Igg Antibodies
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2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Benno Kohlmaier ◽  
Heidemarie Holzmann ◽  
Karin Stiasny ◽  
Manuel Leitner ◽  
Christoph Zurl ◽  

Background: Administration of measles virus (MV)-specific IgG as post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is known to effectively prevent measles. Since the introduction of active immunization against measles, the levels of MV-specific IgG antibodies in the population have dropped. Therefore, the concentration of MV-specific antibodies in immunoglobulin products derived from human plasma donors has declined as the proportion of vaccinated donors has increased. Literature on the effectiveness of PEP with current available immunoglobulins is limited. Here we examine the effectiveness of 400 mg/kg intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) (IgVena®, Kendrion) as PEP in infants during a measles outbreak in Austria, 2019.Methods: After exposure to a highly contagious measles patient, identified infants were evaluated for eligibility for IVIG PEP. Infants were tested for measles maternal antibodies, if the result was expected to be available within 72 h after exposure. IVIG was administered to eligible infants with negative maternal IgG antibody levels (n = 11), infants with protective levels but result beyond 72 h (n = 2) and infants not tested for maternal IgG antibodies (n = 52). Telephone enquiries were made asking for measles infection. Effectiveness was calculated using exact logistic regression. Samples of four out of seven used IVIG batches were tested for MV-neutralizing antibody capacity.Results: In 63 (96.9%) of 65 infants PEP with IVIG was administered. The parents of two infants declined IVIG PEP. None of the infants with IVIG PEP got measles or symptoms suggestive for measles, but both infants who did not receive PEP were infected. Effectiveness of IVIG PEP was calculated to be 99.3% (CI 95%: 88.7–100%). No serious adverse event of IVIG treatment was observed. The investigation on MV-neutralizing antibody capacity showed a geometric mean titer ranging from 10.0 to 12.7 IU/ml, resulting in a 1.57–2.26-fold higher concentration than postulated as minimum level for immunity.Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the used IVIG preparation provided an at least non-inferior protection rate compared to IVIG preparations derived from donors before the global introduction of standard active immunization against measles.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Robert M. Mugo ◽  
Kennedy Mwai ◽  
Jedidah Mwacharo ◽  
Faiz M. Shee ◽  
Jennifer N. Musyoki ◽  

Abstract Background RTS,S/AS01, the leading malaria vaccine has been recommended by the WHO for widespread immunization of children at risk. RTS,S/AS01-induced anti-CSP IgG antibodies are associated with the vaccine efficacy. Here, the long-term kinetics of RTS,S/AS01-induced antibodies was investigated. Methods 150 participants were randomly selected from the 447 children who participated in the RTS,S/AS01 phase IIb clinical trial in 2007 from Kilifi-Kenya. Cumulatively, the retrospective follow-up period was 93 months with annual plasma samples collection. The levels of anti-CSP IgM, total IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 antibodies were then determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results RTS,S/AS01 induced high levels of anti-CSP IgG antibodies which exhibited a rapid waning over 6.5 months post-vaccination, followed by a slower decay over the subsequent years. RTS,S/AS01-induced anti-CSP IgG antibodies remained elevated above the control group levels throughout the 7 years follow-up period. The anti-CSP IgG antibodies were mostly IgG1, IgG3, IgG2, and to a lesser extent IgG4. IgG2 predominated in later timepoints. RTS,S/AS01 also induced high levels of anti-CSP IgM antibodies which increased above the control group levels by month 3. The controls exhibited increasing levels of the anti-CSP IgM antibodies which caught up with the RTS,S/AS01 vaccinees levels by month 21. In contrast, there were no measurable anti-CSP IgG antibodies among the controls. Conclusion RTS,S/AS01-induced anti-CSP IgG antibodies kinetics are consistent with long-lived but waning vaccine efficacy. Natural exposure induces anti-CSP IgM antibodies in children, which increases with age, but does not induce substantial levels of anti-CSP IgG antibodies.

