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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Maia Meparishvili ◽  
Lela Chitadze ◽  
Vincenzo Lagani ◽  
Brian McCabe ◽  
Revaz Solomonia

Visual imprinting is a learning process whereby young animals come to prefer a visual stimulus after exposure to it (training). The available evidence indicates that the intermediate medial mesopallium (IMM) in the domestic chick forebrain is a site of memory formation during visual imprinting. We have studied the role of Src, an important non-receptor tyrosine kinase, in memory formation. Amounts of total Src (Total-Src) and its two phosphorylated forms, tyrosine-416 (activated, 416P-Src) and tyrosine-527 (inhibited, 527P-Src), were measured 1 and 24 h after training in the IMM and in a control brain region, the posterior pole of nidopallium (PPN). One hour after training, in the left IMM, we observed a positive correlation between the amount of 527P-Src and learning strength that was attributable to learning, and there was also a positive correlation between 416P-Src and learning strength that was attributable to a predisposition to learn readily. Twenty-four hours after training, the amount of Total-Src increased with learning strength in both the left and right IMM, and amount of 527P-Src increased with learning strength only in the left IMM; both correlations were attributable to learning. A further, negative, correlation between learning strength and 416P-Src/Total-Src in the left IMM reflected a predisposition to learn. No learning-related changes were found in the PPN control region. We suggest that there are two pools of Src; one of them in an active state and reflecting a predisposition to learn, and the second one in an inhibited condition, which increases as a result of learning. These two pools may represent two or more signaling pathways, namely, one pathway downstream of Src activated by tyrosine-416 phosphorylation and another upstream of Src, keeping the enzyme in an inactivated state via phosphorylation of tyrosine-527.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 1240
Grace Blest-Hopley ◽  
Marco Colizzi ◽  
Diana Prata ◽  
Vincent Giampietro ◽  
Michael Brammer ◽  

High doses of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive component of cannabis, have been shown to have anxiogenic effects. Additionally, THC effects have been shown to be modulated by genotype, including the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1130233 at the protein kinase AKT1 gene, a key component of the dopamine signalling cascade. As such, it is likely that epigenetic methylation around this SNP may affect AKT gene expression, which may in turn impact on the acute effects of THC on brain function. We investigated the genetic (AKT1 rs1130233) and epigenetic modulation of brain function during fear processing in a 2-session, double-blind, cross-over, randomized placebo-controlled THC administration, in 36 healthy males. Fear processing was assessed using an emotion (fear processing) paradigm, under functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Complete genetic and fMRI data were available for 34 participants. THC caused an increase in anxiety and transient psychotomimetic symptoms and para-hippocampal gyrus/ amygdala activation. Number of A alleles at the AKT1 rs1130233 SNP, and percentage methylation at the CpG11–12 site, were independently associated with a greater effect of THC on activation in a network of brain regions including left and right parahippocampal gyri, respectively. AKT1 rs1130233 moderation of the THC effect on left parahippocampal activation persisted after covarying for methylation percentage, and was partially mediated in sections of the left parahippocampal gyrus/ hippocampus by methylation percentage. These results may offer an example of how genetic and epigenetic variations influence the psychotomimetic and neurofunctional effects of THC.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Ukadike Chris Ugbolue ◽  
Chloe Robson ◽  
Emma Donald ◽  
Kerry L. Speirs ◽  
Frédéric Dutheil ◽  

There is limited research on the biomechanical assessment of the lower limb joints in relation to dynamic movements that occur at the hip, knee, and ankle joints when performing dorsiflexion (DF) and plantarflexion (PF) among males and females. This study investigated the differences in joint angles (including range of motion (ROM)) and forces (including moments) between the left and right limbs at the ankle, knee, and hip joints during dynamic DF and PF movements in both males and females. Using a general linear model employing multivariate analysis in relation to the joint angle, ROM, force, and moment datasets, the results revealed significant main effects for gender, sidedness, phases, and foot position with respect to joint angles. Weak correlations were observed between measured biomechanical variables. These results provide insightful information for clinicians and biomechanists that relate to lower limb exercise interventions and modelling efficacy standpoints.

