Demographic Variables
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2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (11) ◽  
pp. 300-315
Samia Awad Mohamed Hassan ◽  
Mona Abdullatif Alawed Kherallah ◽  
Abbulnaser A. Fakhrou

The objective of this study is to know the level of possessing supra-cognitive thinking skills for the students of the Faculty of Law at Prince Mohammed Bin Fahd University from their own point of view according to some demographic variables. The study followed the descriptive approach, and applied the study tool to a randomly selected sample of (500) students (102) male students, and (398) female students. The results of the study showed that: the study sample members sometimes agree that the law students possess three of the supra-cognitive thinking skills. The study also revealed that there are no statistically significant differences at the level of statistical index of (0.05) or less in the study sample selections about (supra-cognitive thinking skills) based on gender variable. While there are statistically significant differences at the level of statistical index of (0.05) or less, in the replies of the study sample about (supra -cognitive thinking skills) based on the difference of the variable of the study level.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Amalia Rodrigo-González ◽  
María Caballer-Tarazona ◽  
Aurora García-Gallego

The purpose of this paper is analyzing whether trust and reciprocity are affected by how rich the partner is or how well the partner performed several tasks with real effort. A trust game (TG) experiment is designed with three treatments. First, a baseline Treatment B in which subjects play a finitely repeated TG. Second, in a Treatment H with history, subjects know the partner’s wealth level reached in the past. Third, in a Treatment E with effort the individual endowment with which the TG is played is endogenous and results from the subject’s performance in three different real effort tasks (maths, cognitive and general knowledge related). The data analysis highlights the importance of past wealth levels (Treatment H) as well as endowment heterogeneity (Treatment E), on the actual levels of trust and reciprocity. Specifically, it is observed that the decision of trustors is positively affected by positive past experienced reciprocity. Moreover, trustors are sensitive to how much money the trustee accumulates each round in Treatment H, trusting more the ones that have accumulated less compared to themselves. In contrast with that, it is remarkable in Treatment E that trustors are sensitive to the endowment level of the trustees, trusting more the partners that have got a higher than own endowment, probably considering that a person that performed better in the tasks is a better partner to trust. As far as second players’ behavior, as the amount received from the trustor increases it is less likely that the trustee reciprocates with higher than or with the egalitarian amount. In Treatments H and E, the probability that the trustee reciprocates with higher amount that the one received increases when inequality in endowment/accumulated earnings favors the trustor. Additional results come from analysis of personality archetypes and socio-demographic variables.

2021 ◽  
Chaorui C Huang

Background: We aimed to evaluate the risk factors for Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) related severe outcome (in-hospital death) among the hospitalized patients in New York State (NYS) and proposed a method that could be used to inform future work to develop clinical algorithms and predict resource needs for hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Methods: We analyzed covid-19 related hospitalization in NYS from April 1st to November 17th, 2020, using Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) discharge dataset. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the risk factors for COVID-19 related in-hospital death using demographic variables, symptom, rapid clinical examination, and medical history of chronic co-morbid conditions. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated, and cut-off points for predictors were selected to stage the risk of COVID-19 related fatal outcome. Results: Logistic regression analysis showed age was the greatest risk factor for COVID-19 related fatal outcome among the hospitalized patients, which by itself achieved the diagnostic accuracy of 0.78 represented by the area under the ROC curve. By adding other demographic variables, dyspnea or hypoxemia and multiple chronic co-morbid conditions, the diagnostic accuracy was improved to 0.85. We selected cut-off points for predictors and provided a general recommendation to categorize the levels of risk for COVID-19 related fatal outcome. Conclusions: We assessed risk factors associated with in-hospital COVID-19 mortality and identified cut-off points that might be used to categorize the level of risk. Further studies are warranted to evaluate laboratory tests and develop laboratory biomarkers to improve the diagnostic accuracy for early intervention.

Aleena Thomas ◽  
Anagha KV ◽  
Febin Irshad ◽  
Jyothilakshmi Jyothilakshmi ◽  
Kripa Chinnu ◽  

