scholarly journals Neglected alkaptonuric patient presented with low back pain and radiculopathy: A case report

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
pp. 15
Mohammad Moein Vakilzadeh ◽  
Sajjad Saghebdoust ◽  
Bita Abbasi ◽  
Reza Zare

Background: Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare hereditary disorder in which excess homogentisic acid (HGA) deposits in connective tissues (ochronosis). Here, we report the unusual presentation of a lumbar disc herniation occurring in a patient with AKU warranting surgical intervention. Case Description: A 28-year-old male presented with 1 year of low back pain. The lumbar magnetic resonance imaging showed an extruded disc at the L4-L5 level accompanied extensive disc space narrowing and osteophyte formation. At surgery, the interspinous ligaments, facet joints, and disc herniation were black. In addition, the postoperative re-examination revealed a black discoloration of the nasal and ear cartilage. Finally, the diagnosis of AKU was confirmed when the urine specimen was positive for HGA. Conclusion: Rarely, younger patients with AKU who develop excess black deposits of HGA in connective tissues (i.e., ochronosis) may present with lumbar disc herniations and spondylosis.

2012 ◽  
Vol 72 (7) ◽  
pp. 1141-1148 ◽  
Frances M K Williams ◽  
Aruna T Bansal ◽  
Joyce B van Meurs ◽  
Jordana T Bell ◽  
Ingrid Meulenbelt ◽  

ObjectiveLumbar disc degeneration (LDD) is an important cause of low back pain, which is a common and costly problem. LDD is characterised by disc space narrowing and osteophyte growth at the circumference of the disc. To date, the agnostic search of the genome by genome-wide association (GWA) to identify common variants associated with LDD has not been fruitful. This study is the first GWA meta-analysis of LDD.MethodsWe have developed a continuous trait based on disc space narrowing and osteophytes growth which is measurable on all forms of imaging (plain radiograph, CT scan and MRI) and performed a meta-analysis of five cohorts of Northern European extraction each having GWA data imputed to HapMap V.2.ResultsThis study of 4600 individuals identified four single nucleotide polymorphisms with p<5×10−8, the threshold set for genome-wide significance. We identified a variant in the PARK2 gene (p=2.8×10−8) associated with LDD. Differential methylation at one CpG island of the PARK2 promoter was observed in a small subset of subjects (β=8.74×10−4, p=0.006).ConclusionsLDD accounts for a considerable proportion of low back pain and the pathogenesis of LDD is poorly understood. This work provides evidence of association of the PARK2 gene and suggests that methylation of the PARK2 promoter may influence degeneration of the intervertebral disc. This gene has not previously been considered a candidate in LDD and further functional work is needed on this hitherto unsuspected pathway.

Godson E. Anyanwu ◽  
Remigius T. Ekwunife ◽  
Emmanuel C. Iyidobi ◽  
Cajetan U. Nwadinigwe ◽  
Henry C. Ekwedigwe ◽  

<p class="abstract"><strong>Background:</strong> Lumbar intervertebral disc herniation is used to describe a spectrum of anatomical abnormalities involving disc extension beyond the interspace. It follows a tear in the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc. It is one of the most common causes of low back pain among adults. The study aims to assess the epidemiological pattern of lumbar disc herniations among adults with low back pain in Enugu urban.</p><p class="abstract"><strong>Methods:</strong> The study was a prospective study at National Orthopedic Hospital Enugu and Annunciation Specialist Hospital Enugu. Following ethical approval and written informed consent, patients who met the inclusion criteria were consecutively recruited. The MRI scans of the participants were viewed using DICOM® (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) software on laptop computer. The data included the patients’ demographics, functional disability index for back pain, weight, height, the anatomical level(s) and site(s) of the herniated disc among other parameters.<strong></strong></p><p class="abstract"><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 81 subjects who met the inclusion criteria were included and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. The mean age of the subjects is 52.99±13.13 years. The most common affected age group is 51-60 years (27.2%). Majority of the subjects (68; 84%) had multiple level herniations which usually includes L4 level(74; 91.4%).</p><p class="abstract"><strong>Conclusions:</strong> That multilevel lumbar disc herniation is far more common than single level herniation with a prevalence of 84% among adults with low back pain in Enugu urban. That, there is statistically significant association of lumbar disc herniation and increasing age.</p>

2016 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 30-34
Bal K Thapa

Lumbar disc surgery is performed exclusively for disc herniation. Either low back pain, or sciatica or both are common presentations depending upon the levels of compressed nerve roots. Indications for surgery and MRI needs to be carefully judged upon keeping the economic status of our patients into consideration. Open lumbar (micro) discectomy is safe and successful method for lumbar disc herniations at periphery. Results in these hundred thirteen initial cases with minimum follow up of 5 years indicate that this is not only feasible but safe in these 57 males and 56 female patients aged between 12 and 93. Redo surgeries were not that difficult in this series and were safe. There were 18 cases with Multiple and 95 single levels. Of the single levels it gradually increased as the level gradually decreased in terms of the vertebral counts. L3/4: 3 cases, L4/5: 28 cases and L5/S1 : 64 cases . There were 18 cases of more than one level discs. There were 96 (Micro) discectomies, 11 Laminotomies and 6 Laminectomies.Nepal Journal of Neuroscience 13:30-34, 2016

2018 ◽  
Vol 2018 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Britta K. Krautwurst ◽  
Jürgen R. Paletta ◽  
Sylvia Mendoza ◽  
Adrian Skwara ◽  
Melvin Mohokum

