Artificial Intelligence-enabled applications on edge devices have the potential to revolutionize disease detection and monitoring in future
smart health (sHealth)
systems. In this study, we investigated a minimalist approach for the severity classification, severity estimation, and progression monitoring of
obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)
in a home environment using wearables. We used the recursive feature elimination technique to select the best feature set of 70 features from a total of 200 features extracted from polysomnogram. We used a multi-layer perceptron model to investigate the performance of OSA severity classification with all the ranked features to a subset of features available from either Electroencephalography or
Heart Rate Variability (HRV)
and time duration of SpO2 level. The results indicate that using only computationally inexpensive features from HRV and SpO2, an area under the curve of 0.91 and an accuracy of 83.97% can be achieved for the severity classification of OSA. For estimation of the apnea-hypopnea index, the accuracy of RMSE = 4.6 and R-squared value = 0.71 have been achieved in the test set using only ranked HRV and SpO2 features. The Wilcoxon-signed-rank test indicates a significant change (p < 0.05) in the selected feature values for a progression in the disease over 2.5 years. The method has the potential for integration with edge computing for deployment on everyday wearables. This may facilitate the preliminary severity estimation, monitoring, and management of OSA patients and reduce associated healthcare costs as well as the prevalence of untreated OSA.
Introduction: As of 31st December 2021, there have been 4,262,540 confirmed cases of COVID-19, including 144,088 death cases in Indonesia. COVID-19 pandemic has affected the nutrition aspect, as an increasing number of undernutrition children also increases risk of obesity. Our group conducts webinars with the purpose of increasing public knowledge and awareness regarding general well-being: importance of adequate nutrition to increase immunity in the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of the study is to examine webinar participants' knowledge before and after webinar. Method: The webinar conducted through a zoom meeting for 2 hours consists of 1 hour education and 1 hour question and answer session. The participants asked to fill a pretest before the webinar session and posttest after the webinar session. The results were statistically examined to determine the difference between pretest and posttest score. Results: The webinar participant’s demographic characteristics were dominated by 17-45 years old age group, high school graduates, and female participants. There is a significant difference (p<0.05) between pre and post-test score evaluated using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. After the webinar, there is a decreased number of participants with low-level nutritional knowledge from 31 to 23 participants. Conclusion: There is an increase in knowledge about the importance of adequate nutrition to increase immunity in the COVID-19 pandemic from pre and post-test data. Thus, this webinar contributes to providing knowledge to participants in supporting the strengthening of socialization of adequate nutrition during COVID-19 pandemic.
AIM: To assess the effectiveness of core vitrectomy-phacoemulsification-intraocular lens (IOL) implantation-capsulo-hyaloidotomy in treating phakic eye at least 1mo after the onset of malignant glaucoma.
METHODS: A retrospective analysis were performed on malignant glaucoma patients treated in Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center between 2016 and 2018. Demographic and clinical data were described. The preoperative and postoperative visual acuity (VA), intraocular pressure (IOP), number of IOP-lowering medications used, and anterior chamber depth (ACD) of the case series were compared by Wilcoxon signed-rank test.
RESULTS: Thirteen phakic eyes with long time intervals between onset and surgery were identified in this case series. Core vitrectomy-phacoemulsification-IOL implantation-capsulo-hyaloidotomy reduced the IOP (P=0.046) and the number of IOP-lowering medications used (P=0.004), deepened the ACD (P=0.005). Complete success was achieved in 38.5% of the eyes, and anatomical success was achieved in 100% of the eyes without any recurrence. The only postoperative complication observed is corneal endothelial decompensation. It occurred in two cases.
CONCLUSION: Core vitrectomy-phacoemulsification-IOL implantation-capsulo-hyaloidotomy is safe and effective for treatment of long onset phakic malignant glaucoma.