Carolina Rosende-Bautista ◽  
Pedro V. Munuera-Martínez ◽  
Teresa Seoane-Pillado ◽  
María Reina-Bueno ◽  
Francisco Alonso-Tajes ◽  

The medial longitudinal arch height of the foot is linked to individual characteristics such as sex and body mass index, and these characteristics have been shown to be associated with conditions such as flat feet. In this cross-sectional descriptive study, we examined the medial longitudinal arch morphology in an adult population to determine if there are differences related to sex and body mass index, and values were obtained for the foot posture index. Normalized anthropometric measurements and arch indices were calculated from footprints. Groups, defined by sex and body mass index, were compared, and the correlations between body mass index and the variables were determined. In the population studied (266 women and 177 men), significant differences between men and women for the foot posture index and normalized arch measurements were found. Analysis of the variables related to body mass index indicated there were significant differences in arch indices. Significant differences and positive correlations were also found between the arch index and body mass index for the left and right feet among the men and women studied. The results obtained allow us to reflect on and analyze whether the medial longitudinal arch morphology classification methods used in the clinical and research setting are adequate or whether the influence of factors such as body mass index can generate confusion.

2021 ◽  
Edith Brignoni-Perez ◽  
Sarah Dubner ◽  
Michal Ben-Shachar ◽  
Shai Berman ◽  
Aviv A. Mezer ◽  

Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) studies find differences in associations between reading and white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) in children born full term (FT) versus preterm (PT). Use of complementary neuroimaging modalities may reveal neurobiological factors driving these associations. We used two MRI methods to interpret associations of reading abilities and white matter properties in FT and PT children. Participants (N=79; 36 FT; 43 PT) were administered Gray’s Oral Reading Test at age 8 years. We segmented two dorsal and two ventral white matter tracts associated with reading skills and quantified (1) FA from dMRI and (2) R1 from quantitative relaxometry, as a proxy for myelin content. We examined correlations between reading scores and imaging metrics, assessing trajectories along the tracts. Mean reading scores fell in the typical range in both groups. Reading positively correlated with FA in segments of the left arcuate and the left and right superior longitudinal fasciculi, but only in FT children, not in PT children. Reading positively correlated with R1 in segments of the left superior longitudinal, right uncinate, and left inferior longitudinal fasciculi, but only in PT children, not in FT children. The significantly different patterns of associations between reading abilities and white matter properties across FT and PT groups suggest variations in the neurobiology of typical reading abilities.

2021 ◽  
Patrice Piette ◽  
Emilie Le Blong ◽  
Maxime Gilliaux ◽  
Mathilde Collet ◽  
Romain Cavagna ◽  

Abstract BackgroundImmersive virtual reality solutions are seeing increasing usage in functional rehabilitation programmes. However, there is no reference that allows us to confirm that these environments present the same characteristics and therefore the same degree of safety and training in postural responses for balance.QuestionThe aim of the study was to compare displacements from centre of gravity (distance covered and surface used) in balance tests, comparing the real situation to an identical virtual situation. Participants 70 healthy subjects aged between 18 and 65 were recruited in two centres. DesignThe study used a one-way repeated-measures design with randomisation of the order in which the two test conditions were performed. Intervention: .The first test condition was "real", taking place in a bedroom of a treatment centre apartment, and the second was virtual, with the room reproduced and seen through a HMD. For each condition, two static tests (left leg, right leg) and two dynamic tests (left and right) were performed. Each test included three attempts. Outcome measuresThe displacement from the centre of gravity was recorded on a force plate.Result69 participants completed all of the tests and were analysed. None of the tests resulted in confirmation that the virtual was equivalent to the real (Two One-Sided Tests for left static, right static, left dynamic, right dynamic; surface respectively p = 0.592, p = 0.151, p = 0.238, p = 0.503; distance respectively p = 1.00, p = 0.91, p = 0.0742, p = 1.00). Furthermore 6 tests of out 8 showed a significant and considerable difference (surface respectively p = 0.00249, p = 0.0664, p = 0.0318, p = 0.00483; distance respectively p = 1.12 x 10-8, p = 5.27 x 10-5, p = 0.153, p = 2.55 x 10-9). ConclusionPostural responses were poorer in the immersive virtual environment, both on the static and dynamic balance tests. The offer of balance rehabilitation in immersive VR raises safety issues and consequently ethical issues that are as yet unresolved. Researchers must test solutions to correct this serious problem. Trial registration: The study is registered at the US National Institutes of Health (ClinicalTrials.gov) NCT04574726

2021 ◽  
pp. 030098582110425
Teresa Southard ◽  
Kathleen Kelly ◽  
Anibal G. Armien

