pain intensity
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2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 77-80
Anshu Sharma ◽  
Shama Bhandari ◽  
Dhundi Raj Paudel

Introduction: Tonsillectomy is frequently performed surgical procedure. There are several different methods with varied advantages and disadvantages. In spite of the different techniques available there is no consensus and definite evidence for best method. The most commonly performed are conventional dissection and bipolar electrocauterization methods. Aims: The aim of the study was to compare time required for the completion of surgery, intraoperative and postoperative blood loss along with post operative pain between conventional dissection and bipolar electrocauterization methods. Methods: This comparative study was conducted from August 2019 to March 2021 in total of 30 patients planned for tonsillectomy in department of Otorhinolaryngology, Nepalgunj Medical College Teaching Hospital.In every patient right side tonsillectomy was done with conventional dissection method and left side tonsillectomy was done with bipolar electrocauterization method. Results: The mean age was 27.2±13.08 years. The mean duration of surgery was 16.53 ± 2.43 min and 11.10 ± 1.93 min in conventional dissection method and bipolar electrocauterization method respectively. The difference was statistically significant. Intraoperative blood loss was significantly lower in bipolar electrocauterization method with mean intraoperative blood loss of 19 ±4.62 ml in bipolar electrocauterization group and 81.83 ±36.54 ml in conventional dissection method. The pain intensity was statistically similar in both methods at all-time intervals post operatively. Conclusion: In tonsillectomy, bipolar electrocauterization method has advantage over conventional dissection method in regards to reduced surgical time and intra operative blood loss, without any significant difference in post-operative pain intensity and post-operative hemorrhage.

Magdalena Napiórkowska-Orkisz ◽  
Aleksandra Gutysz-Wojnicka ◽  
Mariola Tanajewska ◽  
Iwona Sadowska-Krawczenko

Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the severity of pain experienced by a newborn during a heel puncture for screening using the Newborn Pain Scale (NIPS), measure the heart rate and compare the effectiveness of non-pharmacological methods of pain control. Design: Randomized clinical trial. No experimental factors. The test was performed during routine screening. Surroundings: Provincial Specialist Hospital in Olsztyn. Patients/Participants: Pain was assessed in 90 full-term newborns. The newborns were rooming in with their mothers in the hospital. Interventions: Newborns were divided into three groups. Three different methods of pain relief were used: breastfeeding, 20% glucose administered orally and non-nutritional sucking. Main Outcome Measures: The primary pain outcome was measured using the NIPS and the secondary pain outcome measures (heart rate, oxygen saturation) were measured using a pulse oximeter. Results: During capillary blood sampling from the heel, most newborns, n = 56 (62.2%), experienced no pain or mild discomfort, severe pain occurred in n = 23 (25.6%) and moderate pain occurred in n = 11 (12.2%). No significant statistical differences were found between the degree of pain intensity and the intervention used to minimize the pain p = 0.24. Statistically significant relationships were demonstrated between heart rate variability and the degree of pain intensity (p = 0. 01). There were no statistically significant differences between the newborn’s pain intensity and the mother’s opinion on the effectiveness of breastfeeding in minimizing pain. Conclusions: This study did not answer the question of which pain management method used during the heel prick was statistically more effective in reducing pain. However, the results indicate that each of the non-pharmacological interventions (breastfeeding, oral glucose dosing and non-nutritive sucking) applied during heel puncture resulted in effective pain management in most of the newborns enrolled in the study. The relationship between heart rate variability and the severity of pain was confirmed. Mothers of newborns in the breastfeeding group were satisfied with the pain relief methods used in the child and the opportunity to console their newborn during painful procedures in a technologically invasive environment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 95
Andrés Molero-Chamizo ◽  
Michael A. Nitsche ◽  
Armin Bolz ◽  
Rafael Tomás Andújar Barroso ◽  
José R. Alameda Bailén ◽  

