disc space
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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
pp. 15
Mohammad Moein Vakilzadeh ◽  
Sajjad Saghebdoust ◽  
Bita Abbasi ◽  
Reza Zare

Background: Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare hereditary disorder in which excess homogentisic acid (HGA) deposits in connective tissues (ochronosis). Here, we report the unusual presentation of a lumbar disc herniation occurring in a patient with AKU warranting surgical intervention. Case Description: A 28-year-old male presented with 1 year of low back pain. The lumbar magnetic resonance imaging showed an extruded disc at the L4-L5 level accompanied extensive disc space narrowing and osteophyte formation. At surgery, the interspinous ligaments, facet joints, and disc herniation were black. In addition, the postoperative re-examination revealed a black discoloration of the nasal and ear cartilage. Finally, the diagnosis of AKU was confirmed when the urine specimen was positive for HGA. Conclusion: Rarely, younger patients with AKU who develop excess black deposits of HGA in connective tissues (i.e., ochronosis) may present with lumbar disc herniations and spondylosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 565
Cheng-Chung Chang ◽  
Hsi-Kai Tsou ◽  
Hsu-Hsin Chang ◽  
Long Yi Chan ◽  
Guan-Yu Zhuo ◽  

Vertebral disc degenerative disease (DDD) affects millions of people worldwide and is a critical factor leading to low back and neck pain and consequent disability. Currently, no strategy has addressed curing DDD from fundamental aspects, because the pathological mechanism leading to DDD is still controversial. One possible mechanism points to the homeostatic status of extracellular matrix (ECM) anabolism, and catabolism in the disc may play a vital role in the disease’s progression. If the damaged disc receives an abundant amount of cartilage, anabolic factors may stimulate the residual cells in the damaged disc to secrete the ECM and mitigate the degeneration process. To examine this hypothesis, a cartilage anabolic factor, Runx1, was expressed by mRNA through a sophisticated polyamine-based PEG-polyplex nanomicelle delivery system in the damaged disc in a rat model. The mRNA medicine and polyamine carrier have favorable safety characteristics and biocompatibility for regenerative medicine. The endocytosis of mRNA-loaded polyplex nanomicelles in vitro, mRNA delivery efficacy, hydration content, disc shrinkage, and ECM in the disc in vivo were also examined. The data revealed that the mRNA-loaded polyplex nanomicelle was promptly engulfed by cellular late endosome, then spread into the cytosol homogeneously at a rate of less than 20 min post-administration of the mRNA medicine. The mRNA expression persisted for at least 6-days post-injection in vivo. Furthermore, the Runx1 mRNA delivered by polyplex nanomicelles increased hydration content by ≈43% in the punctured disc at 4-weeks post-injection (wpi) compared with naked Runx1 mRNA administration. Meanwhile, the disc space and ECM production were also significantly ameliorated in the polyplex nanomicelle group. This study demonstrated that anabolic factor administration by polyplex nanomicelle-protected mRNA medicine, such as Runx1, plays a key role in alleviating the progress of DDD, which is an imbalance scenario of disc metabolism. This platform could be further developed as a promising strategy applied to regenerative medicine.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10

OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to determine whether cage morphology influences clinical and radiographic outcomes following short-segment transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) procedures. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed one- and two-level TLIFs at a single tertiary care center between August 2012 and November 2019 with a minimum 1-year radiographic and clinical follow-up. Two cohorts were compared based on interbody cage morphology: steerable “banana” cage or straight “bullet” cage. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), radiographs, and complications were analyzed. RESULTS A total of 135 patients with 177 interbody levels were identified; 45 patients had 52 straight cages and 90 patients had 125 steerable cages. Segmental lordosis increased with steerable cages, while it decreased with straight cages (+3.8 ± 4.6 vs −1.9 ± 4.3, p < 0.001). Conversely, the mean segmental lordosis of adjacent lumbar levels decreased in the former group, while it increased in the latter group (−0.52 ± 1.9 vs +0.52 ± 2.1, p = 0.004). This reciprocal relationship results in global sagittal parameters, including pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis and lumbar distribution index, which did not change after surgery with either cage morphology. Multivariate analysis confirmed that steerable cage morphology, anterior cage positioning, and less preoperative index-level segmental lordosis were associated with greater improvement in index-level segmental lordosis. PROMs were improved after surgery with both cage types, and the degree of improvement did not differ between cohorts (p > 0.05). Perioperative and radiographic complications were similar between cohorts (p > 0.05). Overall reoperation rates, as well as reoperation rates for adjacent-segment disease within 2 years of surgery, were not significantly different between cohorts. CONCLUSIONS Steerable cages are more likely to lie within the anterior disc space, thus increasing index-level segmental lordosis, which is accompanied by a reciprocal change in segmental alignment at the adjacent lumbar levels. The converse relationship occurs for straight cages, with a kyphotic change at the index levels and reciprocal lordosis occurring at adjacent levels.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8

