Rna Binding Protein
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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (11) ◽  
Bingyan Li ◽  
Guang Zhang ◽  
Zhongyu Wang ◽  
Yang Yang ◽  
Chenfeng Wang ◽  

AbstractThe c-Myc oncoprotein plays a prominent role in cancer initiation, progression, and maintenance. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are recently emerging as critical regulators of the c-Myc signaling pathway. Here, we report the lncRNA USP2-AS1 as a direct transcriptional target of c-Myc. Functionally, USP2-AS1 inhibits cellular senescence and acts as an oncogenic molecule by inducing E2F1 expression. Mechanistically, USP2-AS1 associates with the RNA-binding protein G3BP1 and facilitates the interaction of G3BP1 to E2F1 3′-untranslated region, thereby leading to the stabilization of E2F1 messenger RNA. Furthermore, USP2-AS1 is shown as a mediator of the oncogenic function of c-Myc via the regulation of E2F1. Together, these findings suggest that USP2-AS1 is a negative regulator of cellular senescence and also implicates USP2-AS1 as an important player in mediating c-Myc function.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (10) ◽  
pp. e0009899
Ludmila A. Assis ◽  
Moezio V. C. Santos Filho ◽  
Joao R. da Cruz Silva ◽  
Maria J. R. Bezerra ◽  
Irassandra R. P. U. C. de Aquino ◽  

Poly(A) Binding Proteins (PABPs) are major eukaryotic RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) with multiple roles associated with mRNA stability and translation and characterized mainly from multicellular organisms and yeasts. A variable number of PABP homologues are seen in different organisms however the biological reasons for multiple PABPs are generally not well understood. In the unicellular Leishmania, dependent on post-transcriptional mechanisms for the control of its gene expression, three distinct PABPs are found, with yet undefined functional distinctions. Here, using RNA-immunoprecipitation sequencing analysis we show that the Leishmania PABP1 preferentially associates with mRNAs encoding ribosomal proteins, while PABP2 and PABP3 bind to an overlapping set of mRNAs distinct to those enriched in PABP1. Immunoprecipitation studies combined to mass-spectrometry analysis identified RBPs differentially associated with PABP1 or PABP2, including RBP23 and DRBD2, respectively, that were investigated further. Both RBP23 and DRBD2 bind directly to the three PABPs in vitro, but reciprocal experiments confirmed preferential co-immunoprecipitation of PABP1, as well as the EIF4E4/EIF4G3 based translation initiation complex, with RBP23. Other RBP23 binding partners also imply a direct role in translation. DRBD2, in contrast, co-immunoprecipitated with PABP2, PABP3 and with RBPs unrelated to translation. Over 90% of the RBP23-bound mRNAs code for ribosomal proteins, mainly absent from the transcripts co-precipitated with DRBD2. These experiments suggest a novel and specific route for translation of the ribosomal protein mRNAs, mediated by RBP23, PABP1 and the associated EIF4E4/EIF4G3 complex. They also highlight the unique roles that different PABP homologues may have in eukaryotic cells associated with mRNA translation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (11) ◽  
Tao Zhang ◽  
Guangquan Zhang ◽  
Wenbo Yang ◽  
Hongze Chen ◽  
Jisheng Hu ◽  

AbstractChronic pancreatitis (CP) is described as progressive inflammatory fibrosis of pancreas, accompanied with irreversible impaired endocrine and exocrine insufficiency. Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) are widely distributed in the stroma of the pancreas and PSCs activation has been shown as one of the leading causes for pancreatic fibrosis. Our previous study has revealed that autophagy is dramatically activated in CP tissues, which facilitates PSCs activation and pancreatic fibrosis. Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) have been recognized as crucial regulators for fibrosis-related diseases. LncRNAs interact with RNA binding protein or construct competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) hypothesis which elicited the fibrotic processes. Until now, the effects of lncRNAs on PSCs activation and pancreatic fibrosis have not been clearly explored. In this study, a novel lncRNA named Lnc-PFAR was found highly expressed in mouse and human CP tissues. Our data revealed that Lnc-PFAR facilitates PSCs activation and pancreatic fibrosis via RB1CC1-induced autophagy. Lnc-PFAR reduces miR-141 expression by suppressing pre-miR-141 maturation, which eventually upregulates the RB1CC1 and fibrosis-related indicators expression. Meanwhile, Lnc-PFAR enhanced PSCs activation and pancreatic fibrosis through trigging autophagy. Our study interrogates a novel lncRNA-induced mechanism in promoting the development of pancreatic fibrosis, and Lnc-PFAR is suggested to be a prospective therapeutic target in clinical scenarios.