Objective. Detection of a lateral shift (LS) in patients with diagnosed disc herniation compared to healthy controls. Summary of Background Data. A specific lateral shift (LS) pattern is observed in patients with disc herniation and low back pain, as shown in earlier studies. Methods. Rasterstereography (RS) was used to investigate the LS. Thirty-nine patients with lumbar disc herniation diagnosed by radiological assessment and low back pain and/or leg pain (mean age 48.2 years, mean BMI 28.5, 28 males and 11 females) and 36 healthy controls (mean age 47.4 years, mean BMI 25.7, 25 males and 11 females) were analysed. LS, pelvic tilt, pelvic inclination, lordotic angle, and trunk torsion were assessed. Results. The patient group showed a nonsignificant increase in LS, that is, 5.6 mm compared to the healthy controls with 5.0 mm (p = 0.693). However, significant differences were found between groups regarding pelvic tilt in degrees (patients 5.9°, healthy controls 2.0°; p = 0.016), trunk torsion (patients 7.5°, controls 4.5°; p = 0.017), and lordotic angle (patients 27.5°, healthy controls 32.7°; p = 0.022). The correlation between pain intensity and the FFbH-R amounted 0.804 (p = < 0.01), and that between pain intensity and the pain disability index was 0.785 (p < 0.01). Discussion. Although some studies have illustrated LS with disc herniation and low back pain, the present findings demonstrate no significant increase in LS in the patient group compared to healthy controls. Conclusion. The patients with lumbar disc herniation did not demonstrate an increased LS compared to healthy controls. Other parameters like pelvic tilt and inclination seemed to be more suitable to identify changes in posture measured by RS in patients with low back pain or disc herniation.

2010 ◽  
Vol 20 (3) ◽  
pp. 491-499 ◽  
Yun Peng Huang ◽  
Sjoerd M. Bruijn ◽  
Jian Hua Lin ◽  
Onno G. Meijer ◽  
Wen Hua Wu ◽  

2020 ◽  
Vol 136 (1) ◽  
pp. 88-106
Filippo Migliorini ◽  
Nicola Maffulli ◽  
Jörg Eschweiler ◽  
Marcel Bestch ◽  
Markus Tingart ◽  

Abstract Introduction Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is a common cause of low back pain (LBP). Recently, in the setting of LBP caused by LDH, a growing interest in ozone therapies has been observed. Source of data Recent published literatures. Areas of agreement Being low back pain more common in the elderlies, exploring conservative alternatives to the surgical intervention is of especial interest. Areas of controversy Efficacy and feasibility of ozone injections for LDH is debated. Several clinical studies showed controversial results, and the true benefit has not yet been clarified. Growing points Systematically summarize current evidences, analyze the quantitative available data and investigate the role of percutaneous ozone therapy for LDH. Areas timely for developing research Current evidence encourage the use of ozone therapy for LBP from LDH. These conclusions should be interpret in light of the limitations of the present study.

2019 ◽  
Vol 2019 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Xinbo Wu ◽  
Guoxin Fan ◽  
Shisheng He ◽  
Xin Gu ◽  
Yunfeng Yang

Objective. The aim of this study is to compare the clinical outcomes of two-level percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) and foraminoplasty PELD in treating highly migrated lumbar disc herniations. Methods. Patients with highly migrated lumbar disc herniations were enrolled from May 2014 to June 2016. Low back pain and leg pain were evaluated by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), and functional outcomes were assessed with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). The satisfaction rate of clinical outcomes was assessed according to the modified MacNab criteria. In addition, the intraoperative duration and postoperative complications were also recorded. Results. Forty patients, 14 cases in two-level PELD group and 26 cases in foraminoplasty PELD group, were included. The VAS scores of low back pain (P=0.67) and leg pain (P=0.86), as well as the ODI scores (P=0.87), were comparative between two-level PELD and foraminoplasty PELD groups. The satisfaction rate of clinical outcomes based on the modified MacNab criteria in the two-level PELD group was equivalent to that in foraminoplasty PELD group (92.9% versus 92.3%, P=0.92). In addition, the intraoperative duration of two-level PELD group was longer than that of foraminoplasty PELD group (80.2 ± 6.6 min versus 64.1 ± 7.3 min, P<0.01). The postoperative complications in the two-level PELD group (postoperative dysesthesia: N = 1) were relatively fewer as compared to those in the foraminoplasty PELD group (postoperative dysesthesia: N = 1; recurrence: N = 1; nucleus pulposus residues: N = 1). Conclusions. Both two-level PELD and foraminoplasty PELD are safe and effective surgical procedures for the patients with highly migrated lumbar disc herniations. Moreover, the two-level PELD technique has merits in reducing the incidence of postoperative nucleus pulposus residue.

2013 ◽  
Vol 2013 ◽  
pp. 1-8 ◽  
Wei An Yuan ◽  
Shi Rong Huang ◽  
Kai Guo ◽  
Wu Quan Sun ◽  
Xiao Bing Xi ◽  

Low back pain due to lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is very common in clinic. This randomized controlled trial was designed to investigate the effects of integrative TCM conservative therapy for low back pain due to LDH. A total of 408 patients with low back pain due to LDH were randomly assigned to an experimental group with integrative TCM therapy and a control group with normal conservative treatment by the ratio of 3 : 1. The primary outcome was the pain by the visual analogue scale (VAS). The secondary outcome was the low back functional activities by Chinese Short Form Oswestry Disability Index (C-SFODI). Immediately after treatment, patients in the experimental group experienced significant improvements in VAS and C-SFODI compared with the control group (between-group difference in mean change from baseline, −16.62 points,P<0.001in VAS; −15.55 points,P<0.001in C-SFODI). The difference remained at one-month followup, but it is only significant in C-SFODI at six-month followup (−7.68 points,P<0.001). No serious adverse events were observed. These findings suggest that integrative TCM therapy may be a beneficial complementary and alternative therapy for patients with low back pain due to LDH.

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