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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
J. Yang ◽  
H. Zhao ◽  
H. Yuan ◽  
F. Zhu ◽  
W. Zhou

Abstract Coronary heart disease (CHD) has been associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although remain controversial, several studies have demonstrated the association of M. pneumoniae infections with atherosclerosis. We evaluated the possible association of mycoplasma infections in patients diagnosed with atherosclerosis by ELISA and PCR methods. Atherosclerotic tissue samples and blood samples were collected for the detection of mycoplasma antibodies (IgA) by ELISA from the 97 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). M. pneumoniae specific IgA, IgG and IgM were measured by using the Anti-M. pneumoniae IgA/IgG/IgM ELISA. Detection of M. pneumoniae targeting the P1 adhesion gene was performed by PCR Acute infection of M. pneumoniae was diagnosed in 43.3% (42) of patients by PCR. The M. pneumoniae specific antibodies were detected in 36.1% (35) of patients. Twenty-five (25.8%) cases had IgG antibodies, 15 (15.5%) cases had IgM antibodies, 3 (3.1%) cases had IgA antibodies, 10 (10.3%) cases had both IgM + IgG antibodies and 1 (1%) case of each had IgM + IgA and IgG + IgA antibodies. None of the cases was positive for all three antibodies. A Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed an excellent correlation between the PCR and the serological results (r=0.921, p<0.001). A majority (17, 40.5%) of the M. pneumoniae positive patients are within the 41-50 years of age group, followed by 10 (23.8%) patients in the age group of 61-70 years and 2 (4.8%) patients were >70 years of age. Our study reported an unusually higher prevalence of M. pneumoniae by serological tests (36.1%) and PCR (43.3%). Although the hypothesis of the association of M. pneumoniae and CAD is yet to be proven, the unusually high prevalence of M. pneumoniae in CAD patients indicates an association, if not, in the development of atherosclerosis.

Yeray Nóvoa-Medina ◽  
Svetlana Pavlovic-Nesic ◽  
Jesús Ma González-Martín ◽  
Araceli Hernández-Betancor ◽  
Sara López ◽  

Abstract Objectives It has been hypothesized that SARS-CoV-2 may play a role in the development of different forms of diabetes mellitus (DM). The Canary Islands have the highest incidence of type 1 DM (T1DM) reported in Spain (30–35/100,000 children under 14 years/year). In 2020–2021 we observed the highest incidence so far on the island of Gran Canaria, as a result of which we decided to evaluate the possible role of COVID-19 in the increased number of onsets. Methods We examined the presence of IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in children with new onset T1DM between October 2020 and August 2021. We compared recent T1DM incidence with that of the previous 10 years. Results Forty-two patients were diagnosed with T1DM (48.1/100,000 patients/year), representing a nonsignificant 25.7% increase from the expected incidence. Of the 33 patients who consented to the study, 32 presented negative IgG values, with only one patient reflecting undiagnosed past infection. Forty-four percent of patients presented with ketoacidosis at onset, which was similar to previous years. Conclusions We conclude that there is no direct relationship between the increased incidence of T1DM and SARS-CoV-2 in the region. The COVID-19 pandemic did not result in an increased severity of T1DM presentation.

Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 125
Federica Scrimin ◽  
Giuseppina Campisciano ◽  
Manola Comar ◽  
Chiara Ragazzon ◽  
Riccardo Davanzo ◽  

The COVID-19 pandemic has carried massive global health and economic burden that is currently counteracted by a challenging anti-COVID-19 vaccination campaign. Indeed, mass vaccination against COVID-19 is expected to be the most efficacious intervention to mitigate the pandemic successfully. The primary objective of the present study is to test the presence of neutralizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (IgA and IgG) in the breast milk and sera samples from vaccinated women at least 20 days after the complete vaccine cycle. A secondary aim is to compare the IgG antibodies level in maternal serum and breast milk. The third target is to evaluate the presence of the IgG antibodies in breast milk after several weeks from the vaccination. Finally, we collected information on the health status of infants in the days following maternal vaccination. Forty-two mothers were enrolled in the study. Thirty-six received the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine, four the Astra Zeneca vaccine, one the Moderna vaccine and another woman Astra Zeneca in the first dose and Pfizer/BioNTech in the second dose. All 42 milk samples confirmed the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, and none showed IgA presence. Regarding the matched 42 sera samples, 41 samples detected IgG presence, with one sample testing negative and only one positive for seric IgA. None of the 42 infants had fever or changes in sleep or appetite in the seven days following the maternal vaccination. The level of IgG antibodies in milk was, on average, lower than that in maternal serum. According to our analysis, the absence of IgA could suggest a rapid decrease after vaccination even if frequent breastfeeding could favour its persistence. IgG were present in breast milk even 4 months after the second vaccine dose. Information on the immunological characteristics of breast milk could change mothers’ choices regarding breastfeeding.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Li Wei Ang ◽  
Qi Gao ◽  
Lin Cui ◽  
Aysha Farwin ◽  
Matthias Paul Han Sim Toh ◽  