Background: In January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that Covid-19 is characterized as pandemic. It is a major health crisis affecting several nations. The crisis generates stresses throughout the population. This pandemic condition is leading the public to experience psychosocial problems such as post- traumatic stress disorders, psychological distress, depression and anxiety. Objectives: 1. To assess the psychosocial issues of family members of third year BSc nursing students regarding the covid-19 pandemic. 2. To find out the association between the psychosocial issues with demographic variables. 3. To implement psychosocial education to overcome the psychosocial issues related to covid -19 pandemic. Methodology: A Non-experimental descriptive survey design was used to assess the perceived psychosocial issues associated with COVID-19 pandemic among the family members. The study was conducted among 50 samples selected by inclusion and exclusion criteria through random sampling technique. The data was collected by using a baseline data questionnaire. The data were collected, tabulated and analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. Chi-square test was used to find out the association between selected demographic variables and psychological issues. Results: In the present study, the finding shows that the 76% of the parents have moderate impact on daily life style. 64% of parents have a mild impact on finance. 61% of the parents have mild insomnia. 60% of the parents have moderate level of anxiety and depression. Conclusion: The study concludes that psychosocial issues are a common phenomenon among the parents and grandparents.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0260230
Julia Brailovskaia ◽  
Silvia Schneider ◽  
Jürgen Margraf

Researcher teams around the globe including the “Project Lightspeed” are intensively working on vaccines to fight the Covid-19 pandemic. However, the availability of effective vaccines does not guarantee the vaccination willingness among the population. In spring 2021, we investigated the vaccination willingness and its potential predictors in representative online samples in nine countries (China, France, Germany, Poland, Russia, Spain, Sweden, U.K., U.S.). Of the 9,264 participants, 79.9% revealed Covid-19 vaccination willingness. The highest willingness was in the U.K., followed by Spain and China, the lowest in Russia. In most countries, the perception of governmental Covid-19 measures as useful and the use of television reports as Covid-19 information source positively predicted the willingness. Further factors such as demographic variables, mental and physical health status, evaluation of governmental communication, social media use, and general adherence to Covid-19 measures showed a country-specific predictive pattern. Recommendations how to increase the vaccination willingness are provided.

Namrata B. Khandagale

‘Assessment of the factors influencing and barriers associated with menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls of selected urban schools in view to develop information booklet.’ Objectives: 1. To assess the factors influencing Incidence of menstrual hygiene among the adolescent girls. 2. To assess the barriers associated with menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls. 3.To find association between the study findings and selected demographic variables. Material and Methods: The research approach adopted in this study is Observational research approach. Non- experimental descriptive research design was used. The sample were selected by Non-probability convenient sampling technique sample size was 100. Results: 1. 75% of the adolescent girls understand menstruation as the physiological process, 9% of them consider it as pathological process, 3% of them consider it as a cause for god and 13% of them don't know what menstruation is about. 2. 73% of the adolescent girls avoid visiting public places during menstruation due to lack of toilet facilities in public area, 14% of them avoid visiting public places because they feel shy to use public toilet and 13% of them avoid using public places due to cultural barriers.

Tripti Gardia ◽  
Veena Rajput ◽  
Priti Bhatt ◽  
Sindhu Anil Menon

Introduction: Leucorrhoea is an abnormal excessive vaginal discharge often associated with irritation1. This is the most common gynaecological problem that brings the women to gynec out patient. The symptom may be associated with cancer phobia2. It can be symptom of underlying pelvic pathology3. It accounts for more than an estimated of 1/4th genaec patients visits to gynaecologis4. It is one of the common problems that women’s has to face in their lifetime. Sometimes this symptom is so severe that, it over shadows actual disease and women seek the treatment of only this symptom3. Material And Methods: Pre-experimental, one group pre-test post-test research design was adopted. A total of 60 samples were selected using non-probability purposive sampling technique. The tool used for the study comprises of two sections. Section A-Socio-demographic variables such as Age, Religion, Educational status, Type of family, Residential area, Period of work exposure in clinical area, Previous knowledge related to the topic and main source of information. Section B- comprises of online self- structured knowledge questionnaire to assess the knowledge regarding leucorrhoea and its prevention among nursing 3rd year students which includes 30 questions. Result: The study findings reveled that pre- test score of the majority of students 18 (30%) had average knowledge score whereas 21 (35%) need for improvement in their knowledge level, post-test majority 60 (100%) had good knowledge. Pre-test mean score were 15.5 and SD was 5.7 whereas the post-test mean was 25.83 and SD 1.65. The t-value 3.04, (df.59) which is highly significant and greater than table value 2.0010 at 0.05 level of significance which proves the effectiveness of the planned teaching programme. Chi-square analysis shows significant association between period of work in clinical area and source of information of subjects. Conclusion: The results suggest that supporting, reassuring and educating B.Sc. nursing students and giving information on leucorrhoea and its prevention was effective to increase knowledge and helps them to changes their strategy in self care and are recommended to promote positive attitudes towards personal hygiene.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Luisa Fernanda Arenas Ochoa ◽  
Valentina González-Jaramillo ◽  
Clara Saldarriaga ◽  
Mariantonia Lemos ◽  
Alicia Krikorian ◽  

