rna binding protein
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Dong Suk Yoon ◽  
Kyoung-Mi Lee ◽  
Yoorim Choi ◽  
Eun Ae Ko ◽  
Na-Hyun Lee ◽  

Charlotte Dahlem ◽  
Ali Abuhaliema ◽  
Sonja M. Kessler ◽  
Tarek Kröhler ◽  
Ben G. E. Zoller ◽  

2022 ◽  
Neva Caliskan ◽  
Chris H. Hill

Cardioviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses of the family Picornaviridae. In addition to being the first example of internal ribosome entry site utilization, cardioviruses also employ a series of alternative translation strategies, such as Stop-Go translation and programmed ribosome frameshifting. Here, we focus on cardiovirus 2A protein, which is not only a primary virulence factor, but also exerts crucial regulatory functions during translation, including activation of viral ribosome frameshifting and inhibition of host cap-dependent translation. Only recently, biochemical and structural studies have allowed us to close the gaps in our knowledge of how cardiovirus 2A is able to act in diverse translation-related processes as a novel RNA-binding protein. This review will summarize these findings, which ultimately may lead to the discovery of other RNA-mediated gene expression strategies across a broad range of RNA viruses.

2022 ◽  
Yichang Jia

Emerging evidence suggests that intron-detaining transcripts (IDTs) are a nucleus-detained and polyadenylated mRNA pool for cell to quickly and effectively respond to environmental stimuli and stress. However, the underlying mechanisms of detained intron (DI) splicing are still largely unknown. Here, we suggest that post-transcriptional DI splicing is paused at Bact 29 state, an active spliceosome but not catalytically primed, which depends on SNIP1 (Smad Nuclear Interacting Protein 1) and RNPS1 (a serine-rich RNA binding protein) interaction. RNPS1 and Bact component preferentially dock at DIs and the RNPS1 docking is sufficient to trigger spliceosome pausing. Haploinsufficiency of Snip1 attenuates neurodegeneration and globally rescues IDT accumulation caused by a previously reported mutant U2 snRNA, a basal spliceosomal component. Snip1 conditional knockout in cerebellum decreases DI splicing efficiency and causes neurodegeneration. Therefore, we suggest that SNIP1 and RNPS1 form a molecular brake for the spliceosome pausing, and that its misregulation contributes to neurodegeneration.

Kausik Bishayee ◽  
Khadija Habib ◽  
Uddin Md. Nazim ◽  
Jieun Kang ◽  
Aniko Szabo ◽  

Abstract Background Neuronal-origin HuD (ELAVL4) is an RNA binding protein overexpressed in neuroblastoma (NB) and certain other cancers. The RNA targets of this RNA binding protein in neuroblastoma cells and their role in promoting cancer survival have been unexplored. In the study of modulators of mTORC1 activity under the conditions of optimal cell growth and starvation, the role of HuD and its two substrates were studied. Methods RNA immunoprecipitation/sequencing (RIP-SEQ) coupled with quantitative real-time PCR were used to identify substrates of HuD in NB cells. Validation of the two RNA targets of HuD was via reverse capture of HuD by synthetic RNA oligoes from cell lysates and binding of RNA to recombinant forms of HuD in the cell and outside of the cell. Further analysis was via RNA transcriptome analysis of HuD silencing in the test cells. Results In response to stress, HuD was found to dampen mTORC1 activity and allow the cell to upregulate its autophagy levels by suppressing mTORC1 activity. Among mRNA substrates regulated cell-wide by HuD, GRB-10 and ARL6IP1 were found to carry out critical functions for survival of the cells under stress. GRB-10 was involved in blocking mTORC1 activity by disrupting Raptor-mTOR kinase interaction. Reduced mTORC1 activity allowed lifting of autophagy levels in the cells required for increased survival. In addition, ARL6IP1, an apoptotic regulator in the ER membrane, was found to promote cell survival by negative regulation of apoptosis. As a therapeutic target, knockdown of HuD in two xenograft models of NB led to a block in tumor growth, confirming its importance for viability of the tumor cells. Cell-wide RNA messages of these two HuD substrates and HuD and mTORC1 marker of activity significantly correlated in NB patient populations and in mouse xenografts. Conclusions HuD is seen as a novel means of promoting stress survival in this cancer type by downregulating mTORC1 activity and negatively regulating apoptosis.