Abstract Background Since the last local case of diphtheria in 1992, there had not been any case in Singapore until an autochthonous case was reported in 2017. This fatal diphtheria case of a migrant worker raised concerns about the potential re-emergence of locally transmitted toxigenic diphtheria in Singapore. We conducted a seroprevalence study to assess the immunity levels to diphtheria among migrant workers in Singapore. Methods Residual sera from migrant workers who hailed from Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar and the Philippines were tested for anti-diphtheria toxoid immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. These migrant workers previously participated in a survey between 2016 and 2019 and had provided blood samples as part of the survey procedure. Results A total of 2176 migrant workers were included in the study. Their overall mean age was 27.1 years (standard deviation 5.0), range was 20–43 years. The proportion having at least basic protection against diphtheria (antitoxin titres ≥ 0.01 IU/ml) ranged from 77.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 72.8 – 82.3%) among migrant workers from Bangladesh to 96.7% (95% CI 92.5 – 98.6%) in those hailing from Malaysia. The proportion showing full protection (antitoxin titres ≥ 0.10 IU/ml) ranged from 10.1% (95% CI 6.5 – 15.4%) in Chinese workers to 23.0% (95% CI 17.1 – 30.3%) in Malaysian workers. There were no significant differences in the proportion with at least basic protection across birth cohorts, except for those from Bangladesh where the seroprevalence was significantly lower in younger migrant workers born after 1989. Conclusions The proportions having at least basic protection against diphtheria in migrant workers from five out of seven Asian countries (India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar and the Philippines) were higher than 85%, the threshold for diphtheria herd immunity. Seroprevalence surveys should be conducted periodically to assess the level of immunity against diphtheria and other vaccine preventable diseases in migrant worker population, so that appropriate interventions such as booster vaccination can be implemented proactively to prevent sporadic outbreaks.

2022 ◽  
Laura Esparcia-Pinedo ◽  
Ayla Yarci-Carrion ◽  
Gloria Mateo-Jimenez ◽  
Noelia Ropero ◽  
Laura Gomez-Cabanas ◽  

Immune dysregulation in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) leads to an increased risk for hospitalization and death due to COVID-19 and may impair the generation of protective immunity after vaccine administration. The cellular and humoral responses of 55 DS patients who received a complete SARS-CoV-2 vaccination regime at one to three (V1) and six (V2) months were characterised. SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes with a predominant Th1 phenotype were observed at V1, and increased at V2. Likewise, a sustained increase of SARS-CoV-2-specific circulating Tfh (cTfh) cells was observed one to three months after vaccine administration. Specific IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 S protein were detected in 96% and 98% of subjects at V1 and V2, respectively, though IgG titers decreased significantly between both timepoints.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 176
Irina Anatolyevna Andrievskaya ◽  
Irina Valentinovna Zhukovets ◽  
Inna Victorovna Dovzhikova ◽  
Nataliya Alexandrovna Ishutina ◽  
Ksenia Konstantinovna Petrova

The goal of this research was to evaluate seropositivity to HSV-1 among pregnant women and its effect on the course of pregnancy, childbirth and the condition of newborns. Methods: The serological status, socio-demographic characteristics, parity of pregnancy and childbirth and condition of newborns in women seronegative and seropositive to HSV-1 with recurrent infection and its latent course during pregnancy were analyzed. Newborns from these mothers made up the corresponding groups. Results: Low titers of IgG antibodies to HSV-1 in women in the first trimester of pregnancy are associated with threatened miscarriage, anemia in pregnancy and chronic placental insufficiency. High titers of IgG antibodies to HSV-1 in women in the second trimester of pregnancy are associated with late miscarriages and premature births, anemia in pregnancy, chronic placental insufficiency, labor anomalies, early neonatal complications (cerebral ischemia, respiratory distress syndrome) and localized skin rashes. Low titers of IgG antibodies to HSV-1 in women in the third trimester of pregnancy are associated with premature birth, anemia in pregnancy, chronic placental insufficiency, endometritis, complications of the early neonatal period and localized skin rashes. Conclusions: Our research showed that low or high titers of IgG antibodies to HSV-1, determined by the timing of recurrence of infection during pregnancy, are associated with a high incidence of somatic pathology and complications in pregnancy, childbirth and the neonatal period.

