scholarly journals Influence of soil moisture level on metabolism of non-structural carbohydrates in Quercus robur leaves

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 628-634
V. P. Bessonova ◽  
A. S. Chonhova

The long-term increases in average temperature and intensification of droughts which characterise the current state of the Earth’s climate system have a negative impact on forest ecosystems and can lead to a decrease in their area and deterioration of the living conditions of their components. In the conditions of the Ukrainian Steppe an important environmental, antierosion, water-protective and soil-protective role belongs to the ravine forests. The most valuable component of the ravine forests is presented by natural populations of common oak (Quercus robur L.), which are able to tolerate the arid climate typical of the steppe region. But with global warming, the endurance of this species is changing. It is believed that a significant role in plant adaptation to drought and high temperatures may belong to non-structural carbohydrates. Therefore, it is important to study changes in the concentration of these substances in the leaves of this leading species under the action of adverse hydrothermal conditions. The article analyzes the content and dynamics of soluble sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose) and starch in the leaves of Quercus robur L. under different forest growth conditions of the ravine forest (hygromesophilic (CL2–3), mesoxerophilic (CL1) and xerophilic (CL0)). The research was conducted in the forest in the Viyskove area (steppe zone of Ukraine) in the thalweg and at different levels of slope of southern exposure. Content of glucose, fructose, sugar and starch in Quercus robur leaves was determined. It was found that when exposed to high temperatures and increasing water stress during the vegetation period in xerophilic (CL0–1) and mesoxerophilic (CL1) forest growth conditions, the concentration of both glucose and sucrose in the leaves of Q. robur increases and it becomes much higher than in conditions of more optimal water supply. At the same time, the disaccharide content increases more significantly than that of monosaccharide. The greatest amount of these sugars is observed in the driest months (July, August), when conditions for providing plants with water are the most stressful. When water stress grows the increase in concentration of glucose and sucrose is correlated with reduction of starch content. It has been found that the concentration of fructose in Q. robur leaves in droughty conditions of growing was comparable to more favourable conditions of moisture. In September, there is a decline in the content of all forms of non-structural carbohydrates in the leaves of plants of all variants compared to the previous month, especially in conditions of adverse water supply. Therefore, forest growth conditions do not affect the nature of the dynamics of soluble sugars and starch in the leaves of Q. robur, although they change their quantitative indicators. Based on the protective function of sugars under the action of stressors on plants, we can assume that in conditions of significant lack of moisture in the soil their accumulation in the leaves in areas with mesoxerophilic and xerophilic hygrotopes plays an important role in increasing Q. robur drought resistance.

2009 ◽  
Vol 36 (9) ◽  
pp. 783 ◽  
Wei-Dong Li ◽  
Dilip K. Biswas ◽  
Hong Xu ◽  
Chang-Qing Xu ◽  
Xian-Zhong Wang ◽  

Gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and contents of some metabolites in two Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) cultivars, Damaohua (2n = 2x) and Jiufengyihao (2n = 4x), were compared with explore the function of chromosome doubling under water stress conditions. Water stress significantly decreased net photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate of both cultivars. It also decreased electron transport rate, effective quantum yield of Photosystem II, photochemical quenching, and starch content, but increased non-photochemical quenching and contents of total soluble sugars, proline, and malondialdehyde. However, the tetraploid cultivar showed higher resistance to water stress than the diploid, as indicated by the fact that gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and metabolites were less affected for the tetraploid than the diploid. Moreover, the tetraploid recovered more quickly than the diploid after re-watering. Morphological and anatomical analysis further revealed that the tetraploid possessed less whole plant leaf area, higher leaf mass per unit area, thicker epidermis (both upper and lower) and palisade tissue, as well as denser pubescence. All of those specialised structures caused by chromosome doubling might lead to greater capacity in coping with drought stress. Our findings suggest that the effect of chromosome doubling on drought resistance in L. japonica could attribute to the improvement of structure and photosynthesis-related traits.