BackgroundTo characterize the clinical and pathological features and survival of patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-low breast cancer in China.MethodsThe China National Cancer Center database was used to identify 1,433 metastatic breast cancer patients with HER2-negative disease diagnosed between 2005 and 2015. Clinicopathological features, survival, and prognosis information were extracted. Overall survival (OS) was estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Prognostic factors associated with OS were analyzed using Cox regression model with 95% confidence interval (95% CI).ResultsThere were 618 (43.1%) and 815 (56.9%) HER2-low and HER2-zero tumors out of 1,433 tumors, respectively. The proportion of hormone receptor (HR)-positive tumors was significantly higher in HER2-low tumors than in those with HER2-zero tumors (77.8% vs. 69.2%, p < 0.001). Patients with HER2-low tumors survived significantly longer than those with HER2-zero tumors in the overall population (48.5 months vs. 43.0 months, p = 0.004) and HR-positive subgroup (54.9 months vs. 48.1 months, p = 0.011), but not in the HR-negative subgroup (29.5 months vs. 29.9 months, p = 0.718). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that HER2-low tumors were independently associated with increased OS in HER2-negative population (HR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.73–0.98, p = 0.026).ConclusionOur findings demonstrate that HER2-low tumors could be identified as a more distinct clinical entity from HER2-zero tumors, especially for the HR-positive subgroup. A more complex molecular landscape of HER2-low breast cancer might exist, and more precise diagnostic algorithms for HER2 testing could be investigated, thus offering new therapeutic targets for breast cancer treatment.
Lipid disequilibrium and systemic inflammation are reported to correlate with tumorigenesis and development of colorectal cancer (CRC). We construct the novel biomarker cholesterol-to-lymphocyte ratio (CLR) to reflect the synergistic effect of cholesterol metabolism and inflammation on CRC outcomes. This study aims to investigate the clinical significance of CLR and establish a prognostic model for CRC.
Our study retrospectively enrolled 223 CRC patients who underwent curative surgical resection. The Kaplan-Meier method was employed to estimate the overall survival (OS) rates, and the association between serological biomarkers and survival was assessed with a log-rank test. Cox proportional hazard regression was applied in the univariate and multivariate analyses to identify independent prognostic factors, which were then used to develop a predictive nomogram model for OS in CRC. The nomogram was evaluated by the C-index, receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC) analysis, and calibration plot. All cases were grouped into three stratifications according to the total risk points calculated from the nomogram, and the difference in OS between them was assessed with the Kaplan-Meier method.
At the end of the study, death occurred in 47 (21%) cases. Patients with low CLR (< 3.23) had significantly prolonged survival (P < 0.001). Multivariate analyses revealed that N stage (P < 0.001), harvested lymph nodes (P = 0.021), and CLR (P = 0.005) were independent prognostic factors for OS and a prognostic nomogram was established based on these variables. The nomogram showed good calibration and predictive performance with a superior C-index than TNM stage (0.755 (0.719–0.791) vs. 0.663 (0.629–0.697), P = 0.001). Patients of different risk stratifications based on the total score of nomogram showed distinct survival (P < 0.001).
The nomogram based on CLR and other clinical features can be used as a potentially convenient and reliable tool in predicting survival in patients with CRC.
Home-based swabbing has not been widely used. The objective of this analysis was to compare respiratory swabs collected by mothers of 7–12-year-olds living in low-income, multilingual communities in the United States with technician collected swabs.
Retrospective data analysis of respiratory samples collected at home by mothers compared to technicians. Anterior nasal and throat specimens collected using flocked swabs were combined in dry tubes. Test was done using TaqMan array cards for viral and bacterial pathogens. Cycle threshold (Ct) values of ribonuclease P (RNP) gene were used to assess specimen quality. Ct < 40 was interpreted as a positive result. Concordance of pathogen yield from mother versus technician collected swabs were analyzed using Cohen’s Kappa coefficients. Correlation analysis, paired t-test, and Wilcoxon signed-rank test for paired samples were used for RNP Ct values.
