inferior alveolar nerve
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2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 18-21
Anil Kumar Gupta ◽  
Gaurav Jung Shah ◽  
Ram Jiban Prasad

Introduction: The mandibular foramen is located on the medial surface of the ramus of mandible through which inferior alveolar nerve and vessels pass and supply the lower jaw. For dentists inferior alveolar nerve block is important to anesthetize the lower jaw for conducting various surgical procedures. Aims: To determine the accurate position of mandibular foramen through which inferior alveolar nerve and vessels were passing and supply the lower jaw and its clinical importance. Methods: This study was conducted on 35 dry mandible bones consisting of 70 mandibular foramens of unknown sex. All the important parameters were studied using vernier caliper. Results: The mean distance of mandibular foramen from mandibular notch was 21.00 mm on right side and 20.29 mm on left side, from posterior border was 12.63 mm on right side and 12.37 mm on left side, from angle of mandible was 20.60 mm on right side and 20.46 mm on left side, from base of the mandible was 23.57 mm on right side and 23.6 mm on left side, from anterior border was 16.74 mm on right side and 16.89 mm on left side. Conclusion: The accurate position of mandibular foramen varies. The knowledge of the average distance of mandibular foramen from various landmarks is useful for dental anesthesia and also helps to avoid complications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 502
Rossana Izzetti ◽  
Marco Nisi ◽  
Stefano Gennai ◽  
Filippo Graziani

Inferior alveolar nerve injury is the main complication in mandibular third molar surgery. In this context, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has become of crucial importance in evaluating the relationship between mandibular third molar and inferior alveolar nerve. Due to the growing interest in preoperative planning in oral surgery, several post-processing techniques have been implemented to obtain three-dimensional reconstructions of a volume of interest. In the present study, segmentation techniques were retrospectively applied to CBCT images in order to evaluate whether post-processing could offer better visualization of the structures of interest. Forty CBCT examinations performed for inferior third molar impaction were analyzed. Segmentation and volumetric reconstructions were performed. A dataset composed of multiplanar reconstructions for each study case, including segmented images, was submitted for evaluation to two oral surgeons, two general practitioners and four residents in oral surgery. The visualization of root morphology, canal course, and the relationship with mandibular cortical bone on both native CBCT and segmented images were assessed. Inter-rater agreement showed values of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) above 0.8 for all the examined parameters. Oral surgeons presented higher ICC values (p < 0.05). Segmented images can improve preoperative evaluation of the third molar and its relationship with the surrounding anatomical structures compared to native CBCT images. Further evaluation is needed to validate these preliminary results.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 475
Junseok Lee ◽  
Jumi Park ◽  
Seong Yong Moon ◽  
Kyoobin Lee

Extraction of mandibular third molars is a common procedure in oral and maxillofacial surgery. There are studies that simultaneously predict the extraction difficulty of mandibular third molar and the complications that may occur. Thus, we propose a method of automatically detecting mandibular third molars in the panoramic radiographic images and predicting the extraction difficulty and likelihood of inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injury. Our dataset consists of 4903 panoramic radiographic images acquired from various dental hospitals. Seven dentists annotated detection and classification labels. The detection model determines the mandibular third molar in the panoramic radiographic image. The region of interest (ROI) includes the detected mandibular third molar, adjacent teeth, and IAN, which is cropped in the panoramic radiographic image. The classification models use ROI as input to predict the extraction difficulty and likelihood of IAN injury. The achieved detection performance was 99.0% mAP over the intersection of union (IOU) 0.5. In addition, we achieved an 83.5% accuracy for the prediction of extraction difficulty and an 81.1% accuracy for the prediction of the likelihood of IAN injury. We demonstrated that a deep learning method can support the diagnosis for extracting the mandibular third molar.

Julien Issa ◽  
Raphael Olszewski ◽  
Marta Dyszkiewicz-Konwińska

This systematic review aims to identify the available semi-automatic and fully automatic algorithms for inferior alveolar canal localization as well as to present their diagnostic accuracy. Articles related to inferior alveolar nerve/canal localization using methods based on artificial intelligence (semi-automated and fully automated) were collected electronically from five different databases (PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane, and Scopus). Two independent reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of the collected data, stored in EndnoteX7, against the inclusion criteria. Afterward, the included articles have been critically appraised to assess the quality of the studies using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2) tool. Seven studies were included following the deduplication and screening against exclusion criteria of the 990 initially collected articles. In total, 1288 human cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were investigated for inferior alveolar canal localization using different algorithms and compared to the results obtained from manual tracing executed by experts in the field. The reported values for diagnostic accuracy of the used algorithms were extracted. A wide range of testing measures was implemented in the analyzed studies, while some of the expected indexes were still missing in the results. Future studies should consider the new artificial intelligence guidelines to ensure proper methodology, reporting, results, and validation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 506
Jo Young Son ◽  
Jin Sook Ju ◽  
Yu Mi Kim ◽  
Dong Kuk Ahn

Receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) participates in the regulation of cellular stress and inflammatory responses, but its function in neuropathic pain remains poorly understood. This study evaluated the role of RIPK1 in neuropathic pain following inferior alveolar nerve injury. We developed a model using malpositioned dental implants in male Sprague Dawley rats. This model resulted in significant mechanical allodynia and upregulated RIPK1 expression in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (TSC). The intracisternal administration of Necrosatin-1 (Nec-1), an RIPK1 inhibitor, blocked the mechanical allodynia produced by inferior alveolar nerve injury The intracisternal administration of recombinant rat tumor necrosis factor-α (rrTNF-α) protein in naive rats produced mechanical allodynia and upregulated RIPK1 expression in the TSC. Moreover, an intracisternal pretreatment with Nec-1 inhibited the mechanical allodynia produced by rrTNF-α protein. Nerve injury caused elevated TNF-α concentration in the TSC and a TNF-α block had anti-allodynic effects, thereby attenuating RIPK1 expression in the TSC. Finally, double immunofluorescence analyses revealed the colocalization of TNF receptor and RIPK1 with astrocytes. Hence, we have identified that astroglial RIPK1, activated by the TNF-α pathway, is a central driver of neuropathic pain and that the TNF-α-mediated RIPK1 pathway is a potential therapeutic target for reducing neuropathic pain following nerve injury.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (01) ◽  
pp. 41-45
Beenish Abbas ◽  
Sana Abbas ◽  
Muhammad Umair ◽  
Ramesha Azam ◽  
Majida Rahim ◽  

Objective: To assess perceptions and anxiety levels of dental students during administration of local anesthesia Study Design & Setting: This comparative cross sectional study was conceived in Foundation University Dental College and conducted in multiple institutes after endorsement from the ethical committee of the university from August – October 2021. Methodology: The questionnaire comprised of three sections which included demographic profile section, perceptions, and experience of administration of mandibular, maxillary, or inferior alveolar nerve block on the 5-point Likert’s scale and comparative anxiety analysis before, during or after local anesthetic administration with interval scale of anxiety response. Results: It was found that 311 (81.8%) dental students/professionals were anxious (cumulative response of “little nervous” and above) before administrating local anesthesia injection. It was found that students were significantly more anxious during and after local anesthesia administration as compared to clinical practitioners (p<0.001). About 89% of the responders agreed to the usefulness of video demonstration while 98% agreed to the usefulness of hands-on practice of local anesthesia administration techniques Conclusion: Students were significantly more anxious during and after local anesthesia administration as compared to clinical practitioners. Video demonstration and hands-on practice are useful adjuvants in the reduction of local anesthesia administration anxiety

Medicina ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 57 (12) ◽  
pp. 1383
Juan-You Qiu ◽  
Kuan-Min Huang ◽  
Nan-Chin Lin

Cemento-ossifying fibroma (also known as ossifying fibroma or cementifying fibroma) is a benign osteogenic neoplasm. Pain and paresthesia are rarely associated with cemento-ossifying fibroma; thus, nerves must be preserved during excision. With the advent of computer-aided techniques, the use of virtual surgical planning and a customized template can improve the precision of resection and reconstruction, reduce operating time, and improve postoperative outcomes. In this report, we describe a case of cemento-ossifying fibroma in a female patient who underwent segmental mandibulectomy and reconstruction with an iliac bone graft. Additionally, we describe a simple and effective way to preserve the inferior alveolar nerve.

Healthcare ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 1747
Saturnino Marco Lupi ◽  
Jessica Landini ◽  
Giorgia Olivieri ◽  
Claudia Todaro ◽  
Andrea Scribante ◽  

Background: the position of the mandibular lingula (Li) affects the success rate of the inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) and ramus osteotomies. This study evaluated the position of the Li, to investigate the anatomical relationship between the Li and some anatomical measurements using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods: 201 hemimandibular CBCTs of 111 patients (43 males and 68 females; 18 to 88 years old) were retrospectively evaluated. The Li location was determined from the lingula tip to: the occlusal plane, the anterior and posterior borders of the mandibular ramus, the lower border of the mandible, the distal surface of the mandibular second molar, and the mandibular notch. We evaluated the correlations between the Li and the anteroposterior diameter of the mandibular ramus; the vertical distance between condyle and mandibular angle; the mesial–distal diameter of the first, second, and third mandibular molar, the intercanine distance, the intermolar distances among the first, second, and third mandibular molars; the distance between the intermolar line of the first molar and midline, and the length of the mandibular body. Results: the vertical distance of the Li from the occlusal plane was 11.22 ± 4.27 mm. Some parameters significantly correlated with the anatomical measurements taken into consideration. Conclusions: the present study provides new information concerning the Li and mandibular anatomy in the Italian population. Moreover, by correlating some anatomic measurements to the Li position, the localization of the Li is made possible, indirectly through the measurement of some distances between anatomical landmarks.

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