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Nano Today ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 42 ◽  
pp. 101332
Author(s):  
Huaxing Dai ◽  
Qin Fan ◽  
Ziying Fei ◽  
Qingle Ma ◽  
Qianyu Yang ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Lina Zhang ◽  
Xinyi Shi ◽  
Qing Zhang ◽  
Zhilei Mao ◽  
Xiaoyu Shi ◽  
...  

High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of almost all cervical cancers. HPV16 is one of the main risk subtypes. Although screening programs have greatly reduced the prevalence of cervical cancer in developed countries, current diagnostic tests cannot predict if mild lesions may progress into invasive lesions or not. In the current cross-sectional and longitudinal clinical study, we found that the HPV16 E7-specific T cell response in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HPV16-infected patients is related to HPV16 clearance. It contributes to protecting the squamous interaepithelial lesion (SIL) from further malignant development. Of the HPV16 infected women enrolled (n = 131), 42 had neither intraepithelial lesion nor malignancy (NILM), 33 had low-grade SIL, 39 had high-grade SIL, and 17 had cervical cancer. Only one of 17 (5.9%) cancer patients had a positive HPV16 E7-specific T cell response, dramatically lower than the groups of precancer patients. After one year of follow-up, most women (28/33, 84.8%) with persistent HPV infection did not exhibit a HPV16 E7-specific T cell response. Furthermore, 3 malignantly progressed women, one progressed to high-grade SIL and two progressed to low-grade SIL, were negative to the HPV16 E7-specific T cell response. None of the patients with a positive HPV16 E7-specific T cell response progressed to further deterioration. Our observation suggests that HPV16 E7-specific T cell immunity is significant in viral clearance and contributes in protection against progression to malignancy.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Paolo Corradini ◽  
Chiara Agrati ◽  
Giovanni Apolone ◽  
Alberto Mantovani ◽  
Diana Giannarelli ◽  
...  

Background: Patients with solid or hematological tumors, neurological and immune-inflammatory disorders represent potentially fragile subjects with increased risk to experience severe COVID-19 and inadequate response to SARS-CoV2 vaccination. Methods: We designed a prospective Italian multicentric study to assess humoral and T-cell response to SARS-CoV2 vaccination in patients (n=378) with solid tumors (ST), hematological malignancies (HM), neurological (ND) and immuno-rheumatological diseases (ID). The immunogenicity of primary vaccination schedule and of the booster dose were analyzed. Results: Overall, patient seroconversion rate after two doses was 62.1%. A significant lower rate was observed in HM (52.4%) and ID (51.9%) patients compared to ST (95.6%) and ND (70.7%); a lower median level of antibodies was detected in HM and ID versus the others (p<0.0001). A similar rate of patients with a positive SARS-CoV2 T-cell response was observed in all disease groups, with a higher level observed in the ND group. The booster dose improved humoral responses in all disease groups, although with a lower response in HM patients, while the T-cell response increased similarly in all groups. In the multivariable logistic model, the independent predictors for seroconversion were disease subgroups, type of therapies and age. Notably, the ongoing treatment known to affect the immune system was associated with the worst humoral response to vaccination (p<0.0001), but had no effects on the T-cell responses. Conclusions: Immunosuppressive treatment more than disease type per se is a risk factor for low humoral response after vaccination. The booster dose can improve both humoral and T-cell response.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Andrea T. Nguyen ◽  
Christopher Szeto ◽  
Demetra S.M. Chatzileontiadou ◽  
Zhen Wei Marcus Tong ◽  
Michael J. Dewar-Oldis ◽  
...  

The >30 mutated residues in the Omicron spike protein have led to its rapid classification as a new SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern. As a result, Omicron may escape from the immune system, decreasing the protection provided by COVID-19 vaccines. Preliminary data shows a weaker neutralizing antibody response to Omicron compared to the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 virus, which can be increased after a booster vaccine. Here, we report that CD8+ T cells can recognize Omicron variant epitopes presented by HLA-A*02:01 in both COVID-19 recovered and vaccinated individuals, even 6 months after infection or vaccination. Additionally, the T cell response was stronger for Omicron variant epitopes after the vaccine booster. Altogether, T cells can recognize Omicron variants, especially in vaccinated individuals after the vaccine booster.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Rob Krause ◽  
Thandeka Moyo-Gwete ◽  
Simone Richardson ◽  
Zanele Makhado ◽  
Nelia Manamela ◽  
...  

Abstract Neutralizing antibodies strongly correlate with protection for COVID-19 vaccines, but the corresponding memory B cells that form to protect against future infection are relatively understudied. Here we examine the effect of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection on the magnitude and phenotype of the B cell response to single dose Johnson and Johnson (Ad26.COV2.S) vaccination in South African health care workers. SARS-CoV-2 specific memory responses expand in response to Ad26.COV2.S and are maintained for the study duration (84 days) in all individuals. However, prior infection is associated with a greater frequency of these cells, a more prominent germinal center (GC) response, and increased class switched memory (CSM). These B cell features correlated with both neutralization and antibody-dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity, and with the frequency of SARS-CoV-2 specific circulating T follicular helper cells (cTfh). In addition, the SARS-CoV-2 specific CD8+ T cell response correlated with increased memory B cell lung-homing, which was sustained in the infected group. Finally, although vaccination achieved equivalent B cell activation regardless of infection history, it was negatively impacted by age. These data show that phenotyping the B cell response to vaccination can provide mechanistic insight into the impact of prior infection on GC homing, CSM, cTfh, and neutralization activity. These data can provide early signals and mechanistic understanding to inform studies of vaccine boosting, durability, and co-morbidities.


2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 143
Author(s):  
Hortensia Álvarez ◽  
Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos ◽  
Pedro Miguel Juiz-González ◽  
Joana Vitallé ◽  
Irene Viéitez ◽  
...  

Intra-host evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been reported in cases with persistent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study, we describe a severely immunosuppressed individual with HIV-1/SARS-CoV-2 coinfection with a long-term course of SARS-CoV-2 infection. A 28-year-old man was diagnosed with HIV-1 infection (CD4+ count: 3 cells/µL nd 563000 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL) and simultaneous Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection and SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction positivity from nasopharyngeal samples was prolonged for 15 weeks. SARS-CoV-2 was identified as variant Alpha (PANGO lineage B.1.1.7) with mutation S:E484K. Spike-specific T-cell response was similar to HIV-negative controls although enriched in IL-2, and showed disproportionately increased immunological exhaustion marker levels. Despite persistent SARS-CoV-2 infection, adaptive intra-host SARS-CoV-2 evolution, was not identified. Spike-specific T-cell response protected against a severe COVID-19 outcome and the increased immunological exhaustion marker levels might have favoured SARS-CoV-2 persistence.


Author(s):  
Arnold Awuah ◽  
Ava Zamani ◽  
Fariba Tahami ◽  
Mark Davis ◽  
Louis Grandjean ◽  
...  

Abstract Understanding the T cell response to SARS-CoV-2 is key in patients who lack antibody production. We demonstrate the applicability of a functional assay to measure the T cell response in a cohort of patients with immunodeficiency.


Hepatology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sourina Pal ◽  
Debangana Dey ◽  
Bidhan Chandra Chakraborty ◽  
Madhuparna Nandi ◽  
Mousumi Khatun ◽  
...  

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