Background and aim
Chronic otitis media is defined as a chronic inflammation of the middle ear cleft producing irreversible pathological changes. The myringoplasty aims at the reconstruction of the tympanic membrane using a graft material. Autologous platelet-rich plasma can be used along with the graft to have a successful outcome. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma on graft uptake in myringoplasty.
This was a randomized controlled trial with a sample size of 76 patients. All patients were above 18 and below 55 years of age diagnosed with chronic suppurative otitis media and were planned for myringoplasty. The participants were randomly allotted to two groups by block randomization (block of 4). Intra-operatively, group I (n=38) received platelet-rich plasma–soaked gel foam and group II (n=38) was taken as the control group who received saline-soaked gel foam and examined by a blinded examiner at the end of 1st and 3rd months.
The mean air-bone gap reduction post-operatively in the platelet-rich plasma group was 8.68 ± 4.8 (P value 0.034) and 6.05 ± 4.05 in the control group. The improvement in pure-tone average in the platelet-rich plasma group (P = 0.009) is more than that in the control group. The graft uptake was higher among the platelet-rich plasma group than the control group both at 1st and 3rd months (P value 0.049) which were statistically significant.
The present study concludes that the usage of platelet-rich plasma in the conventional myringoplasty technique has improved the success rate of graft uptake and reduced the graft migration.
Clinical Trials Registry-India (ICMR-NIMS) CTRI/2020/04/024416. Date of registration: 01/04/2020. Date of enrolment of the first participant to the trial: 06/04/2020. URL of the trial registry: http://www.ctri.nic.in.
Usage of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in conventional myringoplasty in underlay technique.
Assessment of graft uptake, percentage of perforation closure, and the audiological outcome.
Significant mean reduction of ABG in the PRP group.
Significant improvement in PTA average in the PRP group.
Graft uptake and percentage of perforation closure were higher in the PRP group and the control group.
PRP is also beneficial in revision cases.
Otitis media (OM) is a leading cause of childhood hearing loss. Variants in FUT2, which encodes alpha-(1,2)-fucosyltransferase, were identified to increase susceptibility to OM, potentially through shifts in the middle ear (ME) or nasopharyngeal (NP) microbiotas as mediated by transcriptional changes. Greater knowledge of differences in relative abundance of otopathogens in carriers of pathogenic variants can help determine risk for OM in patients. In order to determine the downstream effects of FUT2 variation, we examined gene expression in relation to carriage of a common pathogenic FUT2 c.461G>A (p.Trp154*) variant using RNA-sequence data from saliva samples from 28 patients with OM. Differential gene expression was also examined in bulk mRNA and single-cell RNA-sequence data from wildtype mouse ME mucosa after inoculation with non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). In addition, microbiotas were profiled from ME and NP samples of 65 OM patients using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In human carriers of the FUT2 variant, FN1, KMT2D, MUC16 and NBPF20 were downregulated while MTAP was upregulated. Post-infectious expression in the mouse ME recapitulated these transcriptional differences, with the exception of Fn1 upregulation after NTHi-inoculation. In the NP, Candidate Division TM7 was associated with wildtype genotype (FDR-adj-p=0.009). Overall, the FUT2 c.461G>A variant was associated with transcriptional changes in processes related to response to infection and with increased load of potential otopathogens in the ME and decreased commensals in the NP. These findings provide increased understanding of how FUT2 variants influence gene transcription and the mucosal microbiota, and thus contribute to the pathology of OM.
The global coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has changed the prevalence and management of many pediatric infectious diseases, including acute otitis media (AOM). Coronaviruses are a group of RNA viruses that cause respiratory tract infections in humans. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, coronavirus serotypes OC43, 229E, HKU1, and NL63 were infrequently detected in middle ear fluid (MEF) specimens and nasopharyngeal aspirates in children with AOM during the 1990s and 2000s and were associated with a mild course of the disease. At times when CoV was detected in OM cases, the overall viral load was relatively low. The new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative pathogen responsible for the eruption of the COVID-19 global pandemic. Following the pandemic declaration in many countries and by the World Health Organization in March 2020, preventive proactive measures were imposed to limit COVID-19. These included social distancing; lockdowns; closure of workplaces; kindergartens and schools; increased hygiene; use of antiseptics and alcohol-based gels; frequent temperature measurements and wearing masks. These measures were not the only ones taken, as hospitals and clinics tried to minimize treating non-urgent medical referrals such as OM, and elective surgical procedures were canceled, such as ventilating tube insertion (VTI). These changes and regulations altered the way OM is practiced during the COVID-19 pandemic. Advents in technology allowed a vast use of telemedicine technologies for OM, however, the accuracy of AOM diagnosis in those encounters was in doubt, and antibiotic prescription rates were still reported to be high. There was an overall decrease in AOM episodes and admissions rates and with high spontaneous resolution rates of MEF in children, and a reduction in VTI surgeries. Despite an initial fear regarding viral shedding during myringotomy, the procedure was shown to be safe. Special draping techniques for otologic surgery were suggested. Other aspects of OM practice included the presentation of adult patients with AOM who tested positive for SARS-2-CoV and its detection in MEF samples in living patients and in the mucosa of the middle ear and mastoid in post-mortem specimens.
Aproximadamente 80% de todos los niños va a presentar un caso de otitis media aguda (OMA). Aun siendo una patología frecuente, existe un porcentaje de error diagnóstico nada despreciable que lleva a un manejo impreciso, lo cual tiene un alto impacto económico. La OMA es un proceso infeccioso auto limitado en la mayoría de los casos, sin embargo, sigue siendo una de las indicaciones para el uso de antibioticoterapia más frecuente