Binding Protein
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2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Hong Ki Min ◽  
Sehee Kim ◽  
Ji-Yeon Lee ◽  
Kyoung-Woon Kim ◽  
Sang-Heon Lee ◽  

Abstract Background Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have increased levels of interleukin-18 (IL-18) and decreased levels of IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) in the serum and synovial fluid (SF) compared to those in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) or in healthy controls. In this study, we evaluated the effects of IL-18BP on osteoclastogenesis and T cell differentiation in RA in vitro. Methods Serum and SF of patients with RA and OA were collected to compare IL-18 and IL-18BP levels by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and SF mononuclear cells (SFMCs) of RA patients were cultured under type 17 helper T cell (Th17) polarisation conditions with or without IL-18BP. In addition, PBMCs were cultured in the presence of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand (RANKL) or IL-17A with or without IL-18BP, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction for expression levels of osteoclast-related genes were performed. Results IL-18 levels were higher in the serum and SF of patients with RA, whereas IL-18BP was lower in the SF of patients with RA than in the control group. Treatment of patients’ PBMCs with IL-18BP decreased the differentiation of CD4+ IL-17A+ and CD4+ RANKL+ T cells, whereas the differentiation of CD4+CD25highFOXP3+ T cell population increased in a dose-dependent manner. These changes in CD4+ T cell differentiation were also observed in the SFMCs of patients with RA. The levels IL-17A and soluble RANKL in the culture medium were significantly decreased by IL-18BP. IL-18BP administration decreased TRAP+ cell counts in a dose-dependent manner on the background of stimulation with RANKL-and IL-17A. In addition, expression levels of TRAP, NFATC1, CTSK, and TNFRSF11A (RANK) genes were lower in the IL-18BP treated cells. Conclusion We showed that IL-18BP can rectify the Th17/Treg imbalance and decrease IL-17-induced osteoclastogenesis in PBMCs from patients with RA. Therefore, IL-18BP may have therapeutic potential for RA treatment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Xiaoyan Tang ◽  
Huilin Jiang ◽  
Peiyi Lin ◽  
Zhenhui Zhang ◽  
Meiting Chen ◽  

AbstractHypoxia is important in ischemic heart disease. Excessive Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) amounts are considered to harm cardiomyocytes in acute myocardial infarction. However, the mechanisms by which IGFBP-1 affects cardiomyocytes remain undefined. The present study demonstrated that hypoxia up-regulates IGFBP-1 and HIF-1α protein expression in cardiomyocytes. Subsequent assays showed that IGFBP-1 suppression decreased HIF-1α expression and inhibited hypoxia-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes, which was reversed by HIF-1α overexpression, indicating that HIF-1α is essential to IGFBP-1 function in cellular apoptosis. In addition, we showed that IGFBP-1 regulated HIF-1α stabilization through interacting with VHL. The present findings suggest that IGFBP-1–HIF-1α could be targeted for treating ischemic heart disease.

Mamoru Niikura ◽  
Toshiyuki Fukutomi ◽  
Jiro Mitobe ◽  
Fumie Kobayashi

The quality control and export of mRNA by RNA-binding proteins are necessary for the survival of malaria parasites, which have complex life cycles. Nuclear poly(A) binding protein 2 (NAB2), THO complex subunit 4 (THO4), nucleolar protein 3 (NPL3), G-strand binding protein 2 (GBP2) and serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 (SR1) are involved in nuclear mRNA export in malaria parasites. However, their roles in asexual and sexual development, and in cellular localization, are not fully understood. In this study using the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, we found that NAB2 and SR1, but not THO4, NPL3 or GBP2, played essential roles in the asexual development of malaria parasites. By contrast, GBP2 but not NPL3 was involved in male and female gametocyte production. THO4 was involved in female gametocyte production, but had a lower impact than GBP2. In this study, we focused on GBP2 and NAB2, which play important roles in the sexual and asexual development of malaria parasites, respectively, and examined their cellular localization. GBP2 localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm of malaria parasites. Using immunoprecipitation coupled to mass spectrometry (IP-MS), GBP2 interacted with the proteins ALBA4, DOZI, and CITH, which play roles in translational repression. IP-MS also revealed that phosphorylated adapter RNA export protein (PHAX) domain-containing protein, an adaptor protein for exportin-1, also interacted with GBP2, implying that mRNA export occurs via the PHAX domain-containing protein pathway in malaria parasites. Live-cell fluorescence imaging revealed that NAB2 localized at the nuclear periphery. Moreover, IP-MS indicated that NAB2 interacted with transportin. RNA immunoprecipitation coupled to RNA sequencing revealed that NAB2 bound directly to 143 mRNAs, including those encoding 40S and 60S ribosomal proteins. Our findings imply that malaria parasites use an evolutionarily ancient mechanism conserved throughout eukaryotic evolution.