2021 ◽  
Vol 40 (2) ◽  
pp. 137-144
Valentina Bessonova ◽  
Tetiana Yusypiva

Abstract The influence of different forest-growth conditions on the ecological and physiological parameters of Pinus pallasiana D. Don plants growing in anti-erosion planting is investigated. The experimental sites are located in the thalweg (test area 1) and on the slope of southern exposure in the lower, middle, and upper parts (test areas 2–4) of Ravine Viyskovyi (steppe zone of Ukraine). Forest-growth conditions are clay-loam soil (CL2) (mesophilic, fresh soil), СL1–2 (xeromesophilic, rather fresh), СL1 (mesoxerophilic, somewhat dry or semi-arid), and СL0–1 (xerophilic, arid) correspondently. It was shown that the growth rates of trees, the growth rate of lateral (scaffold) branches in length and thickness, needle-packing coefficient, and needle surface area of annual shoots are maximal in P. pallasianа in the thalweg in conditions of the best water supply and minimal in arid and semi-arid conditions of growth. The research revealed that the highest content of total water in the needles is characteristic of plants of fresh forest plant conditions and the smallest in arid and semi-arid areas (test areas 3 and 4), which is consistent with the forest-vegetation conditions. Sufficient contents of potassium, calcium, and magnesium in all areas and phosphorus in three areas except the middle part of the slope were found in the needles of P. pallasianа. However, insufficient content of nitrogen was found in the needles, especially in the trees of the middle part of the slope, which, together with low water supply, could cause the most significant slowdown in the growth of P. pallasianа plants precisely on this experimental site. A correlation was established between the indices of plant growth and the content of water and nutrients.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 383-390
S. Y. Kots ◽  
L. I. Rybachenko ◽  
T. P. Mamenko ◽  
K. P. Kukol ◽  
P. P. Pukhtaievych ◽  

Insufficient water supply is one of the main factors that significantly reduce the activity of nitrogen fixation by legume-rhizobial symbiotic systems. That is why comprehensive research on aspects of their resistance to water stress and the search for scientifically substantiated ways to improve the existing ones and develop modern, competitive technologies of growing legumes in arid conditions are becoming especially relevant. The aim of the work was to investigate the processes of formation and functioning of soybean-rhizobial symbiotic systems developed under conditions of different water supply and influence of nanocarboxylates of cobalt, ferum, germanium, chromium, сuprum and molybdenum. The nanoparticles of specified metal nanocarboxylates were used as components of the inoculation suspension of rhizobia of Tn5 mutant B1-20 for soybean seed treatment. A model drought lasting 14 days was created by controlled irrigation. Microbiological and physiological research methods were used in the study. We determined that insufficient water supply caused a significant decrease in the nodulation potential of rhizobia and the intensity of molecular nitrogen fixation by symbiotic systems formed with the participation of soybean plants and nodule bacteria without adding these metal nanocarboxylates to the inoculation suspension. Application of most of the metal nanocarboxylates used as components of the inoculation suspension mitigated the negative impact of stress on the investigated parameters. The study revealed the stimulating effect of cobaltnanocarboxylate on the activity of molecular nitrogen fixation, which was more pronounced in the conditions of insufficient water supply. Symbiotic soybean systems formed with the participation of nodule bacteria containing germaniumcarboxylate nanoparticles were proved to be the least sensitive to the negative impact of insufficient water supply. This was indicated by high rates of nodulation and nitrogen-fixing activity compared with other studied symbiotic systems. We confirmed that the addition of chromium nanocarboxylate to the inoculation suspension of rhizobia provided the highest rates of nodulation and nitrogen-fixing activity of soybean root nodules under optimal growing conditions and, at the same time, had no noticeable positive effect under water stress. We determined that сuprum and molybdenum nanocarboxylates, as components of the inoculation suspension, regardless of the water supply level, had a less notable positive effect on the processes of nodule formation and nitrogen fixation, and in some cases even led to a decrease in the investigated values for control plants. Thus, the study demonstrated that the use of germanium, cobalt and ferum nanocarboxylates as components of the bacterial suspension helped to increase the adaptation of the formed legume-rhizobial symbiotic systems to water stress, as evidenced by the maximum indexes of nodulation and molecular nitrogen fixation in the context of insufficient water supply and recovery of their level to optimal after the stress influence had ended. Based on the results, it was concluded that inoculation of seeds by the complex bacterial preparations made on the basis of Bradyrhizobium japonicum B1-20 with a content of germanium, cobalt and ferum nanocarboxylates in the concentration of 1:1000 can become one of the important means in soybean growing technologies of increasing the nitrogen-fixing potential and resistance of plants to insufficient water supply.

