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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Zhi Yuan Ma ◽  
Ju Wang Zhou ◽  
Si Yu Yi ◽  
Min Wang ◽  
Zhi Liang Tan

In vitro rumen batch culture is a technology to simulate rumen fermentation by inoculating microorganisms from rumen fluids. Although inocula (INO) are commonly derived from fresh rumen fluids, frozen rumen fluids are also employed for the advantages of storing, transporting, and preserving rumen microorganisms. The effects of frozen INO on microbial fermentation and community may be interfered with by substrate type, which has not been reported. This study was designed to test whether rumen fluid treatments (i.e., fresh and frozen) could interact with incubated substrates. A complete block design with fractional arrangement treatment was used to investigate the effects of INO (fresh or frozen rumen fluids) and concentrate-to-forage ratios (C/F, 1:4 or 1:1) on rumen fermentation and microbial community. The effects of increasing C/F were typical, including increased dry matter (DM) degradation and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration (P < 0.001), and decreased acetate to propionate ratio (P = 0.01) and bacterial diversity of richness and evenness (P ≤ 0.005) with especially higher fermentative bacteria such as genus Rikenellaceae_RC, F082, Prevotella, Bacteroidales_BS11, Muribaculaceaege, and Christensenellaceae_R-7 (P ≤ 0.04). Although frozen INO decreased (P < 0.001) DM degradation and altered rumen fermentation with lower (P ≤ 0.01) acetate to propionate ratio and molar proportion of butyrate than fresh INO, typical effects of C/F were independent of INO, as indicated by insignificant INO × C/F interaction on substrate degradation, VFA profile and bacterial community (P ≥ 0.20). In summary, the effect of C/F on fermentation and bacterial diversity is not interfered with by INO type, and frozen INO can be used to distinguish the effect of starch content.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 628-634
V. P. Bessonova ◽  
A. S. Chonhova

The long-term increases in average temperature and intensification of droughts which characterise the current state of the Earth’s climate system have a negative impact on forest ecosystems and can lead to a decrease in their area and deterioration of the living conditions of their components. In the conditions of the Ukrainian Steppe an important environmental, antierosion, water-protective and soil-protective role belongs to the ravine forests. The most valuable component of the ravine forests is presented by natural populations of common oak (Quercus robur L.), which are able to tolerate the arid climate typical of the steppe region. But with global warming, the endurance of this species is changing. It is believed that a significant role in plant adaptation to drought and high temperatures may belong to non-structural carbohydrates. Therefore, it is important to study changes in the concentration of these substances in the leaves of this leading species under the action of adverse hydrothermal conditions. The article analyzes the content and dynamics of soluble sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose) and starch in the leaves of Quercus robur L. under different forest growth conditions of the ravine forest (hygromesophilic (CL2–3), mesoxerophilic (CL1) and xerophilic (CL0)). The research was conducted in the forest in the Viyskove area (steppe zone of Ukraine) in the thalweg and at different levels of slope of southern exposure. Content of glucose, fructose, sugar and starch in Quercus robur leaves was determined. It was found that when exposed to high temperatures and increasing water stress during the vegetation period in xerophilic (CL0–1) and mesoxerophilic (CL1) forest growth conditions, the concentration of both glucose and sucrose in the leaves of Q. robur increases and it becomes much higher than in conditions of more optimal water supply. At the same time, the disaccharide content increases more significantly than that of monosaccharide. The greatest amount of these sugars is observed in the driest months (July, August), when conditions for providing plants with water are the most stressful. When water stress grows the increase in concentration of glucose and sucrose is correlated with reduction of starch content. It has been found that the concentration of fructose in Q. robur leaves in droughty conditions of growing was comparable to more favourable conditions of moisture. In September, there is a decline in the content of all forms of non-structural carbohydrates in the leaves of plants of all variants compared to the previous month, especially in conditions of adverse water supply. Therefore, forest growth conditions do not affect the nature of the dynamics of soluble sugars and starch in the leaves of Q. robur, although they change their quantitative indicators. Based on the protective function of sugars under the action of stressors on plants, we can assume that in conditions of significant lack of moisture in the soil their accumulation in the leaves in areas with mesoxerophilic and xerophilic hygrotopes plays an important role in increasing Q. robur drought resistance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 63-68
Juraj Faragó

Increasing concerns for security of the fossil fuel supply emphasizes the need to complement fossil fuel-based energy sources with renewable energy sources. Plant biomass represents an abundant renewable resource for the production of bioenergy and biomaterials. This review summarizes the last advancements in the use of biotechnological tools to improve bioethanol production from plant biomass through genetic engineering the starch content and composition and lignocellulosic matter characteristics, and increasing the capacity of plants to produce harvestable yield and ameliorating the negative abiotic stresses on plants so as to increase yield.