2021 ◽  
Hsiao-Yun Chen ◽  
Yavuz T. Durmaz ◽  
Yixiang Li ◽  
Amin H. Sabet ◽  
Amir Vajdi ◽  

Some small cell lung cancers (SCLCs) are highly sensitive to inhibitors of the histone demethylase LSD1. LSD1 inhibitors are thought to induce their anti-proliferative effects by blocking neuroendocrine differentiation, but the mechanisms by which LSD1 controls the SCLC neuroendocrine phenotype are not well understood. To identify genes required for LSD1 inhibitor sensitivity in SCLC, we performed a positive selection genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 loss of function screen and found that ZFP36L1, an mRNA-binding protein that destabilizes mRNAs, is required for LSD1 inhibitor sensitivity. LSD1 binds and represses ZFP36L1 and upon LSD1 inhibition, ZFP36L1 expression is restored, which is sufficient to block the SCLC neuroendocrine differentiation phenotype and induce a non-neuroendocrine inflammatory phenotype. Mechanistically, ZFP36L1 binds and destabilizes SOX2 and INSM1 mRNAs, two transcription factors that are required for SCLC neuroendocrine differentiation. This work identifies ZFP36L1 as an LSD1 target gene that controls the SCLC neuroendocrine phenotype and demonstrates that modulating mRNA stability of lineage transcription factors controls neuroendocrine to non-neuroendocrine plasticity.

Franziska Trnka ◽  
Christian Hoffmann ◽  
Han Wang ◽  
Roberto Sansevrino ◽  
Branislava Rankovic ◽  

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that leads to the death of upper and lower motor neurons. While most cases of ALS are sporadic, some of the familial forms of the disease are caused by mutations in the gene encoding for the RNA-binding protein FUS. Under physiological conditions, FUS readily phase separates into liquid-like droplets in vivo and in vitro. ALS-associated mutations interfere with this process and often result in solid-like aggregates rather than fluid condensates. Yet, whether cells recognize and triage aberrant condensates remains poorly understood, posing a major barrier to the development of novel ALS treatments. Using a combination of ALS-associated FUS mutations, optogenetic manipulation of FUS condensation, chemically induced stress, and pH-sensitive reporters of organelle acidity, we systematically characterized the cause-effect relationship between the material state of FUS condensates and the sequestering of lysosomes. From our data, we can derive three conclusions. First, regardless of whether we use wild-type or mutant FUS, expression levels (i.e., high concentrations) play a dominant role in determining the fraction of cells having soluble or aggregated FUS. Second, chemically induced FUS aggregates recruit LAMP1-positive structures. Third, mature, acidic lysosomes accumulate only at FUS aggregates but not at liquid-condensates. Together, our data suggest that lysosome-degradation machinery actively distinguishes between fluid and solid condensates. Unraveling these aberrant interactions and testing strategies to manipulate the autophagosome-lysosome axis provides valuable clues for disease intervention.

2021 ◽  
Sarah Rennie ◽  
Daniel Heidar Magnusson ◽  
Robin Andersson

RNA editing by ADAR (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA) is gaining an increased interest in the field of post-transcriptional regulation. Fused to an RNA-binding protein (RBP) of interest, the catalytic activity of ADAR results in A-to-I RNA edits, whose identification will determine RBP-bound RNA transcripts. However, the computational tools available for their identification and differential RNA editing statistical analysis are limited or too specialised for general-purpose usage. Here we present hyperTRIBER, a flexible suite of tools, wrapped into a convenient R package, for the detection of differential RNA editing. hyperTRIBER is applicable to complex scenarios and experimental designs, and provides a robust statistical framework allowing for the control for coverage of reads at a given base, the total expression level and other co-variates. We demonstrate the capabilities of our approach on HyperTRIBE RNA-seq data for the detection of bound RNAs by the N6-methyladenosine (m6A) reader protein ECT2 in Arabidopsis roots. We show that hyperTRIBER finds edits with a high statistical power, even where editing proportions and RNA transcript expression levels are low, together demonstrating its usability and versatility for analysing differential RNA editing.