2018 ◽  
Vol 37 (4) ◽  
pp. 338-344
Valentina Bessonova ◽  
Zoya Grytsay

AbstractThe influence of different forest growth conditions on the content of plastid pigments in Pinus pallasiana D. Don needles in the anti-erosion planting of the steppe zone of Ukraine was investigated. The reduction in the total chlorophyll a and b concentration in the pine needles in the area with insufficient water supply (xerophilous and mesoxerophilous hygrotopes) was found, compared with more favourable conditions for water supply (mesophilous hygrotope). The reduction in the content of green pigments in arid conditions is due to chlorophyll a. Chlorophyll b showed high resistance to moisture deficiency. There is an increase in the concentration of carotenoids in pine needles in forest growth conditions with insufficient water supply (xerophilous and mesoxerophilous), compared with more favourable conditions (mesophilous), which can be explained by the adaptive role of these pigments in the processes of stabilising the functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus in adverse environment, and it is considered as a protective reaction of P. pallasiana to the effects of drought.

R. Comber

AbstractThe Oriental tobacco variety Izmir has been grown in sand culture in a greenhouse under various degrees of water stress. Plants given 400 cm

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (3) ◽  
pp. 574
Yun-Yin Feng ◽  
Jin He ◽  
Yi Jin ◽  
Feng-Min Li

Both water stress and P deficit limit soybean seed yield, but the effects of water regimes and P application rates, their interaction on P status, acquisition, and partitioning, and their roles in yield performance have not been well-studied. Two soybean genotypes (Huangsedadou (HD) and Zhonghuang 30 (ZH)) with contrasting seed yield and root dry weight (DW) were used to investigate the P status, P acquisition, P partitioning, and yield formation under two water regimes (well-watered (WW) and cyclic water stress (WS)) and three P rates (0 (P0), 60 (P60), and 120 (P120) mg P kg−1 dry soil). The results show that increased P and water supply increased the seed yield, shoot and root DW and P concentrations and accumulations in different organs. Cultivar ZH had a significantly higher seed yield than HD at P60 and P120 under WS and at P0 under WW, but a lower seed yield at P60 and P120 under WW. Cultivar ZH had a significantly higher P harvest index and P acquisition efficiency, but a significantly lower shoot and root DW than HD. The interaction between water treatments and P rates had significant effects on leaf and stem P concentration. Cultivar ZH had significantly lower P partitioning to leaves and stems but significantly higher P partitioning to seeds than HD. The seed yield was positively correlated with leaf and seed P accumulations and P acquisition efficiency under WS. We conclude that (1) adequate water supply improved the P mobilization from leaves and stems at maturity, which may have improved the seed yield; and (2) the high P acquisition efficiency is coordination to high P partition to seeds to produce a high seed yield under water- and P-limited conditions.

Forests ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 528
Jelena Kranjec Orlović ◽  
Damir Drvodelić ◽  
Marko Vukelić ◽  
Matea Rukavina ◽  
Danko Diminić ◽  

When natural regeneration of Quercus robur stands is hampered by an insufficient acorn yield, human assisted sowing of acorns collected in non-affected stands and stored for some period of time is performed. To inhibit the development of fungi and acorn deterioration during storage, thermotherapy is usually applied by submerging acorns for 2.5 h in water heated to 41 °C. This research aimed to test the effect of four thermotherapy treatments of different durations and/or applied temperatures as well as short-term storage at −1 °C or 3 °C on acorn internal mycobiota and germination. Fungal presence in cotyledons was analyzed in 450 acorns by isolation of mycelia on artificial media, followed by a DNA-based identification. Germination of 2000 acorns was monitored in an open field trial. Thermotherapy significantly decreased fungal diversity, while storage at 3 °C increased the isolation frequency of several fungi, mainly Penicillium spp. The most frequently isolated fungi did not show a negative impact on acorn germination after short-term storage. The study confirmed the efficiency of thermotherapy in the eradication of a part of acorn internal mycobiota, but also its effect on the proliferation of fast-colonizing fungi during storage. However, the latter showed to be more stimulated by storage conditions, specifically by storage at 3 °C.

