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1741-4288, 1741-427x
Updated Tuesday, 03 August 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-18
Author(s):  
Xiangjun Qi ◽  
Hongbin Xu ◽  
Peng Zhang ◽  
Guoming Chen ◽  
Zhiqiang Chen ◽  
...  

Background. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common gastrointestinal tumors, which accounts for approximately 10% of all diagnosed cancers and cancer deaths worldwide per year. Scutellariae barbatae Herba (SBH) is one of the most frequently used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the treatment of CRC. Although many experiments have been carried out to explain the mechanisms of SBH, the mechanisms of SBH have not been illuminated fully. Thus, we constructed a network pharmacology and molecular docking to investigate the mechanisms of SBH. Methods. We adopted active constituent prescreening, target predicting, protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis, Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis, differentially expressed gene analysis, and molecular docking to establish a system pharmacology database of SBH against CRC. Results. A total of 64 active constituents of SBH were obtained and 377 targets were predicted, and the result indicated that quercetin, luteolin, wogonin, and apigenin were the main active constituents of SBH. Glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), pPhosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha isoform (PIK3CA), cellular tumor antigen p53 (TP53), transcription factor AP-1 (JUN), mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1), Myc protooncogene protein (MYC), cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), and broad substrate specificity ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2 (ABCG2) were the major targets of SBH in the treatment of CRC. GO analysis illustrated that the core biological process regulated by SBH was the regulation of the cell cycle. Thirty pathways were presented and 8 pathways related to CRC were involved. Molecular docking presented the binding details of 3 key targets with 6 active constituents. Conclusions. The mechanisms of SBH against CRC depend on the synergistic effect of multiple active constituents, multiple targets, and multiple pathways.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Author(s):  
Diyao Wu ◽  
Tielong Xu ◽  
Zhendong Huang ◽  
Yaling Wang ◽  
Hongfu Chen ◽  
...  

Aim. Based on the bibliometric method, the toxicity of aconite is analyzed and evaluated. Methods. Studies on the toxicity of aconite were retrieved from CNKI, CQVIP, Chinese Biomedical Literature Service System, and PubMed, ranging from January 1985 to November 2020. All those studies were formed into the Database of Literature of Toxicity of Aconite (DLTA). Studies on the toxicity of aconite were retrieved from CNKI, CQVIP, SinoMed, and PubMed, respectively. Collecting relevant information in DLTA, we analyzed the hotspots, factors and mechanism of aconite toxicity, and attenuation methods. Results. A total of 445 studies on the toxicity of aconite have been collected. “Compatibility attenuation” and “Processing attenuation” have been the hotspots of aconite toxicity in recent years. Many studies support that the main toxic reactions of aconite are heart damage, liver toxicity, nephrotoxicity, and neurotoxicity. The toxic effect of aconite is related to the effect on the central nervous system. Exciting the vagus nerve reduces the autonomy of the sinus node and damages myocardial cells. The decoction time, dosage, and administration of aconite are the main factors of the toxicity of aconite. There are few studies about the effect of the origin of aconite and the specifications of the medicinal materials on toxicity. Therefore, it is impossible to analyze its relevance. At present, the commonly used methods to reduce the toxicity of aconite mainly include three methods: drug compatibility, processing, and decoction. The most common compatibility with aconite medicines includes licorice, dried ginger, ginseng, and ephedra. Black sliced aconite, steamed slices, and fried slices are less toxic than other processed products. Aconite decoction for more than 60 minutes can basically reach the safe range, and more than 2 hours of decoction may cause the loss of active ingredients. Conclusions. The research on the mechanisms of aconite dosage-efficacy-toxicity, compatibility, processing, liver toxicity, and nephrotoxicity is still not comprehensive and in-depth. Researchers should perfect toxicity studies of aconite, remove the constraints that affect its clinical application, and promote the clinical use of aconite safely and reasonably.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Author(s):  
Wenchao Sun ◽  
Qiji Ju

