rna binding
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Dong Suk Yoon ◽  
Kyoung-Mi Lee ◽  
Yoorim Choi ◽  
Eun Ae Ko ◽  
Na-Hyun Lee ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Bin Li ◽  
Xing Xie

Abstract Objective To investigate the effect of A20 and how A20 is regulated in viral myocarditis (VMC). Methods BABL/C mice, primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and H9c2 cells were infected with Coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3) to establish animal and cellular models of VMC. H&E staining revealed the pathologic condition of myocardium. ELISA measured the serum levels of creatine kinase, creatine kinase isoenzyme and cardiac troponin I. The effects of A20, miR-1a-3p and ADAR1 were investigated using gain and loss of function approaches. ELISA measured the levels of IL-6, IL-18 and TNF-α in serum or cell culture supernatant. TUNEL staining and flow cytometry assessed the apoptosis of myocardium and cardiomyocytes, respectively. RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation and dual-luciferase reporter assays verified the binding between A20 and miR-1a-3p. Co-immunoprecipitation assay verified the binding between ADAR1 and Dicer. Results A20 was underexpressed and miR-1a-3p was overexpressed in the myocardium of VMC mice as well as in CVB3-infected cardiomyocytes. Overexpression of A20 suppressed cardiomyocyte inflammation and apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. miR-1a-3p promoted CVB3-induced inflammation and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes by binding to A20. The expression of miR-1a-3p was regulated by ADAR1. ADAR1 promoted the slicing of miR-1a-3p precursor by binding to Dicer. Conclusion A20, regulated by ADAR1/miR-1a-3p, suppresses inflammation and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in VMC.

2022 ◽  
Anna Balcarak ◽  
Ewelina Macech-Klicka ◽  
Maciej Wakula ◽  
Rafal Tomecki ◽  
Krzysztof Goryca ◽  

HAX1 is a human protein with no known homologues or structural domains, mutations in which cause severe congenital neutropenia through mechanisms that are poorly understood. Previous studies reported RNA-binding capacity of HAX1, but the role of this binding in physiology and pathology remains unexplained. Here we report transcriptome-wide characterization of HAX1 RNA targets using RIP-seq and CRAC, indicating that HAX1 binds transcripts involved in ribosome biogenesis and rRNA processing. Using CRISPR knockouts we find that RNA targets of HAX1 partially overlap with transcripts downregulated in HAX1 KO, implying a role in mRNA stabilization. Gene ontology analysis demonstrated that genes differentially expressed in HAX1 KO (including genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and translation) are also enriched in a subset of genes whose expression correlates with HAX1 expression in four analyzed neoplasms. Functional connection to ribosome biogenesis was also demonstrated by gradient sedimentation ribosome profiles, which revealed differences in the small subunit:monosome ratio in HAX1 WT/KO. We speculate that changes in HAX1 expression may be important for the etiology of HAX1-linked diseases through dysregulation of translation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 942
Michele Spiniello ◽  
Mark Scalf ◽  
Amelia Casamassimi ◽  
Ciro Abbondanza ◽  
Lloyd M. Smith

RNA-binding proteins are crucial to the function of coding and non-coding RNAs. The disruption of RNA–protein interactions is involved in many different pathological states. Several computational and experimental strategies have been developed to identify protein binders of selected RNA molecules. Amongst these, ‘in cell’ hybridization methods represent the gold standard in the field because they are designed to reveal the proteins bound to specific RNAs in a cellular context. Here, we compare the technical features of different ‘in cell’ hybridization approaches with a focus on their advantages, limitations, and current and potential future applications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Ziwen Pan ◽  
Rongrong Zhao ◽  
Boyan Li ◽  
Yanhua Qi ◽  
Wei Qiu ◽  

Abstract Background Gliomas are the most common malignant primary brain tumours with a highly immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment (TME) and poor prognosis. Circular RNAs (circRNA), a newly found type of endogenous noncoding RNA, characterized by high stability, abundance, conservation, have been shown to play an important role in the pathophysiological processes and TME remodelling of various tumours. Methods CircRNA sequencing analysis was performed to explore circRNA expression profiles in normal and glioma tissues. The biological function of a novel circRNA, namely, circNEIL3, in glioma development was confirmed both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, RNA pull-down, mass spectrum, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), luciferase reporter, and co-immunoprecipitation assays were conducted. Results We identified circNEIL3, which could be cyclized by EWS RNA-binding protein 1(EWSR1), to be upregulated in glioma tissues and to correlate positively with glioma malignant progression. Functionally, we confirmed that circNEIL3 promotes tumorigenesis and carcinogenic progression of glioma in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, circNEIL3 stabilizes IGF2BP3 (insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 3) protein, a known oncogenic protein, by preventing HECTD4-mediated ubiquitination. Moreover, circNEIL3 overexpression glioma cells drives macrophage infiltration into the tumour microenvironment (TME). Finally, circNEIL3 is packaged into exosomes by hnRNPA2B1 and transmitted to infiltrated tumour associated macrophages (TAMs), enabling them to acquire immunosuppressive properties by stabilizing IGF2BP3 and in turn promoting glioma progression. Conclusions This work reveals that circNEIL3 plays a nonnegligible multifaceted role in promoting gliomagenesis, malignant progression and macrophage tumour-promoting phenotypes polarization, highlighting that circNEIL3 is a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target in glioma.