Lili Han ◽  
Chen Huang ◽  
Xiaofei Wang ◽  
Dongdong Tong

Abstract Background Dysregulation of RNA binding protein (RBP) expression has been confirmed to be causally linked with tumorigenesis. The detailed biological effect and underlying mechanisms of the RBP GRSF1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. Methods HCC cells with stable knockdown of GRSF1 were established using two sh-RNA-encoding lentiviruses. The functions of GRSF1 in HCC were explored using MTT, colony formation, flow cytometry, and Transwell assays and a xenograft model. Transcriptomic sequencing in GRSF1-deficient MHCC-97H cells was carried out to identify the downstream effector of GRSF1. The regulatory mechanisms among GRSF1, YY1 and miR-30e-5p were investigated via RNA immunoprecipitation, luciferase, RNA pull-down and ChIP assays. Several in vivo assays were used to assess the selectivity of the small-molecule compound VE-821 in HCC and to confirm the absence of general toxicity in animal models. Results GRSF1 was frequently increased in HCC tissue and cells and was associated with worse clinical outcomes. GRSF1 functions as a novel oncogenic RBP by enhancing YY1 mRNA stability, and the GUUU motifs within the YY1 3`UTR 2663-2847 were the specific binding motifs for GRSF1. YY1 feedback promoted GRSF1 expression by binding to the GRSF1 promoter. In addition, YY1 was a critical target of miR-30e-5p, which was confirmed in this study to inhibit HCC hepatocarcinogenesis. GRSF1 and miR-30e-5p competitively regulated YY1 by binding to its 3`UTR 2663-2847 region. Finally, we identified that VE-821 blocked HCC progression by inhibiting the GRSF1/YY1 pathway. Conclusion This study revealed the interaction network among GRSF1, YY1 and miR-30e-5p, providing new insight into HCC pathogenesis, and indicated that VE821 may serve as a novel agent with potential for HCC treatment through inhibition of the GRSF1/YY1 axis.

2022 ◽  
Ishara S Ariyapala ◽  
Kasun Buddika ◽  
Heather A Hundley ◽  
Brian Calvi ◽  
Nicholas Sokol

The regulation of stem cell survival, self-renewal, and differentiation is critical for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Although the involvement of signaling pathways and transcriptional control mechanisms in stem cell regulation have been extensively investigated, the role of post-transcriptional control is still poorly understood. Here we show that the nuclear activity of the RNA-binding protein Second Mitotic Wave Missing (Swm) is critical for Drosophila intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and their daughter cells, enteroblasts (EBs), to maintain their identity and function. Loss of swm in these intestinal progenitor cells leads ISCs and EBs to lose defined cell identities, fail to proliferate, and detach from the basement membrane, resulting in severe progenitor cell loss. swm loss further causes nuclear accumulation of poly(A)+ RNA in progenitor cells. Swm associates with transcripts involved in epithelial cell maintenance and adhesion, and the loss of swm, while not generally affecting the levels of these Swm-bound mRNAs, leads to elevated expression of proteins encoded by some of them, including the fly orthologs of Filamin and Talin. Taken together, this study indicates a role for Swm in adult stem cell maintenance, and raises the possibility that nuclear post-transcriptional gene regulation plays vital roles in controlling adult stem cell maintenance and function.

Peng Zhong ◽  
Miao Zhou ◽  
Jingjing Zhang ◽  
Jianye Peng ◽  
Gaofeng Zeng ◽  

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