antibody titers
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
F. Sughra ◽  
M. Hafeez-ur Rahman ◽  
F. Abbas ◽  
I. Altaf

Abstract Aeromonas hydrophila is a cause of infectious disease outbreaks in carp species cultured in South Asian countries including Pakistan. This bacterium has gained resistance to a wide range of antibiotics and robust preventive measures are necessary to control its spread. No prior use of fish vaccines has been reported in Pakistan. The present study aims to develop and evaluate inactivated vaccines against local strain of A. hydrophila in Pakistan with alum-precipitate as adjuvant. The immunogenic potential of vaccine was evaluated in two Indian major carps (Rohu: Labeo rohita, Mori: Cirrhinus mrigala) and a Chinese carp (Grass carp: Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were vaccinated intraperitoneally followed by a challenge through immersion. Fish with an average age of 4-5 months were randomly distributed in three vaccinated groups with three vaccine concentrations of 108, 109 and 1010 colony forming unit (CFU)/ml and a control group. Fixed dose of 0.1ml was applied to each fish on 1st day and a booster dose at 15 days post-vaccination (DPV). Blood samples were collected on 14, 28, 35, 48 and 60 DPV to determine antibody titers in blood serum using compliment fixation test (CFT). Fish were challenged at 60 DPV with infectious A. hydrophila with 108 CFU/ml through immersion. Significantly higher levels of antibody titers were observed from 28 DPV in all vaccinated groups as compared to those in the control group. In challenge experiment the average RPS (relative percent survivability) was 71% for groups vaccinated with 109 and 1010 CFU/ml and 86% for 108 CFU/ml. Vaccine with 108 CFU/ml induced highest immune response followed by 109 and 1010 CFU/ml. The immune response of L. rohita and C. idella was better than that of C. mrigala. In general, normal histopathology was observed in different organs of vaccinated fish whereas minor deteriorative changes were found in fish vaccinated with higher concentrations of the vaccine.

Füsun Can ◽  
Zeynep Ece Kuloğlu ◽  
Rojbin El ◽  
Gülen Esken ◽  
Yeşim Tok ◽  

Objective: There is a need for the immunogenicity of different boosters after widely used inactivated vaccine regimens. We aimed to determine the effects of BNT162b2 and CoronaVac boosters on the humoral and cellular immunity of individuals who had two doses of CoronaVac vaccination. Methods: The study was conducted in three centers (Koc University Hospital, Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Hospital, and Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical School Hospital) in Istanbul. Individuals who had two doses of CoronaVac and no history of COVID-19 were included. The baseline blood samples were collected three to five months after two doses of CoronaVac. Follow-up samples were taken one and three months after third doses of CoronaVac or one dose of mRNA BNT162b2 boosters. Neutralizing antibody titers were detected by plaque reduction assay. T cell responses were evaluated by Elispot assay and flow cytometry. Results: We found a 3.38-fold increase in neutralizing antibody titers (Geometric Mean Titer [GMT], 78.69) one month after BNT162b2 booster and maintained at the three months (GMT, 80). However, in the CoronaVac group, significantly lower GMTs than BNT162b2 after 1 month and 3 months (21.44 and 28.44, respectively) indicated the weak immunogenicity of the CoronaVac booster (p<0.001). In the ELISpot assay, IL-2 levels after BNT162b2 were higher than baseline and CoronaVac booster (p<0.001) and IFN-γ levels were significantly higher than baseline (P<0.001). The CD8+CD38+CD69+ and CD4+CD38+CD69+ T cells were stimulated significantly at the 3 month of the BNT162b2 boosters. Conclusion: The neutralizing antibody levels after three months of the BNT162b2 booster were higher than the antibody levels after CoronaVac. On the other hand, specific T cells might contribute to immune protection. By considering the waning immunity, we suggest a new booster dose with BNT162b2 for the countries that already have two doses of primary CoronaVac regimens.

2022 ◽  
Yuemiao Zhang ◽  
Xingzi Liu ◽  
Miaomiao Lin ◽  
Jincan Zan ◽  
Yitong Hu ◽  

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at higher risk for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related morbidity and mortality. However, a significant portion of CKD patients showed hesitation toward vaccination in telephone survey of our center. Yet no serial data available on humoral response in patients with CKD, especially those on immunosuppression. We conducted a pilot, prospective study to survey the safety and humoral response to inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in CKD patients receiving a 2-dose immunization of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. We found the neutralizing antibody titers in CKD patients was significantly lower than that in healthy controls, hypertension patients, and diabetes patients. Notably, immunosuppressive medication rather than eGFR levels or disease types showed effect on the reduction of immunogenicity. Interestingly, a third dose significantly boosted neutralizing antibody in CKD patients while immunosuppressants impeded the boosting effects. In conclusion, our data demonstrates that CKD patients, even for those on immunosuppression treatment, can benefit from a third vaccination boost by improving their humoral immunity.