Maria Mksoud ◽  
Till Ittermann ◽  
Birte Holtfreter ◽  
Andreas Söhnel ◽  
Carmen Söhnel ◽  

Abstract Objectives During the corona pandemic, dental practices temporarily closed their doors to patients except for emergency treatments. Due to the daily occupational exposure, the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission among dentists and their team is presumed to be higher than that in the general population. This study examined this issue among dental teams across Germany. Materials and methods In total, 2784 participants provided usable questionnaires and dry blood samples. Dry blood samples were used to detect IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. The questionnaires were analyzed to investigate demographic data and working conditions during the pandemic. Multivariable logistic mixed-effects models were applied. Results We observed 146 participants with positive SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies (5.2%) and 30 subjects with a borderline finding (1.1%). Seventy-four out of the 146 participants with SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies did not report a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test (50.7%), while 27 participants without SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies reported a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test (1.1%). Combining the laboratory and self-reported information, the number of participants with a SARS-CoV-2 infection was 179 (6.5%). Though after adjustment for region, mixed-effects models indicated associations of use of rubber dams (OR 1.65; 95% CI: 1.01–2.72) and the number of protective measures (OR 1.16; 95% CI: 1.01–1.34) with increased risk for positive SARS-CoV-2 status, none of those variables was significantly associated with a SARS-CoV-2 status in fully adjusted models. Conclusions The risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission was not higher among the dental team compared to the general population. Clinical relevance. Following hygienic regulations and infection control measures ensures the safety of the dental team and their patients.

2022 ◽  
Tesfaye Gelanew ◽  
Andargachew Mulu ◽  
Markos Abebe ◽  
Timothy A Bates ◽  
Liya Wassie ◽  

Abstract Background A single dose COVID-19 vaccines, mostly mRNA-based vaccines, are shown to induce robust antibody responses in individuals who were previously infected with SARS-CoV-2, suggesting the sufficiency of a single dose to those individuals. However, these important data are limited to developed nations and lacking in resource-limited countries, like Ethiopia. Methods We compared receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific IgG antibodies in 40 SARS-CoV-2 naïve participants and 25 participants previously infected with SARS-CoV-2, who received two doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. We measured the antibody response in post-vaccination blood samples from both groups of participants collected at four different post-vaccination time points: 8- and 12-weeks after each dose of the vaccine administration using an in-house developed ELISA. Results We observed a high level of anti-RBD IgG antibodies titers 8-weeks after a single dose administration (16/27; 59.3%) among naïve participants, albeit dropped significantly (p<0.05) two months later, suggesting the protective immunity elicited by the first dose ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine will likely last for a minimum of three months. However, as expected, a significant (p<0.001) increase in the level of anti-RBD IgG antibodies titers was observed after the second dose administration in all naïve participants. By contrast, the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine-induced anti-RBD IgG antibody titers produced by the P.I participants at 8- to 12-weeks post-single dose vaccination were found to be similar to the antibody titers seen after a two-dose vaccination course among infection- naïve participants and showed no significant (p>0.05) increment following the second dose administration. Conclusion Taken together, our findings show that a single ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 dose in previously SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals elicits similar antibody responses to that of double dose vaccinated naïve individuals. Age and sex were not associated with the level of vaccine-elicited immune responses in both individuals with and without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further studies are required to assess the need for a booster dose to extend the duration and amplitude of the specific protective immune response in Ethiopia settings, especially following the Omicron pandemic.

Maria Inge Lusida ◽  
Emily Gunawan ◽  
Ni Luh Ayu Megasari ◽  
Laura Navika Yamani ◽  
Juniastuti ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 248-258
Jan Zlamal ◽  
Karina Althaus ◽  
Hisham Jaffal ◽  
Helene Häberle ◽  
Lisann Pelzl ◽  

Abstract Thromboembolic events are frequently reported in patients infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The exact mechanisms of COVID-19-associated hypercoagulopathy, however, remain elusive. Recently, we observed that platelets (PLTs) from patients with severe COVID-19 infection express high levels of procoagulant markers, which were found to be associated with increased risk for thrombosis. In the current study, we investigated the time course as well as the mechanisms leading to procoagulant PLTs in COVID-19. Our study demonstrates the presence of PLT-reactive IgG antibodies that induce marked changes in PLTs in terms of increased inner-mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψ) depolarization, phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, and P-selectin expression. The IgG-induced procoagulant PLTs and increased thrombus formation were mediated by ligation of PLT Fc-γ RIIA (FcγRIIA). In addition, contents of calcium and cyclic-adenosine-monophosphate (cAMP) in PLTs were identified to play a central role in antibody-induced procoagulant PLT formation. Most importantly, antibody-induced procoagulant events, as well as increased thrombus formation in severe COVID-19, were inhibited by Iloprost, a clinically approved therapeutic agent that increases the intracellular cAMP levels in PLTs. Our data indicate that upregulation of cAMP could be a potential therapeutic target to prevent antibody-mediated coagulopathy in COVID-19 disease.

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