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Cytokine ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 150 ◽  
pp. 155775
Author(s):  
Emily R. Konrad ◽  
Jeremy Soo ◽  
Andrea L. Conroy ◽  
Sophie Namasopo ◽  
Robert O. Opoka ◽  
...  

Cytokine ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 150 ◽  
pp. 155781
Author(s):  
Mathilde Harel ◽  
Sébastien Fauteux-Daniel ◽  
Charlotte Girard-Guyonvarc'h ◽  
Cem Gabay

2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zixuan Liu ◽  
Mingming Chen ◽  
Yini Sun ◽  
Xu Li ◽  
Liu Cao ◽  
...  

Heparin-binding protein (HBP), as a granule protein secreted by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) participates in the pathophysiological process of sepsis. It has been reported that HBP is a biomarker of sepsis, which is related to the severity of septic shock and organ dysfunction. HBP binds to vascular endothelial cells as one of the primary target sites. However, it is still unclear whether HBP-binding protein receptors exist on the surface of ECs. The effect of HBP on vascular permeability in sepsis and its mechanism needs to be explored. We conducted in vivo and in vitro study. We demonstrated that HBP bound to transforming growth factor-β receptor type 2 (TGF-β-R2) as a ligand. GST pull-down analysis reveals that HBP mainly interacts with the extracellular domain of TGF-β-R2. HBP induced acute lung injury (ALI) and vascular leakage via activation of TGF-β/SMAD2/3 signaling pathway. Permeability assay suggests TGF-β-R2 is necessary for HBP-induced increased permeability. We also defined the role of HBP and its potential membrane receptor TGF-β-R2 in the blood-gas barrier in the pathogenesis of HBP-related ALI.


Author(s):  
Dong Suk Yoon ◽  
Kyoung-Mi Lee ◽  
Yoorim Choi ◽  
Eun Ae Ko ◽  
Na-Hyun Lee ◽  
...  

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 300
Author(s):  
Hiroshi Ohguro ◽  
Yosuke Ida ◽  
Fumihito Hikage ◽  
Araya Umetsu ◽  
Hanae Ichioka ◽  
...  

To elucidate the currently unknown mechanisms responsible for the diverse biological aspects between two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) cultured 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, RNA-sequencing analyses were performed. During a 7-day culture period, 2D- and 3D-cultured 3T3-L1 cells were subjected to lipid staining by BODIPY, qPCR for adipogenesis related genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (Pparγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (Cebpa), Ap2 (fatty acid-binding protein 4; Fabp4), leptin, and AdipoQ (adiponectin), and RNA-sequencing analysis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected by next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and validated by a quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (qRT–PCR). Bioinformatic analyses were performed on DEGs using a Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis and an Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Significant spontaneous adipogenesis was observed in 3D 3T3-L1 spheroids, but not in 2D-cultured cells. The mRNA expression of Pparγ, Cebpa, and Ap2 among the five genes tested were significantly higher in 3D spheroids than in 2D-cultured cells, thus providing support for this conclusion. RNA analysis demonstrated that a total of 826 upregulated and 725 downregulated genes were identified as DEGs. GO enrichment analysis and IPA found 50 possible upstream regulators, and among these, 6 regulators—transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), interleukin 6 (IL6), angiotensinogen (AGT), FOS, and MYC—were, in fact, significantly upregulated. Further analyses of these regulators by causal networks of the top 14 predicted diseases and functions networks (IPA network score indicated more than 30), suggesting that STAT3 was the most critical upstream regulator. The findings presented herein suggest that STAT3 has a critical role in regulating the unique biological properties of 3D spheroids that are produced from 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 430
Author(s):  
Charlotte Girard-Guyonvarc’h ◽  
Mathilde Harel ◽  
Cem Gabay

Interleukin 18 (IL-18) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine of the IL-1 family, whose activity is tightly controlled at the level of production, as well as signalization. Notably, it is buffered by its natural inhibitor, IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP), which is massively present in circulation in normal and in most pathological conditions, thus preventing harmful pro-inflammatory systemic effects of IL-18. IL-18 has long been considered to be involved in the pathophysiology of various inflammatory diseases. However, a first clinical trial using recombinant IL-18BP for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis gave disappointing results. Direct measurements of unbound, bioactive, free form of circulating IL-18 demonstrated that IL-18 was more specifically involved in adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD) and systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) but also in their most severe complication, macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). More importantly, administration of recombinant IL-18BP to patients with AOSD, and sJIA with MAS, showed promising results. This review summarizes available data regarding IL-18 and IL-18BP in AOSD and sJIA in mouse models and humans and shows the importance of IL-18/IL-18BP imbalance in these conditions, leading to the conclusion that IL-18, particularly free IL-18, may be a useful biomarker in these diseases and an interesting therapeutic target.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 933
Author(s):  
Dominika Rozmus ◽  
Janusz Płomiński ◽  
Klaudia Augustyn ◽  
Anna Cieślińska

The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of vitamin D binding protein (VDBP, DBP) and its polymorphism in the vitamin D pathway and human health. This narrative review shows the latest literature on the most popular diseases that have previously been linked to VDBP. Vitamin D plays a crucial role in human metabolism, controlling phosphorus and calcium homeostasis. Vitamin D binding protein bonds vitamin D and its metabolites and transports them to target tissues. The most common polymorphisms in the VDBP gene are rs4588 and rs7041, which are located in exon 11 in domain III of the VDBP gene. rs4588 and rs7041 may be correlated with differences not only in vitamin D status in serum but also with vitamin D metabolites. This review supports the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the VDBP gene and presents the latest data showing correlations between VDBP variants with important human diseases such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and others. In this review, we aim to systematize the knowledge regarding the occurrence of diseases and their relationship with vitamin D deficiencies, which may be caused by polymorphisms in the VDBP gene. Further research is required on the possible influence of SNPs, modifications in the structure of the binding protein, and their influence on the organism. It is also important to mention that most studies do not have a specific time of year to measure accurate vitamin D metabolite levels, which can be misleading in conclusions due to the seasonal nature of vitamin D.


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