OBJECTIVE The thoracolumbar (TL) junction spanning T11 to L2 is difficult to access because of the convergence of multiple anatomical structures and tissue planes. Earlier studies have described different approaches and anatomical structures relevant to the TL junction. This anatomical study aims to build a conceptual framework for selecting and executing a minimally invasive lateral approach to the spine for interbody fusion at any level of the TL junction with appropriate adjustments for local anatomical variations. METHODS The authors reviewed anatomical dissections from 9 fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens as well as clinical case examples to denote key anatomical relationships and considerations for approach selection. RESULTS The retroperitoneal and retropleural spaces reside within the same extracoelomic cavity and are separated from each other by the lateral attachments of the diaphragm to the rib and the L1 transverse process. If the lateral diaphragmatic attachments are dissected and the diaphragm is retracted anteriorly, the retroperitoneal and retropleural spaces will be in direct continuity, allowing full access to the TL junction. The T12–L2 disc spaces can be reached by a conventional lateral retroperitoneal exposure with the rostral displacement of the 11th and 12th ribs. With caudally displaced ribs, or to expose T12–L1 disc spaces, the diaphragm can be freed from its lateral attachments to perform a retrodiaphragmatic approach. The T11–12 disc space can be accessed purely through a retropleural approach without significant mobilization of the diaphragm. CONCLUSIONS The entirety of the TL junction can be accessed through a minimally invasive extracoelomic approach, with or without manipulation of the diaphragm. Approach selection is determined by the region of interest, degree of diaphragmatic mobilization required, and rib anatomy.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
S. Harrison Farber ◽  
Soumya Sagar ◽  
Jakub Godzik ◽  
James J. Zhou ◽  
Corey T. Walker ◽  

OBJECTIVE Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) used at the lumbosacral junction provides arthrodesis for several indications. The anterior approach allows restoration of lumbar lordosis, an important goal of surgery. With hyperlordotic ALIF implants, several options may be employed to obtain the desired amount of lordosis. In this study, the authors compared the degree of radiographic lordosis achieved with lordotic and hyperlordotic ALIF implants at the L5–S1 segment. METHODS All patients undergoing L5–S1 ALIF from 2 institutions over a 4-year interval were included. Patients < 18 years of age or those with any posterior decompression or osteotomy were excluded. ALIF implants in the lordotic group had 8° or 12° of inherent lordosis, whereas implants in the hyperlordotic group had 20° or 30° of lordosis. Upright standing radiographs were used to determine all radiographic parameters, including lumbar lordosis, segmental lordosis, disc space lordosis, and disc space height. Separate analyses were performed for patients who underwent single-segment fixation at L5–S1 and for the overall cohort. RESULTS A total of 204 patients were included (hyperlordotic group, 93 [45.6%]; lordotic group, 111 [54.4%]). Single-segment ALIF at L5–S1 was performed in 74 patients (hyperlordotic group, 27 [36.5%]; lordotic group, 47 [63.5%]). The overall mean ± SD age was 61.9 ± 12.3 years; 58.3% of patients (n = 119) were women. The mean number of total segments fused was 3.2 ± 2.6. Overall, 66.7% (n = 136) of patients had supine surgery and 33.3% (n = 68) had lateral surgery. Supine positioning was significantly more common in the hyperlordotic group than in the lordotic group (83.9% [78/93] vs 52.3% [58/111], p < 0.001). After adjusting for differences in surgical positioning, the change in lumbar lordosis was significantly greater for hyperlordotic versus lordotic implants (3.6° ± 7.5° vs 0.4° ± 7.5°, p = 0.048) in patients with single-level fusion. For patients receiving hyperlordotic versus lordotic implants, changes were also significantly greater for segmental lordosis (12.4° ± 7.5° vs 8.4° ± 4.9°, p = 0.03) and disc space lordosis (15.3° ± 5.4° vs 9.3° ± 5.8°, p < 0.001) after single-level fusion at L5–S1. The change in disc space height was similar for these 2 groups (p = 0.23). CONCLUSIONS Hyperlordotic implants provided a greater degree of overall lumbar lordosis restoration as well as L5–S1 segmental and disc space lordosis restoration than lordotic implants. The change in disc space height was similar. Differences in lateral and supine positioning did not affect these parameters.

