Modern, complex software systems are being continuously extended and adjusted. The developers responsible for this may come from different teams or organizations, and may be distributed over the world. This may make it difficult to keep track of what other developers are doing, which may result in multiple developers concurrently editing the same code areas. This, in turn, may lead to hard-to-merge changes or even merge conflicts, logical bugs that are difficult to detect, duplication of work, and wasted developer productivity. To address this, we explore the extent of this problem in the pull-request-based software development model. We study half a year of changes made to six large repositories in Microsoft in which at least 1,000 pull requests are created each month. We find that files concurrently edited in different pull requests are more likely to introduce bugs. Motivated by these findings, we design, implement, and deploy a service named Concurrent Edit Detector (ConE) that proactively detects pull requests containing concurrent edits, to help mitigate the problems caused by them. ConE has been designed to scale, and to minimize false alarms while still flagging relevant concurrently edited files. Key concepts of ConE include the detection of the
Extent of Overlap
between pull requests, and the identification of
Rarely Concurrently Edited Files
. To evaluate ConE, we report on its operational deployment on 234 repositories inside Microsoft. ConE assessed 26,000 pull requests and made 775 recommendations about conflicting changes, which were rated as useful in over 70% (554) of the cases. From interviews with 48 users, we learned that they believed ConE would save time in conflict resolution and avoiding duplicate work, and that over 90% intend to keep using the service on a daily basis.
Aristotle's On the Soul aims to uncover the principle of life, what Aristotle calls psuchē (soul). For Aristotle, soul is the form which gives life to a body and causes all its living activities, from breathing to thinking. Aristotle develops a general account of all types of living through examining soul's causal powers. The thirteen new essays in this Critical Guide demonstrate the profound influence of Aristotle's inquiry on biology, psychology and philosophy of mind from antiquity to the present. They deepen our understanding of his key concepts, including form, reason, capacity, and activity. This volume situates Aristotle in his intellectual context and draws judiciously from his other works as well as the history of interpretation to shed light on his intricate views. It also highlights ongoing interpretive debates and Aristotle's continuing relevance. It will prove invaluable for researchers in ancient philosophy and the history of science and ideas.
Suitable for both graduate and senior undergraduate students, this textbook offers a logical progression through the underlying principles and practical applications of nonlinear photonics. Building up from essential physics, general concepts, and fundamental mathematical formulations, it provides a robust introduction to nonlinear optical processes and phenomena, and their practical applications in real-world devices and systems. Over 45 worked problems illustrate key concepts and provide hands-on models for students, and over 160 end-of-chapter exercises supply students with plenty of scope to master the material. Accompanied by a complete solutions manual for instructors, including detailed explanations of each result, and drawing on the author's 35 years of teaching experience, this is the ideal introduction to nonlinear photonics for students in electrical engineering.
International academic visits by university faculty members are common around the world. While most researchers approach such an international experience in terms of intercultural communication and acculturation, in this study we view the travel experience as a learning opportunity in light of Mezirow’s transformative learning theory (TLT). Drawing on Singleton’s ‘3H model’ (head-heart-hands), we find that the outcomes of transformative learning (TL) are related to cognitive, affective and behavioral domains, the prevalence of which were then explored among 314 visiting scholars. The results are further interpreted by drawing on key concepts from TLT to better understand the learning process. We conclude that the international experience is beneficial for scholars’ sustainable development, and call for more study abroad opportunities for Chinese university faculty.
The aim of this chapter is to show how omnichannel tools must be applied through the process of creating experiences for the consumers. During the literature review, some authors make approaches to the key concepts connecting omnichannels and consumer experiences; therefore, they explain through the analysis of data the reality of the Ecuadorian environment and global trends. With this context, this chapter will present how, by using macro environment and accessibility, a unique experience may be created in the customer journey in omnichannel.
Depression is a prevalent and severe medical illness that negatively affects how people feel, think, and act, with estimates pointing towards more than 300 million suffering from depression worldwide. Although effective treatments exist, about 80% of people in low and middle-income countries do not receive therapy. Therefore, technology has become a promising tool to assist in reducing disparities. This study aims to identify and map the available evidence on mobile health applied to depression and clarify key concepts. The authors analyzed clinical trials developed over the last five years. EBSCO and PubMed were searched, and a total of 14 conducted RCTs were selected and reviewed. Despite some limitations regarding dropout rates and several ethical and safety concerns, the mobile mental health future seems promising.
The purpose of this chapter is to analyze and review trends in digital terminology. The chapter begins by examining the origins of computerization in the United States during the 19th and 20th centuries. Next, the chapter examines the key concepts punch cards and computer science. The chapter then discusses how the term computer science is misleading. This is followed by a discussion of how information technology became the most popular term in the US. The chapter then switches focus to Europe and discusses France's promotion of informatique as well as Europe's switch from informatics to ICT. Next, the chapter considers how the internet has given rise to terms like e-commerce. The chapter concludes by considering the transition from ICT to digital informing and informing technology.
ABSTRACT Context: measurement of earnings management usually requires multi-step models for computation. After examining the literature through bibliometrics studies, literature review, and research databases, we found that the Standard Jones model and its subsequent modifications are those that have more prominent use. Much of this research is potentially interesting for business theories related to earnings quality and accounting manipulation; however, it is difficult to be understood by junior researchers and practitioners, because they are not clearly described in the literature or the steps may be easy to confuse. Objective: in this tutorial, we present several key concepts about earnings management and explain, step by step, how to measure it. Method: our tutorial considers measurement using the following models: Standard Jones, Modified Jones, Modified Jones with return on assets (ROA), and Modified Jones using Cash Flows and Accruals Reversals. Conclusions: our main contribution with this tutorial is to provide a step-by-step guide for future studies, so that they can be more comparable with each other when using measurement methods of earnings management.
AbstractThe chapter addresses the health of children and young people in the school setting with a special focus on experiences from Health Promoting Schools (HPS) and selected health promotion projects in schools. On the basis of brief definitions of the salutogenic orientation and the health promoting school model, comparisons will be conducted with regard to key concepts and principles of the two approaches to children’s health. A brief literature overview on the use of salutogenic concepts in relation to schools and health-promoting schools also is presented and discussed.