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2022 ◽  
Vol 103 ◽  
pp. 108449
Author(s):  
Yuejin Wang ◽  
Yuanyuan Ding ◽  
Chaomei Li ◽  
Jiapan Gao ◽  
Xiaodong Wang ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xi Chen ◽  
Fang Liu ◽  
Baoying Zheng ◽  
Xiaohui Kang ◽  
Xiaolin Wang ◽  
...  

Severe mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) in children presents with serious clinical complications. Without proper and prompt intervention, it could lead to deadly consequences. Dynamics of the inflammatory airway milieu and activation status of immune cells were believed to be the hallmark of the pathogenesis and progress of the disease. In this study, by employing the T-cell sorting and mRNA microarray, we were able to define the main feature of the chemokine/cytokine expression and the unique characteristics of T cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from severe MPP patients at acute phase. Our study for the first time delineated the molecular changes in isolated BALF T cells in severe MPP children with respect to the cytokine/chemokine expression, cell activation, exhaustion, and apoptosis. By comparing the BALF aqueous expression of cytokines/chemokines with that in sorted T cells, our data give a preliminary clue capable of finishing out the possible cell source of the proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines from the BALF mixture. Meanwhile, our data provide a distinctively pellucid expression profile particularly belonging to the isolated BALF T cells demonstrating that in the inflammatory airway, overactivated T cells were exhausted and on the verge of apoptotic progress.


Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 127
Author(s):  
Lawrence B. Afrin ◽  
Tania T. Dempsey ◽  
Leonard B. Weinstock

For nearly a decade, case reports and series have emerged regarding dysautonomias—particularly postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS)—presenting soon after vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV). We too have observed a number of such cases (all following vaccination with the Gardasil product), and have found several to have detectable mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS) as well as histories suggesting that MCAS was likely present long before vaccination. We detail 11 such cases here, posing a hypothesis that HPV vaccination (at least with the Gardasil product) may have triggered or exacerbated MCAS in teenagers previously not recognized to have it. Only recently recognized, MCAS is being increasingly appreciated as a prevalent and chronic multisystem disorder, often emerging early in life and presenting with inflammatory ± allergic phenomena following from known mast cell (MC) mediator effects. There is rising recognition, too, of associations of MCAS with central and peripheral neuropathic disorders, including autonomic disorders such as POTS. Given the recognized potential for many antigens to trigger a major and permanent escalation of baseline MC misbehavior in a given MCAS patient, we hypothesize that in our patients described herein, vaccination with Gardasil may have caused pre-existing (but not yet clinically recognized) MCAS to worsen to a clinically significantly degree, with the emergence of POTS and other issues. The recognition and management of MCAS prior to vaccinations in general may be a strategy worth investigating for reducing adverse events following HPV vaccinations and perhaps even other types of vaccinations.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Md. Alamgir Hossain ◽  
Kara Anasti ◽  
Brian Watts ◽  
Kenneth Cronin ◽  
Advaiti Pai Kane ◽  
...  

HIV-1 Envelope (Env) proteins designed to induce neutralizing antibody responses allow study of the role of affinities (equilibrium dissociation constant, KD) and kinetic rates (association/dissociation rates) on B cell antigen recognition. It is unclear whether affinity discrimination during B cell activation is based solely on Env protein binding KD, and whether B cells discriminate between proteins of similar affinities but that bind with different kinetic rates. Here we used a panel of Env proteins and Ramos B cell lines expressing IgM BCRs with specificity for CD4 binding-site broadly neutralizing (bnAb) or a precursor antibody to study the role of antigen binding kinetic rates on both early (proximal/distal signaling) and late events (BCR/antigen internalization) in B cell activation. Our results support a kinetic model for B cell activation in which Env protein affinity discrimination is based not on overall KD, but on sensing of association rate and a threshold antigen-BCR half-life.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Judith F Ashouri ◽  
Elizabeth McCarthy ◽  
Steven Yu ◽  
Noah Perlmutter ◽  
Charles Lin ◽  
...  