2021 ◽  
Yiping Chai ◽  
Yuanyuan Jiang ◽  
Junya Wang ◽  
Dexin Qiao ◽  
Yu Zhang ◽  

Prime editing is a universal and very promising precise genome editing technology. However, optimization of prime editor (PE) from different aspects remains vital for its use as a routine tool in plant basic research and crop molecular breeding. In this report, we tested MS2-based prime editor (MS2PE). We fused the M-MLV reverse transcriptase (RT) gene variant to the MS2 RNA binding protein gene, MCP, and allowed the MCP-RT fusion gene to co-express with the SpCas9 nickase gene, SpCas9H840A, and various engineered pegRNAs harboring MS2 RNA (MS2pegR). Compared with control PEs, MS2PEs significantly enhanced editing efficiency at four of six targets in rice protoplasts, and achieved 1.2~10.1-fold increase in editing efficiency at five of six targets in transgenic rice lines. Furthermore, we tested total 22 different MS2pegR scaffolds, 3 RT variants or genes, 2 MCP variants, and various combinations of the Cas9 nickase, RT, and MCP modules. Our results demonstrated an alternative strategy for enhancing prime editing.

2021 ◽  
Hongdong Ma ◽  
yueming Jiang ◽  
Haitian Li ◽  
Maowei Yang

Abstract In recent years, type 2 diabetic osteoporosis has become a research hotspot for the complications of diabetes, but the specific mechanism of its occurrence and development remain unknown. Ferroptosis caused by iron overload is considered to be one of the important cause of type 2 diabetic osteoporosis. Polycytosine RNA-binding protein 1 (PCBP1), an iron ion chaperone, was considered as a protector of ferroptosis. The present study aimed to investigate the existence of ferroptosis and specific role of PCBP1 in the development of type 2 diabetes. Firstly, a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay was used to detect the changes of osteoblast viability under the influence of high glucose (HG) and/or ferroptosis inhibitor given at different concentrations and at different times. In addition, the morphological changes of mitochondria in osteoblasts under high glucose were examined via transmission electron microscopy, and the expression levels of PCBP1, ferritin and the ferroptosis-related protein glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) under the action of high glucose were detected via western blotting. Furthermore, a lentivirus was used to silence and overexpress PCBP1. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of levels of the osteoblast functional proteins osteoprotegerin (OPG) and osteocalcin (OCN), while flow cytometry was used to detect the changes of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in each group. Under the action of high glucose, the viability of osteoblasts was significantly decreased and the number of mitochondria undergoing atrophy was significantly increased, PCBP1 and ferritin expression levels were increased and GPX4 expression was decreased. Western blotting results demonstrated that infection of the lentivirus overexpressing PCBP1, increased the expression levels of ferritin, GPX4, OPG and OCN, compared with the high glucose group. The flow cytometry results identified a reduction in ROS, and an opposite result was obtained after silencing PCBP1. In conclusion, it was suggested that PCBP1 may protect osteoblasts and reduce the harm caused by ferroptosis by promoting ferritin expression under a high glucose environment. Moreover, it was indicated that PCBP1 may be a potential therapeutic target for treating type 2 diabetic osteoporosis.

2021 ◽  
Yanzhou Zhang ◽  
Mahmoud Bassal ◽  
Daniel Friedrich ◽  
Simone Ummarino ◽  
Tom Verbiest ◽  

C/EBPα has known to be a transcription factor that involved in Neutrophil differentiation for decades. However, exploring the Chromatin RNA Immunoprecipitation Sequencing (RIP), we discover that C/EBPα is a RNA binding protein mainly interacts with RNA introns. Structure study and RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assay (REMSA) show that C/EBPα interacts with RNA through two novel RNA binding domains distinct from its DNA binding domain. Mouse bone marrow transplantation and in vitro cytokine assay reveal that C/EBPα RNA binding is critical for Macrophage differentiation but not Neutrophil differentiation. Mechanically, RNA binding domains control specific gene transcription. In particular, PU.1 intron 4 RNA interacts with C/EBPα and recruit C/EBPα to its enhancer site, which facilitate PU.1 expression. Taken together, C/EBPα is demonstrated to be a RNA binding protein with unique function distinct from its DNA binding activity. Our finding transforms our knowledge of transcriptional regulation by transcription factor.

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