Neuropathologic pain (NPP) occurs in most patients with chronic pelvic pain (CPP), and the unique physiological characteristics of visceral sensory neurons make the current analgesic effect of CPP patients not optimistic. Therefore, this study explored the possible biological characteristics of key genes in CPP through the bioinformatics method. CPP-related dataset GSE131619 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus to investigate the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and sacral DRG, and the functional enrichment analysis was performed. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed to search subnet modules of specific biological processes, and then, the genes in the subnet were enriched by single gene set analysis. A CPP mouse model was established, and the expression of key genes were identified by qPCR. The results showed that 127 upregulated DEGs and 103 downregulated DEGs are identified. Functional enrichment analysis showed that most of the genes involved in signal transduction were involved in the pathway of receptor interaction. A subnet module related to neural signal regulation was identified in PPI, including CHRNB4, CHRNA3, and CHRNB2. All three genes were associated with neurological or inflammatory activity and are downregulated in the sacral spinal cord of CPP mice. This study provided three key candidate genes for CPP: CHRNB4, CHRNA3, and CHRNB2, which may be involved in the occurrence and development of CPP, and provided a powerful molecular target for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of CPP.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Author(s):  
Yu Zhou ◽  
Shan Xu ◽  
Jiao Liu ◽  
Yaping Zhu ◽  
Yaxin Zhu ◽  
...  

GKN2 (gastrokine 2) mainly plays a regulatory role in gastric mucosal defense and cell protection mechanisms, and its role in gastric cancer has not been thoroughly elucidated. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect GKN2 and TFF1 expressions in 90 gastric cancer tissues, 48 neoplastic resection margins, and 22 normal gastric mucosa epithelia. It showed that the downregulation of GKN2 and TFF1 expressions in gastric cancer tissues was significantly different from that in adjacent normal gastric tissues and distal gastric mucosal tissues. Nevertheless, correlation analysis showed that GKN2 expression in gastric cancer tissues was independent of TFF1 expression. After overexpression of GKN2 was constructed in human gastric cancer cell line MKN28 with the Ad-GFP-GKN2 transfected, cell viability was measured by CCK-8 assay, and migration and invasion ability were analyzed by transwell migration assay and transwell invasion assay. It indicated that overexpression of GKN2 significantly reduced the viability of MKN28 and SGC7901 cells. Overexpression of GKN2 could also inhibit the migration and invasion ability in MKN28 and SGC7901 cells. In addition, upregulation of GKN2 can inactivate the JAK2/STAT3 pathway. Our data suggest that GKN2 and TFF1 play the antitumor role in gastric carcinoma, and TFF1 may not interact or cooperate with GKN2. GKN2 overexpression can inhibit the growth and metastasis by downregulating the JAK2/STAT3 pathway in gastric cancer cells.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Author(s):  
Yanling Wang ◽  
Shengbing Wu ◽  
Leijing Chen ◽  
Guo Xu ◽  
Xiaoxiao Wang ◽  
...  

Introduction. Moxibustion, a traditional Chinese medicine technique, involves the use of moxa smoke from Folium Artemisia argyi to treat various disorders, especially superficial infections. However, there is a higher health risk for people exposed to high levels of moxa smoke for extended durations. Here, we report the first ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) fingerprint profiles and pharmacodynamic evaluation of moxa smoke, as well as evaluation of its aqueous solution on a rat model of superficial infection. Methods. A novel method for moxa smoke fingerprint profiling was developed using UHPLC under characteristic wavelength. Chromatographic peaks were further analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF/MS). 12 sample batches obtained from various Chinese provinces were then analyzed using similarity evaluation, clustering analysis, and principal component analysis. The pharmacodynamics of moxa smoke and moxa aqueous solution were investigated on a rat model of acute skin wound infection. Results. UHPLC fingerprint profiles of 12 batches of moxa smoke were generated at 270 nm wavelength and 21 chromatographic peaks extracted as common peaks. Similarity between the 12 batches ranged from 0.341 to 0.982. Based on cluster analysis, the 12 batches of moxa smoke samples were clustered into five groups. Principal component analysis showed that the cumulative contribution of the three principal components reached 90.17%. Eigenvalues of the first, second, and third principal components were 10.794, 6.504, and 1.638, respectively. The corresponding variance contribution rates were 51.40%, 30.97%, and 7.80%, respectively. Pharmacological analysis found that wound healing was slow in the model group relative to the mupirocin ointment, moxa smoke, and aqueous moxa smoke solution groups. Histological analysis revealed markedly reduced tissue inflammation in rats treated with moxa smoke or its aqueous solution. Conclusions. Moxa smoke and its aqueous solution significantly promote wound healing upon superficial infection. A novel quality control method for moxa smoke was established and evaluated for the first time. As its main effects are unchanged, the transformation of moxa smoke into aqueous moxa smoke improves safety and is a simple and controllable process.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Author(s):  
Xiaoxiao Guo ◽  
Huihui Hao ◽  
Aixia Meng ◽  
Cai Xu ◽  
Yuan Ma ◽  
...  