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 209
Alessio Cappelli ◽  
Andrea Bini ◽  
Enrico Cini

Many types of baked goods are firmly rooted in the food habits of many people in different countries. Although there have been great strides in improving milling, kneading, and baking, given the lack of essential studies, further steps forward need to be taken to understand the effects of storage time and environmental storage conditions, thus motivating this work. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of storage time, using one-way ANOVA, and environmental storage conditions (environmental temperature and humidity), using MOLS analysis, on flour composition, dough rheology, and biscuit characteristics. Seven levels of storage time were tested: T0 (control), T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, and T6. The results showed that flour storage time significantly increased dough tenacity (P) and curve configuration ratio (P/L), and decreased the biscuit volume (best at T0). However, 2–3 weeks of storage highlighted a significant increase in deformation energy (W), an essential alveograph parameter that is closely correlated to the technological success of leavened products. This optimum found for W might be considered as a great stride in understanding the effects of storage time, confirming that wheat flour can reach its optimal performance after two-three weeks of storage, in particular for W. Moreover, this information could be useful, not only for biscuits production, but also for bread and bakery products (and, thus, the entire bakery industry). MOLS analysis highlighted that dough rheology and biscuit characteristics are mainly affected by flour composition (primarily from starch content) rather than environmental storage parameters. In conclusion, to optimize the biscuit characteristics, it is necessary to use flours with a low content of damaged starch by selecting the most suitable milling technique and carefully managing the operative parameters.

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 185
Jing Du ◽  
Yingxue Lin ◽  
Yuan Gao ◽  
Yanyan Tian ◽  
Jixiang Zhang ◽  

Processed unhusked rice is prone to mildew during storage. In this study, the storage conditions were simulated at temperatures of 20, 30, and 35 °C and a relative humidity of 40%, 60% and 80%, respectively. The water, fatty acid, and total starch content and the peak viscosity, mold colony number, protein secondary structure, and spatial structure of rice were monitored in order to propose the critical point of mildew during storage. In the process of rice from lively to moldy, the water content, fatty acid contents and the peak viscosity were increased. The total starch content decreased and then showed a slow increasing trend, while the microstructure of the powder particles changed from smooth and complete to loosen and hollow. With the increase in storage time, the vibration of the amide Ⅰ band of the rice samples decreased slightly, indicating that the total contents of β-fold, β-turn, α-helix, and random curl of the rice protein also changed. PCA (Principal Component Analysis) analysis showed that rice mildew index was closely related to temperature and humidity during storage. In our investigation, the best and most suitable temperature and relative humidity for rice storge is 20 °C and 40%, respectively. These results suggested that temperature and environmental humidity are vital factors affecting the physicochemical properties and nutrient changes, which provides a theoretical basis for the early warning of rice mildew during storage.

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 171
Jianyou Zhang ◽  
Xuehua Xie ◽  
Lyu Zhang ◽  
Yiling Hong ◽  
Gaopeng Zhang ◽  

Pre-cooked adzuki beans (Vigna angularis), which looks like dried adzuki bean, is easily cooked and preserved. This study aimed to optimize the microwave pre-cooked conditions on adzuki beans by applying the response surface methodology. The results showed that soaking time has a significant effect on the gelatinization degree of adzuki beans according to microwave time. The most suitable gelatinization and the sensory scores were obtained with a soaking time of 7.8 h, a microwave power of 830 W, and microwave time of 92 s. The pre-cooked treatment had no significant effect (p > 0.05) on the protein, free amino acid, fat and starch content of adzuki bean products. The results of SEM and polarized light microscopy showed that the surface and center of starch were damaged after microwave treatment. XRD showed that microwave pre-cooking did not change the crystal structure of starch and maintained the original order of type A structure while reducing the relative starch crystallinity. FT-IR showed that the pre-cooked treatment did not produce new structure in adzuki bean starch, but the ratio of 1047/1022 cm−1 was slightly decreased, indicating that the starch crystallization area decreased relative to the amorphous area and the relative crystallinity decreased. The results of FTIR were consistent with X-ray diffraction results. Therefore, microwaves improved the gelatinization of adzuki beans and made the pre-cooked adzuki beans more suitable.

