Van Der Waals
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2021 ◽  
pp. 2104969
Maria G. Burdanova ◽  
Ming Liu ◽  
Michael Staniforth ◽  
Yongjia Zheng ◽  
Rong Xiang ◽  

Small ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 2102668
Eric W. Blanton ◽  
Michael J. Motala ◽  
Timothy A. Prusnick ◽  
Albert Hilton ◽  
Jeff L. Brown ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. 2101310
Seong Jun Kim ◽  
Dongwook Kim ◽  
Bok Ki Min ◽  
Yoonsik Yi ◽  
Shuvra Mondal ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-31
Lakhdar Sidi Salah ◽  
Nassira Ouslimani ◽  
Dalila Bousba ◽  
Isabelle Huynen ◽  
Yann Danlée ◽  

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have emerged worldwide because of their remarkable properties enlarging their field of applications. Functionalization of CNTs is a convenient strategy to tackle low dispersion and solubilization of CNTs in many solvents or polymers. It can be done by covalent or noncovalent surface functionalization that is briefly discussed regarding the current literature. Endohedral and exohedral are conventional methods based on covalent and van der Waals bonding forces that are created through CNT functionalization by various materials. In this paper, a review of new approaches and mechanisms of functionalization of CNTs is proposed, including amidation, fluorination, bromination, chlorination, hydrogenation, and electrophilic addition. Our analysis is supported by several characterization methods highlighting recent improvements hence extending the range of applicability of CNTs.

2021 ◽  
pp. 2105079
Kenan Zhang ◽  
Changchun Ding ◽  
Baojun Pan ◽  
Zhen Wu ◽  
Austin Marga ◽  

2021 ◽  
Karolina Spustova ◽  
Chinmay Katke ◽  
Esteban Pedrueza Villalmanzo ◽  
Ruslan Ryskulov ◽  
C. Nadir Kaplan ◽  

We report the formation, growth, and dynamics of model protocell superstructures on solid surfaces, resembling single cell colonies. These structures, consisting of several layers of lipidic compartments enveloped in a dome-shaped outer lipid bilayer, emerged as a result of spontaneous shape transformation of lipid agglomerates deposited on thin film aluminum surfaces. Collective protocell structures were observed to be mechanically more stable compared to isolated spherical compartments. We show that the model colonies encapsulate DNA and accommodate non-enzymatic, strand displacement DNA reactions. The membrane envelope is able to disassemble and expose individual daughter protocells, which can migrate and attach via nano-tethers to distant surface locations, while maintaining their encapsulated contents. Some colonies feature 'exo-compartments', which spontaneously extend out of the enveloping bilayer, internalize DNA, and merge again with the superstructure. A continuum elastohydrodynamic theory that we developed reveals that the subcompartment formation must be governed by attractive van der Waals (vdW) interactions between the membrane and surface. The balance between membrane bending and vdW interactions yields a critical length scale of 273 nm, above which the membrane invaginations can form subcompartments. The findings support our hypotheses that in extension of the 'lipid world hypothesis', protocells may have existed in the form of colonies, potentially benefiting from the increased mechanical stability provided by a superstructure.

2021 ◽  
Yu Zhang ◽  
Hongjun Xu ◽  
Jiafeng Feng ◽  
Hao Wu ◽  
Guoqiang Yu ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. 2103609
Anupam Giri ◽  
Chandan De ◽  
Manish Kumar ◽  
Monalisa Pal ◽  
Hyun Hwi Lee ◽  

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (18) ◽  
pp. 5355
François Gitzhofer ◽  
James Aluha ◽  
Pierre-Olivier Langlois ◽  
Faranak Barandehfard ◽  
Thabang A. Ntho ◽  

The behavior of Mo in contact with molten Al was modelled by classical molecular dynamics (CMD) simulation of a pure Mo solid in contact with molten Al at 1200 K using the Materials Studio®. Results showed that no reaction or cross diffusion of atoms occurs at the Mo(s)–Al(l) interface, and that molten Al atoms exhibit an epitaxial alignment with the exposed solid Mo crystal morphology. Furthermore, the two phases {Mo(s) and Al(l)} are predicted to interact with weak van der Waals forces and give interfacial energy of about 203 mJ/m2. Surface energy measurements by the sessile drop experiment using the van Oss–Chaudhury–Good (VCG) theory established a Mo(s)–Al(l) interface energy equivalent to 54 mJ/m2, which supports the weak van der Waals interaction. The corrosion resistance of a high purity (99.97%) Mo block was then tested in a molten alloy of 5% Mg mixed in Al (Al-5 wt.%Mg) at 1123 K for 96 h, using the ALCAN’s standard “immersion” test, and the results are presented. No Mo was found to be dissolved in the molten Al-Mg alloy. However, a 20% mass loss in the Mo block was due to intergranular corrosion scissoring the Mo block in the ALCAN test, but not as a result of the reaction of pure Mo with the molten Al-Mg alloy. It was observed that the Al-Mg alloy did not stick to the Mo block.

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