We enrolled 36 households in Cincinnati (African American) and 44 (predominately Chinese or Latino) in Boston. In Cincinnati, eight of 32 (25%) mothers did not finish high school, and 11 (34%) had finished high school only. In Boston, 13 of 44 (30%) mothers had less than a high school diploma, 23 (52%) had finished high school only. Mother versus technician paired swabs (n = 62) had similar pathogen yield (paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test p-values = 0.62 and 0.63, respectively; 95% confidence interval of the difference between the two measurements = − 0.45–0.75). Median Ct value for RNP was 22.6 (interquartile range, IQR = 2.04) for mother-collected and 22.4 (IQR = 2.39) for technician-collected swabs (p = 0.62). Agreement on pathogen yield between samples collected by mothers vs. technicians was higher for viruses than for bacterial pathogens, with high concordance for rhinovirus/enterovirus, human metapneumovirus, and adenovirus (Cohen’s kappa coefficients ≥80%, p < 0.0001). For bacterial pathogens, concordance was lower to moderate, except for Chlamydia pneumoniae, for which kappa coefficient indicated perfect agreement.
Mothers with a range of education levels from low-income communities were able to swab their children equally well as technicians. Home-swabbing using dry tubes, and less invasive collection procedures, could enhance respiratory disease surveillance.
IntroductionStudies with a powered prosthetic ankle-foot (PwrAF) found a reduction in sound knee loading compared to passive feet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine whether anecdotal reports on reduced musculoskeletal pain and improved patient-reported mobility were isolated occurrences or reflect a common experience in PwrAF users.MethodsTwo hundred and fifty individuals with transtibial amputation (TTA) who had been fitted a PwrAF in the past were invited to an online survey on average sound knee, amputated side knee, and low-back pain assessed with numerical pain rating scales (NPRS), the PROMIS Pain Interference scale, and the PLUS-M for patient-reported mobility in the free-living environment. Subjects rated their current foot and recalled the ratings for their previous foot. Recalled scores were adjusted for recall bias by clinically meaningful amounts following published recommendations. Statistical comparisons were performed using Wilcoxon's signed rank test.ResultsForty-six subjects, all male, with unilateral TTA provided data suitable for analysis. Eighteen individuals (39%) were current PwrAF users, whereas 28 subjects (61%) had reverted to a passive foot. After adjustment for recall bias, current PwrAF users reported significantly less sound knee pain than they recalled for use of a passive foot (−0.5 NPRS, p = 0.036). Current PwrAF users who recalled sound knee pain ≥4 NPRS with a passive foot reported significant and clinically meaningful improvements in sound knee pain (−2.5 NPRS, p = 0.038) and amputated side knee pain (−3 NPRS, p = 0.042). Current PwrAF users also reported significant and clinically meaningful improvements in patient-reported mobility (+4.6 points PLUS-M, p = 0.016). Individuals who had abandoned the PwrAF did not recall any differences between the feet.DiscussionCurrent PwrAF users reported significant and clinically meaningful improvements in patient-reported prosthetic mobility as well as sound knee and amputated side knee pain compared to recalled mobility and pain with passive feet used previously. However, a substantial proportion of individuals who had been fitted such a foot in the past did not recall improvements and had reverted to passive feet. The identification of individuals with unilateral TTA who are likely to benefit from a PwrAF remains a clinical challenge and requires further research.
Elucidating the dynamic topological changes across different stages of breast cancer, called stage re-wiring, could lead to identifying key latent regulatory signatures involved in cancer progression. Such dynamic regulators and their functions are mostly unknown. Here, we reconstructed differential co-expression networks for four stages of breast cancer to assess the dynamic patterns of cancer progression. A new computational approach was applied to identify stage-specific subnetworks for each stage. Next, prognostic traits of genes and the efficiency of stage-related groups were evaluated and validated, using the Log-Rank test, SVM classifier, and sample clustering. Furthermore, by conducting the stepwise VIF-feature selection method, a Cox-PH model was developed to predict patients’ risk. Finally, the re-wiring network for prognostic signatures was reconstructed and assessed across stages to detect gain/loss, positive/negative interactions as well as rewired-hub nodes contributing to dynamic cancer progression.