2021 ◽  
Francisco Hernandez-Bernal ◽  
Maria del Carmen Ricardo-Cobas ◽  
Yenima Martin-Bauta ◽  
Zadis Navarro-Rodriguez ◽  
Marjoris Pinera-Martinez ◽  

Aim: To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a SARS-CoV-2 recombinant spike protein vaccine (Abdala), administered intramuscularly in different strengths and vaccination schedules. Method: A phase 1-2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was done. Subjects were randomly distributed in 3 groups: placebo, 25 and 50 μg RBD. The product was applied intramuscularly, 0.5 mL in the deltoid region. During the first phase, two immunization schedules were studied: short (0-14-28 days) and long (0-28-56 days). In phase 2, only the short scheme was evaluated. The main endpoints were: safety and proportion of subjects with seroconversion of anti-RBD IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. Blood samples were collected in several points according to the corresponding vaccination schedule to determine the level of RBD-specific IgG antibodies (seroconversion rates and geometric mean of the titers), the percentage of inhibition of RBD-ACE-2 binding and levels of neutralizing antibodies. Results: The product was well tolerated. Severe adverse events were not reported. Adverse reactions were minimal, mostly mild and local (from the injection site), resolved in the first 24-48 hours without medication. In phase 1, at day 56 (28 days after the third dose of the short vaccination schedule, 0-14-28 days) seroconversion of anti-RBD IgG was seen in 95.2 % of the participants (20/21) for the 50 μg group and 81 % of the participants (17/21) for the 25 μg group, and none in the placebo group (0/22); whereas neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 were seen in 80 % of the participants (8/10) for the 50 μg group and 94.7% of the participants (18/19) for the 25 μg group. For the long schedule, at day 70 (14 days after the third dose) seroconversion of anti-RBD IgG was seen in 100% of the participants (21/21) for the 50 μg group and 94.7% of the participants (18/19) for the 25 μg group, and none in the placebo group (0/22); whereas neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 were seen in 95 % of the participants (19/20) for the 50 μg group and 93.8% of the participants (15/16) for the 25 μg group In phase 2, at day 56 seroconversion of anti-RBD IgG was seen in 89.2% of the participants (214/240) for the 50 μg group, 77.7% of the participants (185/238) for the 25 μg group, and 4.6% in the placebo group (11/239); whereas neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 were seen in 97.3% of the participants (146/150) for the 50 μg group and 95.1% of the participants (58/61) for the 25 μg group. Conclusion: Abdala vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 was safe, well tolerated and induced humoral immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 among adults from 19 to 80 years of age.

Medicina ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 57 (12) ◽  
pp. 1311
Adam Sulewski ◽  
Dominik Sieroń ◽  
Karol Szyluk ◽  
Mikołaj Dąbrowski ◽  
Łukasz Kubaszewski ◽  

Background and objectives: The course of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) is still under analysis. The majority of complications arising from the infection are related to the respiratory system. The adverse effect of the viral infection on bone and joint tissue has also been observed. Materials and Methods: We present a group of 10 patients with degeneration of large joints and adjacent epiphyses of long bones and the spine, with a background of bone infarctions and avascular necrosis (AVN) immediately after infection with the COVID-19 virus. In MR imaging, changes in the characteristics of AVN were documented. Results: Observation of this group showed a clear correlation among the history of COVID-19 disease in the patients, moderately severe symptoms, high levels of IgG antibodies, and the time of occurrence of joint changes. No other clinically significant complications were observed following COVID-19 infection in the study group. No other risk factors for AVN or autoimmune or degenerative diseases were found in the study group. The group of patients responded well to empirical treatment with steroids, which normalized acute inflammatory symptoms and pain in the joints. Conclusions: During coronavirus (COVID-19) infection, there are complications in the locomotor system, such as microembolism and the formation of AVN; hence, more research is needed.

npj Vaccines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
Claudio Counoupas ◽  
Matt D. Johansen ◽  
Alberto O. Stella ◽  
Duc H. Nguyen ◽  
Angela L. Ferguson ◽  