RNA ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. rna.079016.121
Chi-Ping Chan ◽  
Dong-Yan Jin

Sensing of pathogen-associated molecular patterns including viral RNA by innate immunity represents the first line of defense against viral infection. In addition to RIG-I-like receptors and NOD-like receptors, several other RNA sensors are known to mediate innate antiviral response in the cytoplasm. Double-stranded RNA-binding protein PACT interacts with prototypic RNA sensor RIG-I to facilitate its recognition of viral RNA and induction of host interferon response, but variations of this theme are seen when the functions of RNA sensors are modulated by other RNA-binding proteins to impinge on antiviral defense, proinflammatory cytokine production and cell death programs. Their discrete and coordinated actions are crucial to protect the host from infection. In this review, we will focus on cytoplasmic RNA sensors with an emphasis on their interplay with RNA-binding partners. Classical sensors such as RIG-I will be briefly reviewed. More attention will be brought to the new insights on how RNA-binding partners of RNA sensors modulate innate RNA sensing and how viruses perturb the functions of RNA-binding partners.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Warren B Rouse ◽  
Ryan J Andrews ◽  
Nicholas J Booher ◽  
Jibo Wang ◽  
Michael E Woodman ◽  

ABSTRACT In recent years, interest in RNA secondary structure has exploded due to its implications in almost all biological functions and its newly appreciated capacity as a therapeutic agent/target. This surge of interest has driven the development and adaptation of many computational and biochemical methods to discover novel, functional structures across the genome/transcriptome. To further enhance efforts to study RNA secondary structure, we have integrated the functional secondary structure prediction tool ScanFold, into IGV. This allows users to directly perform structure predictions and visualize results—in conjunction with probing data and other annotations—in one program. We illustrate the utility of this new tool by mapping the secondary structural landscape of the human MYC precursor mRNA. We leverage the power of vast ‘omics’ resources by comparing individually predicted structures with published data including: biochemical structure probing, RNA binding proteins, microRNA binding sites, RNA modifications, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and others that allow functional inferences to be made and aid in the discovery of potential drug targets. This new tool offers the RNA community an easy to use tool to find, analyze, and characterize RNA secondary structures in the context of all available data, in order to find those worthy of further analyses.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 913
Veronica Riccioni ◽  
Flavia Trionfetti ◽  
Claudia Montaldo ◽  
Sabrina Garbo ◽  
Francesco Marocco ◽  

Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) control gene expression by acting at multiple levels and are often deregulated in epithelial tumors; however, their roles in the fine regulation of cellular reprogramming, specifically in epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), remain largely unknown. Here, we focused on the hnRNP-Q (also known as SYNCRIP), showing by molecular analysis that in hepatocytes it acts as a “mesenchymal” gene, being induced by TGFβ and modulating the EMT. SYNCRIP silencing limits the induction of the mesenchymal program and maintains the epithelial phenotype. Notably, in HCC invasive cells, SYNCRIP knockdown induces a mesenchymal–epithelial transition (MET), negatively regulating their mesenchymal phenotype and significantly impairing their migratory capacity. In exploring possible molecular mechanisms underlying these observations, we identified a set of miRNAs (i.e., miR-181-a1-3p, miR-181-b1-3p, miR-122-5p, miR-200a-5p, and miR-let7g-5p), previously shown to exert pro- or anti-EMT activities, significantly impacted by SYNCRIP interference during EMT/MET dynamics and gathered insights, suggesting the possible involvement of this RNA binding protein in their transcriptional regulation.

2022 ◽  
Murat C Kalem ◽  
Harini Subbiah ◽  
Shichen Shen ◽  
Runpu Chen ◽  
Luke Terry ◽  

Protein arginine methylation is a key post-translational modification in eukaryotes that modulates core cellular processes, including translation, morphology, transcription, and RNA fate. However, this has not been explored in Cryptococcus neoformans, a human-pathogenic basidiomycetous encapsulated fungus. We characterized the five protein arginine methyltransferases in C. neoformans and highlight Rmt5 as critical regulator of cryptococcal morphology and virulence. An rmt5∆ mutant was defective in thermotolerance, had a remodeled cell wall, and exhibited enhanced growth in an elevated carbon dioxide atmosphere and in chemically induced hypoxia. We revealed that Rmt5 interacts with post-transcriptional gene regulators, such as RNA-binding proteins and translation factors. Further investigation of the rmt5∆ mutant showed that Rmt5 is critical for the homeostasis of eIF2α and its phosphorylation state following 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole-induced ribosome stalling. RNA sequencing of one rmt5∆ clone revealed stable chromosome 9 aneuploidy that was ameliorated by complementation but did not impact the rmt5∆ phenotype. As a result of these diverse interactions and functions, loss of RMT5 enhanced phagocytosis by murine macrophages and attenuated disease progression in mice. Taken together, our findings link arginine methylation to critical cryptococcal cellular processes that impact pathogenesis, including post-transcriptional gene regulation by RNA- binding proteins.

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