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2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Xiuqian Yi ◽  
Jie Sun ◽  
Jiang Qian ◽  
Jie Guo ◽  
Kang Xue

Abstract Backgroud To evaluate the changes in retinal microvasculature and retrobulbar blood flow, using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and Color Doppler imaging (CDI) after intravenous chemotherapy (IVC) in patients with retinoblastoma (RB). Methods This was a retrospective comparative case control series involving 30 patients. Ten bilateral RB patients that had a preserved eye with extramacular tumours (group I), 10 unilateral RB treated with IVC that had a normal fellow study eye (group II), and 10 age-matched healthy controls. The macular retinal thickness, foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, and the macular and peripapillary retinal vessel densities (RVD) were measured. The peak systolic and end diastolic velocities of the ophthalmic, central retinal and posterior ciliary arteries were determined. A comparison among the three groups was conducted. Results Between the three cohorts, OCTA revealed no significant difference in FAZ area, superficial foveal and parafoveal RVD, deep parafoveal RVD and peripapillary RVD, (P > 0.05). By contrast, the mean deep foveal RVD, the full, inner and outer foveal and the parafoveal retinal thickness were significantly lower in group I compared with the controls, (P = 0.0329, 0.0153, 0.0311 0.0352, 0.0215). No significant difference in the blood flow velocities occurred in the retrobulbar circulation (P > 0.05). Conclusions In patients with retinoblastoma, OCTA did not detect significant changes of retinal thickness and vessel density in the eyes treated with IVC, but a slight reduction in retinal thickness and the deep foveal RVD seemed to occur in bilateral RB eyes. The retrobulbar blood flow parameters showed no measurable changes.

Dinesh Mehra ◽  
Madhubala Chouhan ◽  
Shatendra Goyal

Background: Our aim is to search for a good cervical dilating agent which is not only more efficacious in cervical dilatation but also effective in relieving pain during labour with no or very little harmful effects on mother and foetus.Methods: The type of study was simple randomized comparative study. The present study was conducted in R. N. T. Medical College, Udaipur between October 2019 and December 2020. 118 patients were selected randomly. Two groups were made each consisting of 59 patients. First group received intramuscular camylofin dihydrochloride, second group received intramuscular (IM) valethamate bromide. Patients included in study group were: primigravidae/multigravidae, singleton full term gestation (37-40 weeks) with vertex presentation, cervical dilatation of ≥3 cm and patient excluded from study group with preclampsia, eclampsia, antepartum haemorrhage, any obstetric complications: cephalo pelvic disproportion, abnormal presentations.Results: Mean duration of active phase of first stage of labor was shorter in group I (313.17 minutes) than in group II (356.3 minutes) but not statistically significant. Mean cervical dilatation rate was significantly more in group I (2.02 cm/hour) than group II (1.81 cm/hour). Anafortan was effective in pain relief with mean pain score 5.31±1.06 while mean pain score for epidosin group was 7.37±1.07.Conclusions: In our study we observed that intramuscular camylofin dihydrochloride (anafortan) was more efficacious than IM valethamate bromide (epidosin) in shortening the duration of labor as well as in pain relief.

Atul Jha ◽  
Manish Bhartiya ◽  
Vijay R. Kumar ◽  
Vimal Upreti ◽  
Parag Deshmukh ◽  

Background: Healthcare workers are front line workers in management of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The higher risk of acquiring the infection due to increased contact and exposures has prompted multiple risk mitigation strategies. To assess the role of hydroxychloroquine pre-exposure prophylaxis in prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection amongst HCWs.Methods: This retrospective cohort study assessed the effect of HCQS prophylaxis amongst HCWs in a tertiary care hospital in the north-eastern part of India. All HCWs, involved in management of SARS-CoV-2 were enrolled. The subjects were retrospectively divided in two groups on HCQ prophylaxis. Group I (51.8%, n=116) taking HCQ prophylaxis and group II (48.2%, n=108) not taking the prophylaxis. The demographic characteristics, use of PPE, HCQ prophylaxis and side effect profile were noted. Results: Of the whole cohort, 22.8% (n=51) subjects tested positive. In group I (n=116), 24 subjects (20.7%) tested positive, whereas in Group II (n=108), 27 subjects (25.0%) tested positive. Further analysis of the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection amongst the two groups demonstrated that the although the rate of infection was lower (20.7% vs 25%) in Group I as compared to group II [X2 (1, N=224)=0.371, p=0.5] but it was statistically insignificant.Conclusions: Our study involving HCWs, does not show a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of infection with pre-exposure prophylaxis. Based on our findings and published literature, a prophylaxis of HCQS against the SARS-CoV-2 infection cannot be recommended.