Acanthopanax giraldii Harms is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat rheumatism, improve joints, and strengthen muscles and bones. The polysaccharides present in A. giraldii Harms contain major bioactive substances, which have antioxidant, anticancer, and antiviral activities. In this study, the structural characterization of the homogeneous polysaccharide isolated from A. giraldii Harms, known as AHP-II, and its immunomodulatory effects in vivo will be studied. High-performance ion chromatography (HPIC) and high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC) based analyses revealed that AHP-II was composed of various monosaccharides, which included rhamnose, arabinose, galactose, glucose, mannose, galacturonic acid, and glucuronic acid in molar ratios of 29.5 : 24.6 : 23.8 : 4.4 : 5.7 : 8.8 : 3.1, respectively, and had a collective molecular weight of 80.21 × 103 Da. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy indicated the presence of a pyranose ring and β-type glycosidic linkages in AHP-II. In addition, immunomodulatory effect analyses of AHP-II that used a cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppressive mouse model demonstrated that its treatment could significantly restore spleen and thymus indices, promote the proliferation of splenic lymphocytes, elevate CD4+ T lymphocyte percentage and CD4+ : CD8+ ratio in the spleen, promote macrophage phagocytosis, and restore cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, IgM, and IgG) levels. These results suggested that AHP-II could potentially be used as natural immunomodulator and as an alternative treatment to reduce chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-28
Author(s):  
Xiaocong Xu ◽  
Bingbing Gao ◽  
Xiongying Li ◽  
Shanshan Lei

Objective. Suanzaoren Decoction (SZRT) is a classic decoction to calm the nerves in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It has been extensively treated as an antianxiety drug in modern times, but the material basis and pharmacological mechanisms are still unclear. To explore the material basis and corresponding potential targets, as well as to elucidate the mechanism of SZRT, network pharmacology and molecular docking methods were utilized. Methods. The main chemical compounds and potential targets of SZRT were collected from the pharmacological database analysis platform (TCMSP). Anxiety targets were obtained from the GeneCards database. Then, a target compound network was established using overlapping genes and the corresponding potential compounds. Protein interaction analysis, GO enrichment, and KEGG pathway enrichment were performed using the STRING database, DAVID database, and KOBAS database. Finally, molecular docking was conducted between MAOB and its corresponding active compound in SZRT to further verify the results. Results. A total of 137 active components in SZRT were screened from the TCMSP database, and 210 corresponding targets were predicted. A total of 5434 anxiety-related targets were obtained from the disease target database, and finally 22 potential targets of SZRT on antianxiety were obtained. The constructed C-T network showed that the average degree of active components was 5.4, and four of them interacted with six or more targets. PPI analysis shows that key genes such as MAOA, MAOB, IL1B, TNF, NR3CI, and HTR3A were identified as potential therapeutic targets. A pathway analysis showed that SZRT may participate in neurotransmitter regulation and immunoregulation in a synergistic way to treat anxiety. The binding energy between the active compounds and MAOB was low, indicating good binding. The results of molecular docking showed that all the 10 active ingredients were able to successfully dock with MAOB, and the binding energy of coumaroyltyramine with MAOB was the lowest, that is, −9.6 kcal/mol, and the binding method was hydrogen bonding. Conclusions. SZRT produces antianxiety effects mainly by affecting the neurotransmitter release, transmission, and immunoregulation. This study provides a new approach to elucidating the molecular mechanism and material basis of SZRT in the treatment of anxiety, and it will also benefit the application of TCM in modern medicine.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Author(s):  
Ya-Ru Ge ◽  
Na Huan ◽  
Cheng-Long Wang ◽  
Pei-Li Wang

