patients and, in the vertical direction, higher in the dolichocephalic patients, when compared to the other groups analyzed. Thus, the anatomic data found in this study may help dentists to increase the success of the inferior alveolar nerve block and prevent surgical complications.

2014 ◽  
Vol 15 (6) ◽  
pp. 740-745
Mojdeh Mehdizadeh ◽  
Navid Ahmadi ◽  
Mahsa Jamshidi

ABSTRACT Objectives Exact location of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) bundle is very important. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between the mandibular third molar and the mandibular canal by cone-beam computed tomography. Study design This was a cross-sectional study with convenience sampling. 94 mandibular CBCTs performed with CSANEX 3D machine (Soredex, Finland) and 3D system chosen. Vertical and horizontal relationship between the mandibular canal and the third molar depicted by 3D, panoramic reformat view of CBCT and cross-sectional view. Cross-sectional view was our gold standard and other view evaluated by it. Results There were significant differences between the vertical and horizontal relation of nerve and tooth in all views (p < 0.001). Conclusion The results showed differences in the position of the inferior alveolar nerve with different views of CBCT, so CBCT images are not quite reliable and have possibility of error. How to cite this article Mehdizadeh M, Ahmadi N, Jamshidi M. Evaluation of the Relationship between Mandibular Third Molar and Mandibular Canal by Different Algorithms of Cone-beam Computed Tomography. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(6):740-745.

Nasser Raqe Alqhtani ◽  
Ali Robaian Alqahtani ◽  
Abdulaziz Maree Alqahtani ◽  
Faisal Nahar Alazemi ◽  
Abdulelah Mohammed Shukr ◽  

Background: Dental implants are considered the first option to replace missing teeth. Alveolar bone resorption gradually progresses following tooth extraction leading to loss of vertical bone dimension for implant placement. The lateral window approach is the most commonly used procedure to treat vertical bone loss. Objectives: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the lateral wall thickness (LWT) of the maxillary sinus and determine the influence of gender and side on maxillary LWT. Methods: This study involved a cross sectional retrospective study. Cone- beam computed tomography data were collected from 99 patients with a total of 198 maxillary sinuses that met the inclusion criteria. The patient age ranged from 18 to 35 years. On the selected sagittal section, the points of measurement are determined by a perpendicular line at 5 mm from the lowest point of the sinus floor. Measurements were done at four different areas; first premolar (P1), second premolar (P2), first molar (M1), and second molar (M2). Descriptive statistics were used to calculate mean lateral wall thickness for each tooth, and student’s t-test was used to test the effect of gender and side on maxillary LWT. Results: The greatest mean LWT was observed around the left first maxillary molar (2.43±0.82), while the lowest mean LWT was observed around the right second maxillary premolar (1.62±0.61). There was no significant difference in the LWT around any tooth (M1 p=0.56, M2 p=0.92, P1 p=0.14, P2 p=0.19). Conclusion: There was no significant difference in both males and females of the lateral wall thickness in the left and right side of maxillary sinus.

2020 ◽  
Vol 21 (10) ◽  
Leila Khojastepour ◽  
Mohammad Ghasemi ◽  
Shabnam Rasti ◽  
Mahvash Hasani

Background: Injuries to the lingual and inferior alveolar nerves (IAN) through third molar surgery are common and complicated clinical problems. Juxta-apical radiolucency (JAR) is one of the new radiographic signs, suggestive of IAN damage. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the relationship between JAR and IAN and to determine its effects on the cortical plate. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, after evaluating an initial sample of 450 cases, the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of 20 patients with JAR were compared with those of 20 age-matched patients without JAR in the axial and multi-planar images. The relationship between JAR and IAN was evaluated, and thinning of the mandibular cortical plates was also investigated. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive tests and chi-square test in SPSS version 23. Results: The relationship between JAR and IAN was statistically significant (P = 0.001). The cortical plates were perforated in 75% of cases with JAR as opposed to 45% of cases without JAR (P = 0.06). The relationship between the location of JAR and IAN was also significant (P = 0.004). Conclusions: Based on the present results, JAR was associated with IAN in most cases. Thinning of the cortical plates was observed in all cases of JAR.

Diagnostics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (5) ◽  
pp. 757
Maged Sultan Alhammadi ◽  
Abeer Abdulkareem Al-mashraqi ◽  
Rayid Hussain Alnami ◽  
Nawaf Mohammad Ashqar ◽  
Omar Hassan Alamir ◽  