2021 ◽  
pp. 175342592110431
Kensuke Kobayashi ◽  
Mitsuhiro Tachibana ◽  
Yutaka Tsutsumi

Both innate immunity and acquired immunity are involved in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The induction of Abs that neutralize the virus has been described, and certain Abs against endemic coronaviruses may cross-react with SARS-CoV-2. Detailed mechanisms to protect against the pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 remain unresolved. We previously reported that IgG Fc-binding protein (Fcγbp), a unique, large molecular weight, and mucin-like secretory Fc receptor protein, secreted from goblet cells of human small and large intestine, mediates the transportation of serum IgG onto the mucosal surface. In this review, we show that mucous bronchial gland cells and some goblet cells are immunoreactive for Fcγbp. Fcγbp traps the cross-reactive (both neutralizing and non-neutralizing) IgG bound to the virus and can consequently eliminate the virus from the mucosal surface to decrease viral loads. Fcγbp can also suppress immune overreaction by interfering with Fc-binding by macrophages and competing with complement fixation. Fcγbp secreted from mucin-producing cells of the airway functions as an important anti-infection mucosal defense. The Fcγbp-mediated mechanism can be a key factor in explaining why SARS-CoV-2 is less infective/lethal in children, and may also be involved in the unique Ab response, recurrent infection, and effects of serum therapy and vaccination.

2021 ◽  
Renu Maan ◽  
Louis Reese ◽  
Vladimir A. Volkov ◽  
Matthew R. King ◽  
Eli van der Sluis ◽  

Growing microtubule ends provide platforms for the accumulation of plus-end tracking proteins that organize into comets of mixed protein composition. Using a reconstituted fission yeast system consisting of end-binding protein Mal3, kinesin Tea2 and cargo Tip1, we found that these proteins can be driven into liquid phase droplets both in solution and at microtubule ends under crowding conditions. In the absence of crowding agents, cryo-electron tomography revealed that motor-dependent comets consist of disordered networks where multivalent interactions appear to facilitate the non-stoichiometric accumulation of cargo Tip1. We dissected the contribution of two disordered protein regions in Mal3 and found that both are required for the ability to form droplets and Tip1 accumulation, while autonomous Mal3 comet formation only requires one of them. Using theoretical modeling, we explore possible mechanisms by which motor activity and multivalent interactions may lead to the observed enrichment of Tip1 at microtubule ends.

Hepatology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Pallavi Subramanian ◽  
Sofia Gargani ◽  
Alessandra Palladini ◽  
Margarita Chatzimike ◽  
Michal Grzybek ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-29
Jia Lin ◽  
Feifei Huang ◽  
Tianzeng Liang ◽  
Qin Qin ◽  
Qiao Xu ◽  

Abstract This study assessed the molecular mechanism of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) protection against IPEC-1 cell damage induced by deoxynivalenol (DON). The cells were divided into six groups, including the CON group, the EPA group, the DHA group, the DON group, the EPA+DON group, and the DHA+DON group. RNA sequencing was used to investigate the potential mechanism, and qRT-PCR was employed to verify the expression of selected genes. Changes in ultrastructure were used to estimate pathological changes and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) injury in IPEC-1 cells. Transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1) was tested by ELISA. Fe2+ and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were estimated by spectrophotometry, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) was assayed by fluorospectrophotometry. RNA sequencing analysis showed that EPA and DHA had a significant effect on the expression of genes involved in ER stress and iron balance during DON-induced cell injury. The results showed that DON increased ER damage, the content of MDA and ROS, the ratio of X-box binding protein 1s (XBP-1s)/X-box binding protein 1u (XBP-1u), the concentration of Fe2+, and the activity of TFR1. However, the results also showed that EPA and DHA decreased the ratio of XBP-1s/XBP-1u to relieve DON-induced ER damage of IPEC-1 cells. Moreover, EPA and DHA (especially DHA) reversed the factors related to iron balance. It can be concluded that EPA and DHA reversed IPEC-1 cell damage induced by DON. DHA has the potential to protect IPEC-1 cells from DON-induced iron imbalance by inhibiting ER stress.

2021 ◽  
Tania Bishola Tshitenge ◽  
Bin Liu ◽  
Christine Clayton

The parasite Trypanosoma brucei grows as bloodstream forms in mammalian hosts, and as procyclic forms in tsetse flies. Trypanosome protein coding genes are arranged in polycistronic transcription units, so gene expression regulation depends heavily on post-transcriptional mechanisms. The essential RNA-binding protein RBP10 is expressed only in mammalian-infective forms, where it targets procyclic-specific mRNAs for destruction. We show that developmental regulation of RBP10 expression is mediated by the exceptionally long 7.3 Kb 3'-UTR of its mRNA. Different regulatory sequences that can independently enhance mRNA stability and translation in bloodstream forms, or destabilize and repress translation in procyclic forms, are scattered throughout the 3'-UTR. The RNA-binding protein DRBD18 is implicated in the export of a subset of mRNAs from the nucleus in procyclic forms. We confirmed that in bloodstream forms, DRBD18 copurifies the outer ring of the nuclear pore, mRNA export proteins and exon junction complex proteins. Loss of DRBD18 in bloodstream forms caused accumulation of several shortened RBP10 mRNA isoforms, with loss of longer species, but RNAi targeting the essential export factor MEX67 did not cause such changes, demonstrating specificity. Long RBP10 mRNAs accumulated in the nucleus, while shorter ones reached the cytoplasm. We suggest that DRBD18 binds to processing signals in the RBP10 3'-UTR, simultaneously preventing their use and recruiting mRNA export factors. DRBD18 depletion caused truncation of the 3'-UTRs of more than 100 other mRNAs, suggesting that it has an important role in regulating use of alternative processing sites.

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