A retrospective study of guinea pigs submitted for necropsy revealed intracytoplasmic inclusions in the cardiomyocytes of 26 of 30 animals. The inclusions were found with approximately the same frequency in male and female guinea pigs and were slightly more common in older animals. In most cases, the animals did not have clinical signs or necropsy findings suggestive of heart failure, and the cause of death or reason for euthanasia was attributed to concurrent disease processes. However, the 4 guinea pigs with the highest inclusion body burden all had pulmonary edema, sometimes with intra-alveolar hemosiderin-laden macrophages, suggestive of heart failure. The inclusions were found in both the left and right ventricular myocardium, mainly in the papillary muscles, but were most common in the right ventricular free wall. No inclusions were detected in the atrial myocardium or in skeletal muscle. The inclusions did not stain with Congo red or periodic acid–Schiff. Electron microscopy revealed dense aggregates of disorganized myofilaments and microtubules that displaced and compressed the adjacent organelles. By immunohistochemistry, there was some scattered immunoreactivity for desmin and actin at the periphery of the inclusions and punctate actin reactivity within the aggregates. The inclusions did not react with antibodies to ubiquitin or cardiac myosin, but were variably reactive for alpha B crystallin, a small heat shock chaperone protein. The inclusions were interpreted as evidence of impaired proteostasis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 73 (1) ◽  
Saeed Ghodsi ◽  
Sara Taghi ◽  
Zahra Alizadeh-Sani ◽  
Yaser Jenab ◽  
Zahra Hosseini ◽  

Abstract Background Multiple intra-atrial thrombi are found rarely except in the presence of prosthetic valves, intra-cardiac devices, structural connections like foramen ovale and thrombophilia. Case presentation We reported acute thrombosis formation in right and left atrial appendages of a 66-year old man admitted due to progressive dyspnea since 7 days earlier. He had a history of prior laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma, apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and atrial fibrillation (AF). Infection with COVID-19 was confirmed thereafter. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CMR) suggested the diagnosis of atrial clot superior to neoplasm. After surgical removal of the thrombi, symptoms as well as imaging features of pneumonia were resolved. Conclusions We should focus on different presentations and complications of systemic inflammation especially in the setting of COVID-19 infection. Although risk factors of thrombosis are present in some of these patients, rapid progression as well as unusual types of involvement may indicate to a new trigger.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Tjitske E. Zandstra ◽  
Robbert G. E. Notenboom ◽  
Jeroen Wink ◽  
Philippine Kiès ◽  
Hubert W. Vliegen ◽  

The cardiac autonomic nervous system (cANS) regulates cardiac adaptation to different demands. The heart is an asymmetrical organ, and in the selection of adequate treatment of cardiac diseases it may be relevant to take into account that the cANS also has sidedness as well as regional differences in anatomical, functional, and molecular characteristics. The left and right ventricles respond differently to adrenergic stimulation. Isoforms of nitric oxide synthase, which plays an important role in parasympathetic function, are also distributed asymmetrically across the heart. Treatment of cardiac disease heavily relies on affecting left-sided heart targets which are thought to apply to the right ventricle as well. Functional studies of the right ventricle have often been neglected. In addition, many principles have only been investigated in animals and not in humans. Anatomical and functional heterogeneity of the cANS in human tissue or subjects is highly valuable for understanding left- and right-sided cardiac pathology and for identifying novel treatment targets and modalities. Within this perspective, we aim to provide an overview and synthesis of anatomical and functional heterogeneity of the cANS in tissue or subjects, focusing on the human heart.

2021 ◽  
Ye Han ◽  
Jincheng Wu ◽  
Xiaodong Wang ◽  
Wenshan Gao ◽  
Jianzhong Wang ◽  

Abstract BACKGROUND: Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) is a common surgical method for the treatment of thoracolumbar compression fractures. Currently, no biomechanical analysis has been performed examining the effects of cement distribution and positioning on the overall thoracolumbar range of motion (ROM) and the stress applied to adjacent endplates.METHODS: A model of PVP following vertebral compression fracture was established based on computed tomography data. Cement was injected into the T12 vertebral body. Depending on the location of the injection site, the model was divided into a median cement model, a left cement model, an upper-left cement model, and a lower-left cement model. The postoperative thoracolumbar ROM and biomechanical changes to the adjacent endplates were analyzed.RESULTS: After cement injection, the overall ROM for the thoracolumbar region increased compared with that before cement injection. The maximum ROM of flexion was 9.28° for the left model; the maximum ROM of extension was 10.90° for the upper-left model; the maximum left and right rotations were 8.47° and 8.52°, respectively, for the left model; the maximum left bending was 13.10° for the left model; and the maximum right bending was 13.43° for the left model. The stress applied to the adjacent vertebral endplate in the median cement model increased compared with the intact model, and the von Mises stress (VMS) value changed with different cement positions.CONCLUSION: After cement injection, the overall stress value of the endplate adjacent to the vertebral body increased, and when the position of the cement shifts, the maximum VMS increased further for some positions, and the stress value for the endplate adjacent to the vertebral body increased, which may cause fractures in the relative position.

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