How autoreactive CD4 T cells develop to cause rheumatoid arthritis remains unknown. We used a reporter for antigen-receptor signaling in the SKG autoimmune arthritis model to profile a T cell subpopulation enriched for arthritogenic naive CD4 T cells before arthritis onset by bulk and single cell RNA and T cell antigen-receptor (TCR) sequencing. Our analyses reveal that despite their impaired proximal TCR signaling, a subset of SKG naive CD4 T cells that have recently encountered endogenous antigen upregulate gene programs associated with positive regulation of T cell activation and cytokine signaling at higher levels than wild type cells in the pre-disease state. These arthritogenic cells also induce genes associated with negative regulation of T cell activation but do so less efficiently than wild type cells. Furthermore, their TCR sequences exhibit a previously unrecognized biased peripheral TCR Vβ repertoire likely driven by endogenous viral superantigens. These particular Vβs, known to recognize endogenous mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) superantigen, are further expanded in arthritic joints. Our results demonstrate that autoreactive naive CD4 T cells which recognize endogenous viral superantigens are poised to cause disease by their altered transcriptome.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Vardges Tserunyan ◽  
Stacey D Finley

In recent decades, chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have been successfully used to generate engineered T cells capable of recognizing and eliminating cancer cells. The structure of CARs frequently includes costimulatory domains, which enhance the T cell response upon antigen encounter. However, it is not fully known how the CAR co-stimulatory domains influence T cell activation in the presence of biological variability. In this work, we used mathematical modeling to elucidate how the inclusion of one such co-stimulatory molecule, CD28, impacts the response of a population of engineered T cells under different sources of variability. Particularly, our simulations demonstrate that CD28-bearing CARs mediate a faster and more consistent population response under both target antigen variability and kinetic rate variability. We identify kinetic parameters that have the most impact on mediating cell activation. Finally, based on our findings, we propose that enhancing the catalytic activity of lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (LCK) can result in drastically reduced and more consistent response times among heterogeneous CAR T cell populations.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Niels C. Lory ◽  
Mikolaj Nawrocki ◽  
Martina Corazza ◽  
Joanna Schmid ◽  
Valéa Schumacher ◽  
...  

Antigen recognition by the T-cell receptor induces a cytosolic Ca2+ signal that is crucial for T-cell function. The Ca2+ channel TRPM2 (transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 2) has been shown to facilitate influx of extracellular Ca2+ through the plasma membrane of T cells. Therefore, it was suggested that TRPM2 is involved in T-cell activation and differentiation. However, these results are largely derived from in vitro studies using T-cell lines and non-physiologic means of TRPM2 activation. Thus, the relevance of TRPM2-mediated Ca2+ signaling in T cells remains unclear. Here, we use TRPM2-deficient mice to investigate the function of TRPM2 in T-cell activation and differentiation. In response to TCR stimulation in vitro, Trpm2-/- and WT CD4+ and CD8+ T cells similarly upregulated the early activation markers NUR77, IRF4, and CD69. We also observed regular proliferation of Trpm2-/- CD8+ T cells and unimpaired differentiation of CD4+ T cells into Th1, Th17, and Treg cells under specific polarizing conditions. In vivo, Trpm2-/- and WT CD8+ T cells showed equal specific responses to Listeria monocytogenes after infection of WT and Trpm2-/- mice and after transfer of WT and Trpm2-/- CD8+ T cells into infected recipients. CD4+ T-cell responses were investigated in the model of anti-CD3 mAb-induced intestinal inflammation, which allows analysis of Th1, Th17, Treg, and Tr1-cell differentiation. Here again, we detected similar responses of WT and Trpm2-/- CD4+ T cells. In conclusion, our results argue against a major function of TRPM2 in T-cell activation and differentiation.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261789
Author(s):  
Xiaoying Liu ◽  
Sarah A. Taylor ◽  
Kyle D. Gromer ◽  
Danny Zhang ◽  
Susan C. Hubchak ◽  
...  

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common causes of liver diseases in the United States and can progress to cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease and need for liver transplantation. There are limited therapies for NAFLD, in part, due to incomplete understanding of the disease pathogenesis, which involves different cell populations in the liver. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and its adaptative unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway have been implicated in the progression from simple hepatic steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We have previously shown that mice lacking the UPR protein X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) in the liver demonstrated enhanced liver injury and fibrosis in a high fat sugar (HFS) dietary model of NAFLD. In this study, to better understand the role of liver XBP1 in the pathobiology of NAFLD, we fed hepatocyte XBP1 deficient mice a HFS diet or chow and investigated UPR and other cell signaling pathways in hepatocytes, hepatic stellate cells and immune cells. We demonstrate that loss of XBP1 in hepatocytes increased inflammatory pathway expression and altered expression of the UPR signaling in hepatocytes and was associated with enhanced hepatic stellate cell activation after HFS feeding. We believe that a better understanding of liver cell-specific signaling in the pathogenesis of NASH may allow us to identify new therapeutic targets.


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