Antiplatelet therapy is the key point in the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Effective and safe antiplatelet therapy can avoid the risk of thrombosis or bleeding again. Herbal and Western medicine combined with antiplatelet therapy for ischemic cardiovascular events is a common phenomenon in clinical application, and more and more animal experiments, in vitro cell experiments, and randomized controlled clinical studies have also clarified the efficacy and interaction mechanism of the combination and safety. Herbal and Western medicine combined with antiplatelet therapy has made some progress in improving aspirin resistance and clopidogrel resistance, enhancing antiplatelet and antithrombotic effect, and reducing gastrointestinal adverse reactions caused by antiplatelet drugs. Both of them play the role of antiplatelet and antithrombotic by reducing platelet adhesion, inhibiting platelet activation and aggregation, and inhibiting platelet release, and the combination of drugs is safe. This article elaborates and analyzes the application progress and prospect of Chinese and Western medicine combined with antiplatelet therapy, in order to provide more theoretical support for future research.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-20
Author(s):  
Ian Cock ◽  
Nothando Mavuso ◽  
Sandy Van Vuuren

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are amongst the most common bacterial infections globally, with ∼11% of the world’s population contracting at least one infection annually. Several South African plants are used in traditional healing systems to treat UTIs, yet the therapeutic potential of these plants against bacteria that cause UTI remains poorly explored. This study documents southern African plant species used traditionally to treat UTIs. An extensive literature review was undertaken to document the southern African plant species that are used in traditional South African medicine to treat UTIs, thereby highlighting gaps in the current research that require further study. One hundred and fifty-three southern African plant species that are used to treat UTIs were identified. Eighty-five southern African plants were identified as having noteworthy inhibitory activity against the major UTI-causing bacteria. Few of those studies screened against all of the bacterial causes of UTIs, and none of those studies examined the mechanism of action of the plant preparations. Furthermore, many of those studies did not test the toxicity of the plant extracts, so an evaluation of the safety for therapeutic usage was lacking. Substantial further research is to determine their potential for therapeutic use.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-14
Author(s):  
Marie Alfrede Mvondo ◽  
Marius Trésor Wego Kamgaing ◽  
Sylvie Léa Wansi Ngnokam

Breast cancer is the most common estrogen-dependent cancer in the world. Hormone therapy for this cancer can be neoadjuvant and/or adjuvant. Herbal remedies with antiproliferative properties are believed to be potential anticancer agents. The aqueous extract of Dacryodes edulis (Burseraceae) leaves (AE), a medicinal plant used against cancer in Cameroon, was found to display antiproliferative effects in ovariectomized rats. Compounds isolated from this plant exhibited anticancer activity in vitro. To determine whether AE has an anticancer potential, its effects were investigated in rats with already developed breast cancer. Mammary tumors were induced by a single subcutaneous administration (under the mammary gland) of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA; 50 mg/kgBW) to immature female rats. After 22–26 weeks of observation, animals with palpable tumors were treated with tamoxifen (3.3 mg/kgBW) and AE at doses of 25 and 100 mg/kgBW. The negative control received distilled water. Treatments were given orally for 21 consecutive days. The volume of mammary tumors was evaluated weekly using a caliper. On day 22, animals were sacrificed. Cholesterol and estradiol levels were assessed in serum, breast tumors, mammary glands, and ovaries. Oxidative status of tumors was evaluated. The histological analysis of mammary glands and breast tumors was performed. Results showed that AE reduced tumor volume and weight ( p < 0.05 ). This effect was associated with reduced cholesterol ( p < 0.001 ) and estradiol ( p < 0.01 ) levels in breast tumors, serum, ovaries, and mammary glands. AE also increased tumors levels of malondialdehyde ( p < 0.05 ) and antioxidant enzymes ( p < 0.01 ). These effects contributed to the decrease in the size of breast alveoli ( p < 0.01 ), the density of cancer cells in breast tumors, and the invasion of these cells into the tumor connective tissue. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of D. edulis leaves, thanks to its ability to inhibit tumor growth, could be considered as a potential alternative for the neoadjuvant treatment of estrogen-dependent breast cancer.


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