AbstractGlobal control of COVID-19 requires broadly accessible vaccines that are effective against SARS-CoV-2 variants. In this report, we exploit the immunostimulatory properties of bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the existing tuberculosis vaccine, to deliver a vaccination regimen with potent SARS-CoV-2-specific protective immunity. Combination of BCG with a stabilised, trimeric form of SARS-CoV-2 spike antigen promoted rapid development of virus-specific IgG antibodies in the blood of vaccinated mice, that was further augmented by the addition of alum. This vaccine formulation, BCG:CoVac, induced high-titre SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibodies (NAbs) and Th1-biased cytokine release by vaccine-specific T cells, which correlated with the early emergence of T follicular helper cells in local lymph nodes and heightened levels of antigen-specific plasma B cells after vaccination. Vaccination of K18-hACE2 mice with a single dose of BCG:CoVac almost completely abrogated disease after SARS-CoV-2 challenge, with minimal inflammation and no detectable virus in the lungs of infected animals. Boosting BCG:CoVac-primed mice with a heterologous vaccine further increased SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses, which effectively neutralised B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. These findings demonstrate the potential for BCG-based vaccination to protect against major SARS-CoV-2 variants circulating globally.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (11) ◽  
pp. e0256864
Daniela Droppa-Almeida ◽  
Glenda Amaral da Silva ◽  
Lívia Maria do Amorim Costa Gaspar ◽  
Beatriz Benny Sungaila Pereyra ◽  
Roberto José Meyer Nascimento ◽  

Caseous Lymphadenitis (CLA) is a chronic disease that affects also small ruminants. CLA is caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and is responsible for high economic losses due to the formation of superficial and visceral granulomas, the latter is considered as asymptomatic CLA causing high levels of dissemination. Several vaccination strategies, in which the use of synthetic peptides stands out. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the protective potential of peptide vaccines designed to determine the immunodominant epitopes of CP40 against CLA in mice. The animals were divided into eight groups separated in controls (G1—PBS, G2—Saponin and G9—rCP40) and experimental (G3—pep1, G4- pep2, G5-pep3, G6-pep4, G7-pep5 and G8-pep6), these were vaccinated on days 0 and 15 by a subcutaneous route. 60 days after the first immunization, all animals were challenged with C. pseudotuberculosis. On days 0, 15, 60, and 120 after the first immunization, blood samples were taken to measure immunoglobulins. On the same day of the challenge, the splenocytes were isolated and assayed for the production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-17, and IL-10. After vaccinations, the animals were challenged and all of them were affected by the disease which led to their death. The G6 and G8 groups provided 10% protection and the G7 provided 20%. The G3 and G4 groups provided 30% and 40% protection respectively. The peptides showed the production of Total IgG antibodies and cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IFN-γ, and TNF-α), indicating a possible activation of the Th1 type response. However, groups G3, G5, G6, and G8 showed production of IL-17. None of the study groups showed IL-10 production. The immunogenicity of the peptides was not enough to protect these animals and it is believed that the use of adjuvants based on PAMPs may improve the immune response offered by these peptides.

Pathogens ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 1557
Katarína Šimeková ◽  
Ľubomír Soják ◽  
Bronislava Víchová ◽  
Lenka Balogová ◽  
Júlia Jarošová ◽  

In HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infected people, the immunodeficiency caused by a reduced level of CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4) T-lymphocytes increases the risk of infectious diseases. Additionally, in individuals with immunologically compromising conditions, tick-borne or some parasitic pathogens may cause chronic, debilitating opportunistic infections and even death. The study aimed at determining the IgG seropositivity of HIV-infected patients to Toxoplasma gondii, Toxocara spp., Echinococcus multilocularis, and E. granulosus s.l. and performing the molecular identification of T. gondii and some tick-borne pathogens, namely, Borrelia spp., Babesia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., and Bartonella spp. Out of 89 HIV-positive patients, specific IgG antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 17 (19.1%) and to Borrelia spp. in 12 (13.5%) individuals. Seropositivity to Toxocara spp., E. multilocularis, and E. granulosus s.l. was not recorded. Molecular approaches showed positivity to T. gondii in two (2.2%) patients, and 11 (12.4%) individuals had positive PCR signal for the msp2 gene of A. phagocytophilum. Relatively high prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in HIV-positive patients suggests that these people are more susceptible to some vector-borne pathogens. The presence of opportunistic infections may pose a health risk for patients with weakened immune systems, and should not be neglected during the regular monitoring of the patient’s health status.