2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (6) ◽  
Luis Gustavo Narciso ◽  
Jefferson Ferreira Alcindo ◽  
Fernanda Bovino ◽  
Juliane Teramachi Trevizan ◽  
Dielson da Silva Vieira ◽  

ABSTRACT: Corticosteroid therapy has been used for ruminants to allow lung maturation and the birth of premature babies. However, when considering laboratory analyses of these animals, very little data is available regarding hematological and biochemical patterns, especially for premature goats, and the effects of corticotherapy on these parameters are unknown. In this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate the hematological and biochemical parameters during the first hours of life of premature kids from goats subjected to different dexamethasone protocols. For this, the goats were divided into four groups: group I, goats that received 20 mg of dexamethasone at 139 days of gestation; group II, 2 mg of dexamethasone from the 133rd to 136th day of gestation, 4 mg from the 137th to 139th, and 20 mg on the 140th; group III, 16 mg of dexamethasone from the 139th day, with repeated doses every 12 h until elective surgery; and group IV, goats that received 4, 8, 16, and 20 mg of dexamethasone at 137, 138, 139, and 140 days of gestation, respectively. Blood samples were obtained at birth (T0h) and after 1 (T1h), 12 (T12h), 24 (T24h), and 48 h (T48h) of life for hemogram and serum biochemistry assessment of urea, creatinine, total protein (PT), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT). PT levels and GGT activity were lower at birth in all groups and rose after colostrum ingestion. The creatinine values for all the experimental groups did not differ between T0h and T1h; however, they decreased in the subsequent moments. Except for group I, urea concentrations were higher at T48h than at T1h. The red blood cell, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin counts decreased over time. The total leukocyte count behaved differently in different experimental groups, and was influenced by the levels of dexamethasone, mainly due to the change in the counts of segmented neutrophils and lymphocytes. It was concluded that significant changes in the hematological and biochemical parameters occur in the first hours of life of premature kids, and that the treatment of goats with dexamethasone can affect these parameters in a dose-dependent manner.

2021 ◽  
Deborah Rackel Caldas da Rocha ◽  
Antonio Pedro Ricomini Filho ◽  
Jaime Aparecido Cury

Fluoride chemically soluble in toothpaste is an indicator of fluoride bioavailability when the teeth are brushed and the same should be expected systemically when toothpaste is ingested. A four-phases study was conducted, in which eight participants were subjected in each phase to one of the assigned treatment groups: Group I: fresh sample of a Na2FPO3/CaCO3 toothpaste with 1,334 μg F/g of total soluble fluoride (TSF); groups II–IV: aged samples of toothpaste presenting TSF concentrations of 1,128, 808, and 687 μg F/g, respectively. In all phases, the participants ingested an amount of toothpaste equivalent to 70.0 µg F/kg body weight, as total fluoride (TF). Blood was collected before (baseline) and up to 180 min after toothpaste ingestion as indicator of fluoride bioavailability. Total urine (24 h before and 24 h after ingestion) was collected as indicator of absorbed fluoride that was excreted. F concentration in blood plasma and urine was determined with a fluoride ion-specific electrode. The areas under the curve of F concentration vs. time (AUC=ng F/ml x min) and the peaks of fluoride concentration in blood plasma (Cmax) were calculated. The net amount of fluoride excreted (mg/day) was calculated by subtraction. A significant correlation of the amount (mg) of TSF ingested was found between the AUC (r= 0.76; p<0.01) and Cmax (r= 0.86; p<0.01) in plasma, and the fluoride excreted (r= 0.65; p<0.01). For TF no statistical correlations were found (p>0.05). Data suggest that the concentration of TSF found in Na2FPO3/CaCO3-based toothpastes is a useful predictor of how much fluoride will be systemically bioavailable when this type of formulation is ingested.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (22) ◽  
pp. 5862
Junyang Zhao ◽  
Qiyan Li ◽  
Zhao Xun Feng ◽  
Jianping Zhang ◽  
Songyi Wu ◽  

Intraocular surgery is tabooed in retinoblastoma management, due to the concern of lethal extraocular spread. We reviewed the outcomes of consecutive children with intraocular retinoblastoma diagnosed at 29 Chinese centers between 2012–2014. We compared the outcomes of three categories of treatment: eye salvage including tylectomy (Group I), eye salvage without tylectomy (Group II), and primary enucleation (Group III). A total of 960 patients (1243 eyes) were diagnosed: 256 in Group I, 370 in Group II, and 293 in Group III; 41 patients abandoned treatment upfront. The estimated 5-year overall survivals (OS) were, for Group I, 94%, for Group II 89%, and for Group III 95%. The estimated 5-year disease-specific survivals (DSS) were, for Group I, 96%, for Group II 90%, and for Group III 95%. Patients in Group I had a significantly higher 5-year DSS than patients in Group II (p = 0.003) and not significantly different than patients in Group III (p = 0.367). Overall survival was not compromised by the inclusion of tylectomy in eye salvage therapy compared to eye salvage without tylectomy or primary enucleation. Disease-specific survival was better when tylectomy was included in eye salvage treatments. Tylectomy as part of multimodal treatment may contribute to the care of retinoblastoma patients with chemotherapy-resistant tumor, eyes with concomitant ocular complications, or at the risk of treatment abandonment.