Stimulation of the vagus nerve, a parasympathetic nerve that controls the neuro-digestive, vascular, and immune systems, induces pain relief, particularly in clinical conditions such as headache and rheumatoid arthritis. Transmission through vagal afferents towards the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST), the central relay nucleus of the vagus nerve, has been proposed as the main physiological mechanism that reduces pain intensity after vagal stimulation. Chronic pain symptoms of fibromyalgia patients might benefit from stimulation of the vagus nerve via normalization of altered autonomic and immune systems causing their respective symptoms. However, multi-session non-invasive vagal stimulation effects on fibromyalgia have not been evaluated in randomized clinical trials. We propose a parallel group, sham-controlled, randomized study to modulate the sympathetic–vagal balance and pain intensity in fibromyalgia patients by application of non-invasive transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) over the vagal auricular and cervical branches. We will recruit 136 fibromyalgia patients with chronic moderate to high pain intensity. The primary outcome measure will be pain intensity, and secondary measures will be fatigue, health-related quality of life, sleep disorders, and depression. Heart rate variability and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels will be obtained as secondary physiological measures. We hypothesize that multiple tVNS sessions (five per week, for 4 weeks) will reduce pain intensity and improve quality of life as a result of normalization of the vagal control of nociception and immune–autonomic functions. Since both vagal branches project to the NST, we do not predict significantly different results between the two stimulation protocols.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (2) ◽  
Risna Devi Yuniasti ◽  
Arif Setyo Upoyo ◽  
Agis Taufik

Background: Pain is a common problem in patients undergoing surgery. The constant postoperative acute pain can affect the physiological and psychological aspects of the patient.Objective: Non-pharmacological therapy is widely used for the treatment of chronic pain. Non-pharmacological therapy needs to be developed in acute postoperative pain due to concerns about the side effects of pharmacological treatment. There is non-pharmacological management that effectively reduces pain intensity, namely hypnotherapy.Methods: The systematic search for this review used the Google Scholar database, Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ), ProQuest, and PubMed using keywords (Hypnosis OR Hypnotism OR Hypnoanalysis OR Hypnotherapy OR Hypnotherapies OR Mesmerism) AND (Post-surgical Pain OR Post surgical Pain OR Postsurgical Pain OR Post-operative Pain OR Post operative Pain OR Post-operative Pains OR Postoperative Pain OR Acute Postoperative Pain OR Acute Post-operative Pain OR Acute Post operative Pain). The quality of journals was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) instrument. The synthesis method used was narrative synthesis (narrative synthesis).Results: 10 articles were fully reviewed from 2010-2020. The visualization technique with rapid conversational induction has the best effect than other techniques. The most effective way of conveying suggestions is indirect with a permissive approach. The study results showed that hypnotherapy tended to reduce postoperative pain in minor surgical procedures than in major surgeries.Conclusion: Hypnotherapy affects reducing the pain intensity of postoperative patients. The results of this study recommend that hypnotherapy suggestions and pain measures must be tailored to the patient's condition.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 ◽  
Fan Wang ◽  
Hui Li ◽  
Qingshuang Mu ◽  
Ligang Shan ◽  
Yimin Kang ◽  

Objectives: Cigarette smoking is associated with postoperative pain perception, which might be mediated by beta-endorphin and substance P. These effects on postoperative pain perception have never been investigated in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which reflects biochemical alterations in the brain. Therefore, we investigated the associations among cigarette smoking, postoperative pain, and levels of beta-endorphin and substance P in human CSF.Methods: We recruited 160 Chinese men (80 active smokers and 80 nonsmokers) who underwent lumbar puncture before anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and 5-ml CSF samples were collected. Pain visual analog scale (VAS) scores, post-anesthetic recovery duration (PARD), and smoking variables were obtained. CSF levels of beta-endorphin and substance P were measured.Results: Compared to non-smokers, active smokers had significantly higher pain VAS (2.40 ± 0.67 vs. 1.70 ± 0.86, p < 0.001) and PARD scores (9.13 ± 2.11 vs. 7.27 ± 1.35, p = 0.001), lower CSF beta-endorphin (33.76 ± 1.77 vs. 35.66 ± 2.20, p = 0.001) and higher CSF substance P (2,124.46 ± 217.34 vs. 1,817.65 ± 302.14, p < 0.001) levels. Pain VAS scores correlated with PARD in active smokers (r = 0.443, p = 0.001).Conclusions: Cigarette smoking is associated with increased postoperative pain intensity, shown by delayed pain perception, higher pain VAS scores, and lower beta-endorphin and higher substance P levels in the CSF of active smokers. The more extended postoperative pain perception is delayed, the more pain intensity increases.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262076
Michal Granot ◽  
Einav Srulovici ◽  
Yelena Granovsky ◽  
David Yarnitsky ◽  
Pora Kuperman