The study sought to assess whether the soft tissue facial profile measurements of direct Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) and wrapped CBCT images of non-standardized facial photographs are accurate compared to the standardized digital photographs. In this cross-sectional study, 60 patients with an age range of 18–30 years, who were indicated for CBCT, were enrolled. Two facial photographs were taken per patient: standardized and random (non-standardized). The non-standardized ones were wrapped with the CBCT images. The most used soft tissue facial profile landmarks/parameters (linear and angular) were measured on direct soft tissue three-dimensional (3D) images and on the photographs wrapped over the 3D-CBCT images, and then compared to the standardized photographs. The reliability analysis was performed using concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) and depicted graphically using Bland–Altman plots. Most of the linear and angular measurements showed high reliability (0.91 to 0.998). Nevertheless, four soft tissue measurements were unreliable; namely, posterior gonial angle (0.085 and 0.11 for wrapped and direct CBCT soft tissue, respectively), mandibular plane angle (0.006 and 0.0016 for wrapped and direct CBCT soft tissue, respectively), posterior facial height (0.63 and 0.62 for wrapped and direct CBCT soft tissue, respectively) and total soft tissue facial convexity (0.52 for both wrapped and direct CBCT soft tissue, respectively). The soft tissue facial profile measurements from either the direct 3D-CBCT images or the wrapped CBCT images of non-standardized frontal photographs were accurate, and can be used to analyze most of the soft tissue facial profile measurements.

Urolithiasis ◽  
2021 ◽  
R. A. Kingma ◽  
M. J. H. Voskamp ◽  
B. H. J. Doornweerd ◽  
I. J. de Jong ◽  
S. Roemeling

AbstractCone beam computed tomography (CBCT) provides multiplanar cross-sectional imaging and three-dimensional reconstructions and can be used intraoperatively in a hybrid operating room. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using a CBCT-scanner for detecting residual stones during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Intraoperative CBCT-scans were made during PCNL procedures from November 2018 until March 2019 in a university hospital. At the point where the urologist would have otherwise ended the procedure, a CBCT-scan was made to image any residual fragments that could not be detected by either nephroscopy or conventional C-arm fluoroscopy. Residual fragments that were visualized on the CBCT-scan were attempted to be extracted additionally. To evaluate the effect of this additional extraction, each CBCT-scan was compared with a regular follow-up CT-scan that was made 4 weeks postoperatively. A total of 19 procedures were analyzed in this study. The mean duration of performing the CBCT-scan, including preparation and interpretation, was 8 min. Additional stone extraction, if applicable, had a mean duration of 11 min. The mean effective dose per CBCT-scan was 7.25 mSv. Additional extraction of residual fragments as imaged on the CBCT-scan occurred in nine procedures (47%). Of the follow-up CT-scans, 63% showed a stone-free status as compared to 47% of the intraoperative CBCT-scans. We conclude that the use of CBCT for the detection of residual stones in PCNL is meaningful, safe, and feasible.

Ibraheim Ahmed Diab ◽  
Shaimaa Abdel-hamid Hassanein ◽  
Hala Hafez Mohamed

Abstract Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary hepatic malignancy of adults. One of the established treatment procedures performed worldwide for HCC is transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). By using conventional angiography in TACE, we can detect and identify the vascular anatomy of the liver through obtaining 2D images. Recently C-arm cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is introduced for obtaining cross-sectional and three-dimensional (3D) images for better visualization of small tumors and their feeding arteries. Results The number of detected focal lesions by angiography was 51 compared to 87 focal lesion detected by CBCT; of those, 45 and 77 were active lesions by both procedures respectively. For lesions, less than 1 cm CBCT detected 23 lesions while angiography detected only one lesion. Angiography detected 87 feeding arterial branch while cone beam CT-HA detected 130 branches to the same number of target lesion. Feeder tractability and confidence were better by CBCT. Conclusion CBCT is superior to angiography in tumor detectability, detection of lesions less than 1 cm, feeder detection, and feeder traction; however, conventional angiography and DSA are irreplaceable. Thus, combination of CBCT with angiography during TACE produces better results and less complication.

Marcin Stasiak ◽  
Anna Wojtaszek-Słomińska ◽  
Bogna Racka-Pilszak

Abstract Purpose The aims of this retrospective cross-sectional study were to measure and compare labial and palatal alveolar bone heights of maxillary central incisors in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients, following STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) guidelines. Patients and methods The study group consisted of 21 patients with a mean age of 16 years. High-resolution cone-beam computed tomography was performed at least one year after secondary alveolar bone grafting. The experimental side was the cleft side and the contralateral side without congenital cleft was the control. Measurements were performed on incisors’ midsagittal cross-sections. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for intergroup comparisons. Results The labial and palatal distances between alveolar bone crests and cementoenamel junctions were significantly greater on the cleft side than on the noncleft side. Mean differences were 0.75 and 1.41 mm, respectively. The prevalence of dehiscences at the cleft side maxillary central incisors was 52% on the labial surface and 43% on the palatal surface. In the controls, it was 19% and 14%, respectively. Conclusion The cleft-adjacent maxillary central incisors had more apically displaced alveolar bone crests on the labial and palatal sides of the roots than the controls. Higher prevalence of dehiscences was found on the cleft side. Bone margin differences predispose to gingival height differences of the central incisors. These differences could increase the demands of patients to obtain more esthetic treatment results with orthodontic extrusion and periodontal intervention on the cleft side.

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