Abstract Background Few hospitals and heart failure (HF) clinics offer concurrent palliative care (PC) together with life-prolonging therapies. To know the prevalence of patients in HF clinics needing PC and useful tools to recognize them are the first steps to extending PC in those settings. However, it is still unknown whether tools commonly used to identify patients with HF needing PC can correctly distinguish them. Two systematic reviews found that the NECesidades PALiativas (NECPAL) tool was one of the two most commonly used tools to asses PC needs in HF patients. Therefore, we assessed 1) the prevalence of PC needs in HF clinics according to the NECPAL tool, and 2) the characteristics of the patients identified as having PC; mainly, their quality of life (QoL), symptom burden, and psychosocial problems. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted at two HF clinics in Colombia. We assessed the prevalence of PC in the overall sample and in subgroups according to clinical and demographic variables. We assessed QoL, symptom burden, and psychosocial problems using the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12), the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) and the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS). We compared the results of these tools between patients identified as having PC needs (+NECPAL) and patients identified as not having PC needs (–NECPAL). Results Among the 178 patients, 78 (44%) had PC needs. The prevalence of PC needs was twice as nigh in patients NYHA III/IV as in patients NYHA I/II and almost twice as high in patients older than 70 years as in patients younger than 70 years. Compared to –NECPAL patients, +NECPAL patients had worse QoL, more severe shortness of breath, tiredness, drowsiness, and pain, and more psychosocial problems. Conclusion The prevalence of PC needs in outpatient HF clinics is high and is even higher in older patients and in patients at more advanced NYHA stages. Compared to patients identified as not having PC needs, patients identified as having PC needs have worse QoL, more severe symptoms, and greater psychosocial problems. Including a PC provider in the multidisciplinary team of HF clinics may help to assess and cover these needs.

Vijayamma Ajmera ◽  
Iqbal Mohammed Sheikh ◽  
Sumant Kumar Dadhich

Practice related to demonstration on pulmonary rehabilitation techniques are posing a great threat globally in COPD patient's mortality and morbidity, COPD is an increasing health problem globally and India is not an exemption. The patients have poor practice related to pulmonary rehabilitation techniques. Present study is aimed to assess the effectiveness of demonstration on practice regarding pulmonary rehabilitation techniques among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in selected hospital at Udaipur city, Rajasthan. 60 samples was selected using Non probability purposive sampling techniques. The findings revealed that In pre test 88.33% respondents were found with poor level of practice whereas with post test 21.67% of the respondents had poor practice level, 11.67% respondents had average practice level in the pre test whereas in post test it was 75.00%, there were no respondents found with good practice level in pre test whereas in post test good respondents level improved to 3.33%. The study concluded that there was significant improvement in the level of practice of patient with COPD regarding pulmonary rehabilitation techniques. Which indicated that the demonstration was effective. The study also revealed that there is a significant association between pre test practice scores with selected socio demographic variables. Hence this kind of practice should be conducted from time to time for patients so that their practice can be improved by pulmonary rehabilitation techniques and reduce the breathing complications in COPD patients.

2021 ◽  
Frederik Juhl Jørgensen ◽  
Michael Bang Petersen

Background: Since the initial phases of vaccination campaigns, health authorities across the world have recommended vaccination of children between 15 and 18; and since the summer of 2021, vaccinations of children between 12 and 15 have been recommended. Recently, American and European Health Authorities have approved the use of a vaccine against COVID-19 for children between age 5 and 11. In this article, we ask what predicts parents’ intention to vaccinate their children against COVID-19. Methods: We use empirical data from a large-scale survey in Denmark about vaccine intentions. The survey included a subsample of 794 parents to children aged 6-15. For this group of parents, we assess key predictors (including demographics, predispositions, vaccine perceptions, and vaccine barriers) of parents’ acceptance of a vaccine for their child against COVID-19. Results: We propose that the vaccine decision follows a stepwise process: demographic variables shape parents’ predispositions, which again shape their specific perceptions of the safety and effectiveness - both in general and for their children - of the particular vaccine. Moreover, we argue that vaccine barriers will moderate this process. Our results demonstrate that parents’ intention to get their children vaccinated against COVID-19 is not driven by considerations regarding the disease of COVID-19 but by considerations of the safety of vaccines and added benefits of vaccination such as normalizing societal and everyday life. The balance of these considerations shift depending on the child's age, with lower acceptance for younger children. Furthermore, the content of considerations are shaped by trust in the health authorities and factual vaccine knowledge. Conclusion: To increase parents' acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine for their children, health authorities should focus on establishing and communicating evidence for the safety of vaccines and the impact of vaccination for their everyday lives.

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