After having implemented our new approach, we could identify four stage-specific core biological pathways. We could also detect an essential non-coding RNA, AC025034.1, which is not the only antisense to ATP2B1 (cell proliferation regulator), but also revealed a statistically significant stage-descending pattern; Moreover, AC025034.1 revealed both a dynamic topological pattern across stages and prognostic trait. We also identified a high-performance Overall-Survival-Risk model, including 12 re-wired genes to predict patients’ risk (c-index = 0.89). Finally, breast cancer-specific prognostic biomarkers of LINC01612, AC092142.1, and AC008969.1 were identified.
In summary new scoring method highlighted stage-specific core pathways for early-to-late progressions. Moreover, detecting the significant re-wired hub nodes indicated stage-associated traits, which reflects the importance of such regulators from different perspectives.
Limited studies in Ethiopia showed that infants and young children are at high risk of inadequate intake of energy and nutrients. However, inclusive assessment of both nutrient intakes and their food sources are lacking. We aimed at assessing energy and nutrient intakes and their food sources during religious fasting and non-fasting periods among 6–23 months old children in Northern Ethiopia.
Data for this longitudinal study were collected following repeated multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall technique through face-to-face interviews with primary caregivers. Using a two-stage systematic random sampling method, a total of 570 and 551 children participated respectively in the lent fasting and non-fasting periods. Energy and nutrient intakes were estimated and compared with WHO daily requirements. All foods that a child consumed on the day preceding the date of data collection were recorded and processed with database software. Chi-square and t- tests were used to analyze the data. Non-normally distributed data were analyzed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test and statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.
The overall prevalence of child stunting was 41.4%. Almost all of children (99.6%) consumed grains, roots, and tubers. The inadequacy prevalence of energy, protein and eight selected micronutrients (calcium, iron, zinc, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C) intake were 96.2, 44.9, and 95.5%, respectively. Calcium and zinc were the highest (100%) deficits observed across all age groups. Although consumption of animal source foods (ASFs) was very low (dairy 10.1%, meat 2.3% and eggs 23.6%), there was significantly higher consumption of meat and eggs during the non-fasting compared to fasting period (p < 0.001).
Inadequate intake of energy and nutrients was common among 6–23 months old children. Cereals were found to be the main sources of many of the nutrients. The consumption of ASFs among 6–23-month-old children was low which was also affected by the religious fasting period. Hence, strengthening social and behavior change communication, supporting rural households to raise poultry and small ruminants is recommended.
IntroductionWe evaluated the therapeutic role of retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy in patients with ovarian clear cell cancer (OCCC).Materials and MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed 170 OCCC patients diagnosed at two hospitals in China between April 2010 and August 2020. Clinical data were abstracted, and patients were followed until February 2021. Patients were divided into retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy and no lymphadenectomy groups. The Kaplan–Meier method was used to compare progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) between the two groups. Statistical differences were determined by the log-rank test. The COX proportional hazards regression model was applied to identify predictors of tumor recurrence.ResultsThe median age was 52 years; 90 (52.9%) and 80 (47.1%) patients were diagnosed as early and advanced stage, respectively. Clinically positive and negative nodes was found in 40 (23.5%) and 119 (70.0%) patients, respectively. Of all the 170 patients, 124 (72.9%) patients underwent retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy, while 46 (27.1%) did not. The estimated 2-year PFS and 5-year OS rates were 71.4% and 65.9% in the lymphadenectomy group, and 72.0% and 73.7% in no lymphadenectomy group (p = 0.566 and 0.669, respectively). There was also no difference in survival between the two groups when subgroup analysis was performed stratified by early and advanced stage, or in patients with clinically negative nodes. Multivariate analysis showed that retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy were not an independent predictor of tumor recurrence.ConclusionRetroperitoneal lymphadenectomy provided no survival benefit in patients diagnosed with OCCC. A prospective clinical trial is needed to confirm the present results.