Pain variability can be partially attributed to psycho-cognitive features involved in its processing. However, accumulating research suggests that simple linear correlation between situational and dispositional factors may not be sufficiently explanatory, with some positing a role for mediating influences. In addition, acute pain processing studies generally focus on a post-operative model with less attention provided to post-traumatic injury. As such, this study aimed to investigate a more comprehensive pain processing model that included direct and indirect associations between acute pain intensity in the head and neck, pain catastrophizing (using pain catastrophizing scale (PCS)), and pain sensitivity (using the pain sensitivity questionnaire (PSQ)), among 239 patients with post-motor vehicle collision pain. The effect of personality traits (using Ten Items Personality Inventory (TIPI)) and emotional status (using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)) on that model was examined as well. To this end, three Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analyses were conducted. Overall, the data had good fit to all the models, with only PSQ found to have a direct correlation with acute pain intensity. The SEM analyses conversely revealed several mediations. Specifically, that: first, PSQ fully mediated the relationship between PCS and pain intensity; second, PCS and PSQ together fully mediated the relationship between conscientiousness (personality trait) and pain intensity; and finally, emotional status had direct and indirect links with PSQ and pain intensity. In conclusion, these models suggest that during the acute post-collision phase, pain sensitivity intermediates between emotional states and personality traits, partially via elevated pain catastrophizing thoughts.

2022 ◽  
Adria Yared Sadala ◽  
Érika Patrícia Rampazo ◽  
Richard Eloin Liebano

Background: To date, there has been no investigation addressing the effects of vibration anesthesia during carboxytherapy. Aim: Investigate the analgesic effect of different vibratory devices during carboxytherapy for the treatment of cellulite. Materials & methods: A total of 78 women between 18 and 49 years of age with cellulite in the gluteal region will be randomly allocated to three groups: Group A (carboxytherapy and vibratory device A), Group B (carboxytherapy and vibratory device B) and control group. Pain intensity will be assessed using a numerical rating scale after each puncture. Expected outcome: Vibration anesthesia is expected to be effective at diminishing the pain intensity caused by carboxytherapy comparison with the control group, with no differences between the vibratory devices. Trial registry: Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials- ReBEC (RBR-8jcqy7c)

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yuanyuan Lyu ◽  
Francesca Zidda ◽  
Stefan T. Radev ◽  
Hongcai Liu ◽  
Xiaoli Guo ◽  

Pain is a multidimensional process, which can be modulated by emotions; however, the mechanisms underlying this modulation are unknown. We used pictures with different emotional valence (negative, positive, and neutral) as primes and applied electrical painful stimuli as targets to healthy participants. We assessed pain intensity and unpleasantness ratings and recorded electroencephalograms (EEGs). We found that pain unpleasantness and not pain intensity ratings were modulated by emotion, with increased ratings for negative and decreased ratings for positive pictures. We also found two consecutive gamma band oscillations (GBOs) related to pain processing from time frequency analyses of the EEG signals. The early GBO had a cortical distribution contralateral to the painful stimulus and its amplitude was positively correlated with intensity and unpleasantness ratings, but not with prime valence. The late GBO had a centroparietal distribution and its amplitude was larger for negative compared to neutral and positive pictures. The emotional modulation effect (negative vs. positive) of the late GBO amplitude was positively correlated with pain unpleasantness. The early GBO might reflect the overall pain perception, possibly involving the thalamocortical circuit, while the late GBO might be related to the affective dimension of pain and top-down-related processes.

Boudewijn van den Berg ◽  
Hemme J. Hijma ◽  
Ingrid Koopmans ◽  
Robert J. Doll ◽  
Rob G. J. A. Zuiker ◽  

AbstractSleep deprivation has been shown to increase pain intensity and decrease pain thresholds in healthy subjects. In chronic pain patients, sleep impairment often worsens the perceived pain intensity. This increased pain perception is the result of altered nociceptive processing. We recently developed a method to quantify and monitor altered nociceptive processing by simultaneous tracking of psychophysical detection thresholds and recording of evoked cortical potentials during intra-epidermal electric stimulation. In this study, we assessed the sensitivity of nociceptive detection thresholds and evoked potentials to altered nociceptive processing after sleep deprivation in an exploratory study with 24 healthy male and 24 healthy female subjects. In each subject, we tracked nociceptive detection thresholds and recorded central evoked potentials in response to 180 single- and 180 double-pulse intra-epidermal electric stimuli. Results showed that the detection thresholds for single- and double-pulse stimuli and the average central evoked potential for single-pulse stimuli were significantly decreased after sleep deprivation. When analyzed separated by sex, these effects were only significant in the male population. Multivariate analysis showed that the decrease of central evoked potential was associated with a decrease of task-related evoked activity. Measurement repetition led to a decrease of the detection threshold to double-pulse stimuli in the mixed and the female population, but did not significantly affect any other outcome measures. These results suggest that simultaneous tracking of psychophysical detection thresholds and evoked potentials is a useful method to observe altered nociceptive processing after sleep deprivation, but is also sensitive to sex differences and measurement repetition.

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