Pallop Pongsuthirak

Objective: The impact of early mechanical removal of cumulus cells on fertilization and embryonic development is not yet precisely known. This study aimed to investigate the effects of early and late cumulus cell removal on fertilization, polyspermy, embryonic development potential, blastocyst development, and clinical outcomes.Methods: A prospective study was conducted of patients who underwent in vitro fertilization between September 2019 and October 2020. Sibling oocytes were randomly allocated after insemination to early cumulus cell removal at 6 hours (group I) and late cumulus cell removal at 16–18 hours (group II). If total fertilization failure (TFF) was determined to have occurred at early cumulus cell removal, rescue intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was performed. Fertilization, embryonic development, and pregnancy outcomes were compared.Results: A total of 912 oocytes were assigned to group I (458 oocytes) and group II (454 oocytes). Fertilization, polyspermy, embryo quality, and pregnancy outcomes were not significantly different between both groups. Rescue ICSI enabled fertilization of 79.2% of the TFF oocytes.Conclusion: Early cumulus cell removal at 6 hours had no significant difference in fertilization, polyspermy, embryo development, or obstetric and perinatal outcomes compared to late removal. Early cumulus cell removal combined with early rescue ICSI may have the potential to help couples with TFF.

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Murat Ozkan ◽  
Ulku Gulcihan Simsek

Abstract The purpose of this study was to compare a continuous lighting programme (23 hours of lighting (L) / 1 hour of darkness (D)) with intermittent lighting programmes (16L: 8D) and also to investigate the effects of the length of the dark cycle in the intermittent programme on the performance, carcass characteristics, water consumption, uniformity, metabolic parameters, and ammonia burns of chickens. Thus, five hundred Ross-308 male chicks were used. The 23L:1D was applied to the chicks for 7 days. On day 7, they were divided into four groups by balancing their live weight; group I: continuous 23L: 1D; group II: intermittent 4x (4L: 2D); group III: intermittent 2x (8L: 4D); group IV: continuous 16L: 8D. The study took place between days 7 and 42. At the end of the study, 10 chickens from each group were slaughtered, their carcass, blood, and bone properties were analysed. Body temperatures and ammonia burns were assessed for all broiler chickens. The mean live weight of group IV was the lowest. The difference among the groups in terms of live weight gains, feed intakes, feed conversion ratios, and survival rates was non-significant. Long-period darkness in group IV significantly dropped the water consumption. On day 21, group III’s best uniformity was calculated; but on day 42, the difference was non-significant. The highest breast ratio and the lowest wing ratio beloged to chicks in group I. Their free T4, glucose, and uric acid levels were lower; whilst their testosterone levels were higher. Body temperature and tibia ash levels were similar across all of the groups. The intermittent lighting programmes increased the number of ammonia burns. Consequently, the long-term darkness negatively affected both the chickens’ performance and well-being.

2021 ◽  
Vol 32 (01) ◽  
pp. 22-27
Tashfeen Ikram ◽  
Muniza Saeed ◽  
Sabiha Iqbal ◽  
Zunairah Hamayun ◽  
Hifza Noor Lodhi ◽  

Introduction: Non-diabetic individuals with type II diabetic parents are more susceptible to develop Diabetes. Visfatin; an adipocytokine and an enzyme is linked with glucose metabolism and affected by obesity. It works like insulin in the human body.  It serves as a key enzyme in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide biosynthesis and plays a pivotal role in glucose mediated insulin secretion. Aims and Objectives: In this study we aimed to determine and compare serum visfatin levels, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and beta cell function (HOMA-%B) of type II diabetic patients and non-diabetic adult offspring of type II diabetic parents with that of non-diabetic adult offspring of non-diabetic parents. Material and methods It was a cross-sectional comparative study conducted at Diabetes clinic of Lahore General Hospital (LGH) and department of Physiology, Post Graduate Medical Institute (PGMI), Lahore in 2018. The study groups included thirty type II diabetic subjects (group III) and forty non-diabetic adult offspring of type II diabetic parents (group II). Forty non-diabetic adult offspring of non-diabetic parents served as controls (group I). The subjects were of thirty to fifty years of age. Blood pressure, BMI and waist circumference of every subject was measured. Fasting blood samples of the subjects were analyzed for serum insulin, glucose and visfatin. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), insulin sensitivity (HOMA-%S) and beta cell function (HOMA-%β) were also calculated. Results Type II diabetics (group III) had significantly higher serum visfatin, HOMA-IR, and lower HOMA-%S as compared to the controls (group I). No significant difference was found between HOMA-%B of group III and controls. On the contrary, non-diabetic adult offspring of type II diabetic parents (group II) had significantly lower serum visfatin and HOMA-%S while HOMA-%β, HOMA-IR was significantly higher in comparison to the control group (group I). Conclusion Visfatin production seems suppressed in non-diabetic individuals with type II diabetic parents probably due to hyperinsulinemia. Moreover, it has a little role in insulin secretion in these individuals as reflected by their higher HOMA-%B index. However, visfatin’s upregulation in chronic hyperglycemia is indicative of its restorative role in the declined beta-cell function in type II diabetics.

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