2008 ◽  
Vol 32 (1) ◽  
pp. 19-25 ◽  
Renata Braga Souza Lima ◽  
José Francisco de Carvalho Gonçalves ◽  
Silvana Cristina Pando ◽  
Andréia Varmes Fernandes ◽  
André Luis Wendt dos Santos

This study aimed to characterize protein, oil, starch and soluble sugar mobilization as well as the activity of alpha-amylase during rosewood seed germination. Germination test was carried out at 25°C and the following parameters were analyzed: percentage of germination, initial, average, and final germination time. Seed reserve quantification was monitored in quiescent seeds and during different stages of radicle growth. Starch mobilization was studied in function of a-amylase activity. Germination reached 87.5% at the initial, average, and final time of 16, 21 and 30 days, respectively. Oil mobilization showed a negative linear behavior, decreasing 40% between the first and the last stage analyzed, whereas protein levels increased 34.7% during the initial period of germination. Starch content (46.4%) was the highest among those of the metabolites analyzed and starch mobilization occurred inversely to the observed for soluble sugars; alpha-amylase activity increased until the 15th day, a period before radicle emission and corresponding to the highest starch mobilization. The high percentage of rosewood seed germination may be related to the controlled condition used in the germination chamber as well as to high seed reserve mobilization, in special oil and starch.

2018 ◽  
Vol 60 (4) ◽  
pp. 292-298
Natalia A. Romanova ◽  
Alexander B. Zhirnov ◽  
Natalia A. Yust ◽  
Xu Fucheng

Abstract The problem of determining the dependence of the chainsaw on the density of wood, substantiation of effective options for the number of chainsaws in the assortment and whiplash method of logging is quite relevant. In the Far East of Russia, in particular, in the Amur region, the forest growth conditions are different from the western ones, and therefore, the properties of the wood differ from the generally accepted ones. The article describes forest growth conditions that influence the properties of the wood in areas of the Amur region. Using the method of density determination, the density of larch, pine and birch were studied for first time in the areas of the region. The dependence of the density on humidity, age, species, season of the year and the area of growth was found out. The results of the research showed that under humidity of 70%, the density of larch was 1088.99 kg/m3, it was 919.8 kg/m3 for pine and it was for birch 915.9 kg/m3.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (4) ◽  
pp. 168-176
M. G. Daudova ◽  
R. B. Bagomedova ◽  
K. K. Bekshokov ◽  
M. M. Medzhidova ◽  
S. M. Nakhibashev ◽  

Aim. Study of the influence of drinking water quality on the ecologically-dependent morbidity of the population of the Republic of Dagestan.Material and Methods. Methods of current and retrospective analysis of regional health indicators and methods of mathematical-statistical and medical-geographical analysis were used. Statistical processing of the results was carried out using the STATISTICA and Excel software packages. When carrying out laboratory studies on the quality of drinking water, we used a Lumex atomic absorption spectrometer "MGA-915MD".Results. Numerous hygiene studies indicate the direct impact of unsatisfactory drinking water quality on the health of a population. The relationship between sanitary and chemical indicators and the incidence rate for a number of nosological forms has been proven. It is generally accepted that human health is influenced by lifestyle factors (working, living and relaxation conditions), heredity and the ecological condition of the area of residence, including the quality of drinking water. Although it is not possible to differentiate the share of the negative effect caused by the consumption of poor quality drinking water but the incidence of certain nosological forms (cancer of the esophagus, gastrointestinal tract and kidney diseases) in the those regions of the Republic of Dagestan under consideration correlates with the characteristics of drinking water.Conclusion. The problem of pollution of water supply sources for the population in the dynamics of the long-term remains a priority concern. The quality and safety of drinking water are decreasing, which cannot but have a negative impact on public health. Correlation linkages between indicators of drinking water quality and oncological morbidity of the population were also established in indicators below the maximum permissible concentrations, which corresponds to a typical logistic model of causal relationships and serves as evidence of the high dependence of health disorders on chemical contamination of water supply sources. 

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