Fermentation ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 24
Zhi-Yuan Ma ◽  
Emilio Ungerfeld ◽  
Zhu Ouyang ◽  
Xiao-Ling Zhou ◽  
Xue-Feng Han ◽  

Sweet corn is a feed resource with a high content of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) available for ruminant production. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of inoculation with Lactobacillus plantarum on fermentation and nutritional quality of sweet corn silage. Sweet corn whole plant (WP) and sweet corn stover (CS) were ensiled in mini silos with or without inoculation of L. plantarum. Proximate composition and fermentation variables, and composition of the bacterial community, were evaluated before ensiling and at the end of the first, second, and third month after ensiling. There was fiber degradation in CS silage after three months of ensilage, but not in WP silage. Inoculation of WP silage, but not of CS silage, with L. plantarum, increased starch content. The relative abundance of genus Lactobacillus was increased by inoculation with L. plantarum by 14.2% and 82.2% in WP and CS silage, respectively. Inoculation with L. plantarum was not necessary to achieve adequate fermentation of either WP or CS silage, as the abundance of native lactic acid bacteria in both materials seemed suitable for adequate fermentation. That said, increased starch content in WP resulting from inoculation with L. plantarum can increase the nutritive value of WP for ruminants.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 14
Anjar Briliannita ◽  
Zaenab Ismail

Background: Sago is local food, contains lactic acid bacteria that can ferment high carbohydrates and oligosaccharides purified from sago extract. It has the potential as a prebiotic because it can support the growth of lactic acid bacteria, reduce the growth of E.coli and Salmonella bacteria (in vitro).Objectives: To determine the effect of synbiotic drink added with sago starch extract (Metroxylon sago r) on organoleptic and nutritional tests and determine the degree of acidity of the drink.Methods: Experimental study with a completely randomized design (CRD). Organoleptic tests at the Nutrition Laboratory of the Nutrition Department of the Health Polytechnic of Sorong and chemical tests at the Chemix Pratama Laboratory in Yogyakarta in April-June 2020. Descriptive univariate analysis, including frequency and percentage distribution. Bivariate test with ANOVA test and Duncan's follow-up test.Results: The results showed that the synbiotic drink (yogurt) added with sago starch extract and using starter Streptococcus thermophilus, and Lactobacillus bulgaricus had a significant effect on the organoleptic test and the carbohydrate content of the product ( p < 0.05). The most preferred synbiotic drink (yogurt) from the three drink variations (Y011, Y021, and Y033) drinks Y021. The analysis of starch content in local varieties of West Papua sago flour was very high, namely 83.30%, and the chemical test results of acidity (pH) in the selected synbiotic drink (yogurt) Y021 was 4.36.Conclusion: The synbiotic drink added with sago starch extract had a significant effect on the organoleptic test compared with commercial yogurt drink and the carbohydrate content of the drink. Of the 3 variants of sago starch extract in synbiotic drinks, selected was Y021, and the best degree of acidity in synbiotic drinks (Y021), pH = 4.36 was sufficient to meet the standard of acidity of yogurt drinks in general.

Insects ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 56
Inana X. Schutze ◽  
Pedro T. Yamamoto ◽  
José B. Malaquias ◽  
Matthew Herritt ◽  
Alison Thompson ◽  

Bemisia tabaci (MEAM1) represents a species of economic importance in soybean. One of the obstacles to the management of B. tabaci is the quantification of damage by the pest because damage is indirectly inferred through losses in productivity. The objective of this study was to characterize the influence of B. tabaci feeding on soybean by assessing effects on photosynthetic parameters and the sugar and starch content of soybean leaves. The goal was to identify the optimal parameter to directly quantify pest damage on crop yield. Correlation networks were created among data on sugar content (fructose, glucose, and sucrose), starch and photosynthetic parameters (initial fluorescence, performance index on absorption basis, and turn-over number), and the number of nymphs at each of three infestations level (low, medium, and high) during both the vegetative and reproductive stage of the crop. In general, nymphs were more abundant during the vegetative stage. Starch content was strongly correlated with nymph density. A strong positive correlation was observed between fructose and nymph density during the vegetative stage. Among the photosynthetic parameters, the turn-over number N was positively correlated with nymph density at a low-infestation level and negatively correlated with nymphs when they occurred at a high-infestation level. B. tabaci feeding affected the plant’s physiology and its interaction is reflected in part by the relationships among photosynthetic parameters as well as the levels of sugars and starch. This understanding might be useful in developing better monitoring tools for pest management.

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