2021 ◽  
pp. 219256822110491
Ram Alluri ◽  
Nicholas Clark ◽  
Evan Sheha ◽  
Karim Shafi ◽  
Matthew Geiselmann ◽  

Study Design Cadaveric study. Objective To compare the position of the femoral nerve within the lumbar plexus at the L4-L5 disc space in the lateral decubitus vs prone position. Methods Seven lumbar plexus specimens were dissected and the femoral nerve within the psoas muscle was identified and marked with radiopaque paint. Lateral fluoroscopic images of the cadaveric specimens in the lateral decubitus vs prone position were obtained. The location of the radiopaque femoral nerve at the L4-L5 disc space was normalized as a percentage of the L5 vertebral body (0% indicates posterior location and 100% indicates anterior location at the L4-L5 disc space). The location of the femoral nerve at L4-L5 in the lateral decubitus vs prone position was compared using a paired t test. Results In the lateral decubitus position, the femoral nerve was located 28% anteriorly from the posterior edge of the L4-L5 disc space, and in the prone position, the femoral nerve was relatively more posterior, located 18% from the posterior edge of the L4-L5 disc space ( P = .037). Conclusions The femoral nerve was on average more posteriorly located at the L4-L5 disc space in the prone position compared to lateral decubitus. This more posterior location allows for a larger safe zone at the L4-L5 disc space, which may decrease the incidence of neurologic complications associated with Lateral lumbar interbody fusion in the prone vs lateral decubitus position; however, further studies are needed to evaluate this possible clinical correlation.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Satoshi Inami ◽  
Hiroshi Moridaira ◽  
Daisaku Takeuchi ◽  
Tsuyoshi Sorimachi ◽  
Haruki Ueda ◽  

OBJECTIVE Previous studies have demonstrated that Lenke lumbar modifier A contains 2 distinct types (AR and AL), and the AR curve pattern is likely to develop adding-on (i.e., a progressive increase in the number of vertebrae included within the primary curve distally after posterior surgery). However, the results of anterior surgery are unknown. The purpose of this study was to present the surgical results in a cohort of patients undergoing scoliosis treatment for type 1AR curves and to compare anterior and posterior surgeries to consider the ideal indications and advantages of anterior surgery for type 1AR curves. METHODS Patients with a Lenke type 1 or 2 and lumbar modifier AR (L4 vertebral tilt to the right) and a minimum 2-year postoperative follow-up were included. The incidence of adding-on and radiographic data were compared between the anterior and posterior surgery groups. The numbers of levels between the end, stable, neutral, and last touching vertebra to the lower instrumented vertebra (LIV) were also evaluated. RESULTS Forty-four patients with a mean follow-up of 57 months were included. There were 14 patients in the anterior group and 30 patients in the posterior group. The main thoracic Cobb angle was not significantly different between the groups preoperatively and at final follow-up. At final follow-up, the anterior group had significantly less tilting of the LIV than the posterior group (−0.8° ± 4.5° vs 3° ± 4°). Distal adding-on was observed in no patient in the anterior group and in 6 patients in the posterior group at final follow-up (p = 0.025). In the anterior group, no LIV was set below the end vertebra, and all LIVs were set above last touching vertebra. The LIV was significantly more proximal in the anterior group than in the posterior surgery patients without adding-on for all reference vertebrae (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS This is the first study to investigate the surgical results of anterior surgery for Lenke type 1AR curve patterns, and it showed that anterior surgery for the curves could minimize the distal extent of the instrumented fusion without adding-on. This would leave more mobile disc space below the fusion.

Arati Raut ◽  
Vaishnavi Shiwarkar ◽  
Ruchira Ankar ◽  
Pranali Wagh

Introduction: Extra spinal infection causes Pott's illness, which is a spine infection. This condition is extremely rare. It is also called as tuberculosis spondylitis. Due to haematogenous spread over sites, it often involves the lungs and multiple vertebrae. It causes a kind of tuberculous arthritis of the invertebral disc space. The vertebral body's front part, near to the plate underneath the chondral i.e. subchondral plate, is the most prevalent location of involvement in the lower thoracic vertebrae. If anyone vertebra gets affected the disc is normal and if both it cannot receives nutrients, and collapses and spinal damage that results in kypotic spine deformity. 45 years old male patient admitted to AVBRH with the chief complaints of weakness of bilateral lower limb since 1 month, back pain, loss of weight, and loss of appetite. Clinical Findings: Weakness of bilateral lower limb since 1 month, back pain, loss of weight, loss of appetite. Diagnostic Evaluation: Generally, we examine medical history, symptoms, and physical examination of a patient. The patient has been undergone with the investigation like x-ray, MRI, CT scan, CBC, ESR and mantox test. Patient has elevated haemoglobin level i.e. 8.9%. RBCs – normocytic mildly hypochromic platelets. Patient also has elevated sodium and potassium level. Conclusion: Patient has undergone surgical management i.e. spinal fixation. Patient showed minor signs of progress and thus he was asked to undergo the medical management and was kept under observation.

Medicine ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 100 (37) ◽  
pp. e27288
Hongdong Tan ◽  
Jia Gu ◽  
Liang Xu ◽  
Gang Sun

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