Vaccines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 1402
Joanna Kwiecińska-Piróg ◽  
Jana Przekwas ◽  
Zuzanna Kraszewska ◽  
Alicja Sękowska ◽  
Sylwia Brodzka ◽  

(1) Background: In many infections, antibodies play a crucial role in controlling infection. In COVID-19, the dynamics of the immune system response to SARS-CoV-2 is not fully understood. (2) Methods: The study was conducted on 120 healthcare workers from Dr. Antoni Jurasz University Hospital No. 1 in Bydgoszcz, between June and December 2020. In all participants, IgA and IgG antibody serum concentrations were measured using the semi-quantitative Anti-SARS-CoV-2 ELISA test (Euroimmun). After vaccination, in January and February 2021, antibody levels were examined using the quantitative IgG Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Quantivac ELISA test (Euroimmun). (3) Results: During the whole study period, the SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed in 29 (24.2%) participants. In all infected participants, IgA and IgG antibodies were detectable after infection by semi-quantitative serological tests. Levels of antibodies were higher one month after the first dose in the convalescents than in the non-previously infected participants. In this second group, the level of antibodies increased significantly after the second dose of vaccines compared to the first dose. (4) Conclusions: The level of antibodies after the first dose of vaccine in the convalescents’ group is higher than in the SARS-CoV-2 non-infected group, but the differences disappear after the second vaccination.

2021 ◽  
Pilar Martínez-Barranco ◽  
Maria García-Roa ◽  
Roberto Trelles-Martínez ◽  
Karmele Arribalzaga ◽  
María Velasco ◽  

Introduction: There is no consensus on the management of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in patients with secondary immunosuppression due to either an underlying haematological disease or to the effects of immunochemotherapy (ICT). Some of them may present persistent infection with multiple relapses of the COVID-19, requiring several admissions. This study evaluated the clinical characteristics and outcomes after treatment of five patients with follicular lymphoma (FL), previously treated with ICT, who developed several episodes of COVID-19. Methods: We analyzed the clinical evolution and response to treatment with antiviral agent, steroids and convalescent plasma in five patients with FL and SARS-CoV-2 persistent infection. Reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) tests and peripheral blood immunophenotype were performed for all patients. Results: All patients required hospitalization due to pneumonia with severity criteria and were re-admitted after a median of 22 days (13-42) from the previous discharge. They all showed B-cell depletion by immunophenotyping and no traces of immunoglobulin (IgG) antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were detected in any of the cases. The survival rate was 80%. Conclusion: The combination therapy evidenced clinical benefits, demonstrating its capacity to control infection in immunosuppressed follicular lymphoma patients treated with ICT.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
Astrid Muyldermans ◽  
Piet Maes ◽  
Tony Wawina-Bokalanga ◽  
Tine Anthierens ◽  
Olivier Goldberg ◽  

Abstract Background Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine have been used for hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 patients because of their antiviral and anti-inflammatory function. However, little research has been published on the impact of the immunomodulatory effect of (hydroxy)chloroquine on humoral immunity. Case presentation We report a case of symptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 reinfection, diagnosed 141 days after the first episode, in a 56-year-old man of Black African origin treated with hydroxychloroquine for lupus erythematosus. No anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 IgG antibodies could be detected 127 days after the initial episode of coronavirus disease 2019. Conclusions The treatment with hydroxychloroquine probably explains the decreased immune response with negative serology and subsequent reinfection in our patient. As humoral immunity is crucial to fight a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, the use of (hydroxy)chloroquine is likely to have a detrimental effect on the spread of the virus. This case emphasizes that more needs to be learned about the role of antibodies in protecting against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (re)infection and the role of (hydroxy)chloroquine on humoral immunity.

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