2022 ◽  
Arinjay Banerjee ◽  
Jocelyne Lew ◽  
Andrea Kroeker ◽  
Kaushal Baid ◽  
Patryk Aftanas ◽  

The omicron variant of concern (VOC) of SARS-CoV-2 was first reported in November 2021 in Botswana and South Africa. Omicron variant has evolved multiple mutations within the spike protein and the receptor binding domain (RBD), raising concerns of increased antibody evasion. Here, we isolated infectious omicron from a clinical specimen obtained in Canada. The neutralizing activity of sera from 65 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccine recipients and convalescent individuals against clinical isolates of ancestral SARS-CoV-2, beta, delta, and omicron VOCs was assessed. Convalescent sera from unvaccinated individuals infected by the ancestral virus during the first wave of COVID-19 in Canada (July, 2020) demonstrated reduced neutralization against beta, delta and omicron VOCs. Convalescent sera from unvaccinated individuals infected by the delta variant (May-June, 2021) neutralized omicron to significantly lower levels compared to the delta variant. Sera from individuals that received three doses of the Pfizer or Moderna vaccines demonstrated reduced neutralization of both delta and omicron variants relative to ancestral SARS-CoV-2. Sera from individuals that were naturally infected with ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and subsequently received two doses of the Pfizer vaccine induced significantly higher neutralizing antibody levels against ancestral virus and all VOCs. Importantly, infection alone, either with ancestral SARS-CoV-2 or the delta variant was not sufficient to induce high neutralizing antibody titers against omicron. This data will inform current booster vaccination strategies and we highlight the need for additional studies to identify longevity of immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and optimal neutralizing antibody levels that are necessary to prevent infection and/or severe COVID-19.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262311
Etienne Brochot ◽  
Vianney Souplet ◽  
Pauline Follet ◽  
Pauline Ponthieu ◽  
Christophe Olivier ◽  

In the fight against SARS-COV-2, the development of serological assays based on different antigenic domains represent a versatile tool to get a comprehensive picture of the immune response or differentiate infection from vaccination beyond simple diagnosis. Here we use a combination of the Nucleoprotein (NP), the Spike 1 (S1) and Spike 2 (S2) subunits, and the receptor binding domain (RBD) and N-terminal domain (NTD) of the Spike antigens from the CoViDiag® multiplex IgG assay, to follow the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection over a long time period and depending on disease severity. Using a panel of 209 sera collected from 61 patients up to eight months after infection, we observed that most patients develop an immune response against multiple viral epitope, but anti-S2 antibodies seemed to last longer. For all the tested IgGs, we have found higher responses for hospitalized patients than for non-hospitalized ones. Moreover the combination of the five different IgG responses increased the correlation to the neutralizing antibody titers than if considered individually. Multiplex immunoassays have the potential to improve diagnostic performances, especially for ancient infection or mild form of the disease presenting weaker antibody responses. Also the combined detection of anti-NP and anti-Spike-derived domains can be useful to differentiate vaccination from viral infection and accurately assess the antibody potential to neutralize the virus.

2022 ◽  
Douglas D Fraser ◽  
Michael R Miller ◽  
Claudio M Martin ◽  
Marat Slessarev ◽  
Paul Hahn ◽  

Background: Estimating the response of different cohorts (e.g. vaccinated or critically ill) to new SARS-CoV-2 variants is important to customize measures of control. Thus, our goal was to evaluate binding of antibodies from sera of infected and vaccinated people to different antigens expressed by SARS-CoV-2 variants. Methods: We compared sera from vaccinated donors with sera from four patient/donor cohorts: critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit (split in sera collected between 2 and 7 days after admission and more than ten days later), a NIBSC/WHO reference panel of SARS-CoV-2 positive individuals, and ambulatory or hospitalized (but not critically ill) positive donors. Samples were tested with an anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG serological assay designed with microplates coated with a SARS-CoV-2 RBD recombinant antigen. The same sample sets were also tested with microplates coated with antigens harbouring RBD mutations present in eleven of the most widespread variants. Results: Sera from vaccinated individuals exhibited higher antibody binding (P<0.001) than sera from infected (but not critically ill) individuals when tested against the WT and each of 11 variants' RBD. The optical density generated by sera from non-critically ill convalescence individuals upon binding to variant's antigens was different (P<0.05) from that of the WT in some variants-noteworthy, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Delta Plus variants. Conclusions: Understanding differences in binding and neutralizing antibody titers against WT vs variant RBD antigens from different donor cohorts can help design variant-specific immunoassays and complement other diagnostic and clinical data to evaluate the epidemiology of new variants. Key Words: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2 vaccine; SARS-CoV-2 variants; RBD mutations; antibody specificity; critically ill, immunoassays, serology.

2022 ◽  
Tesfaye Gelanew ◽  
Andargachew Mulu ◽  
Markos Abebe ◽  
Timothy A Bates ◽  
Liya Wassie ◽  

Abstract Background A single dose COVID-19 vaccines, mostly mRNA-based vaccines, are shown to induce robust antibody responses in individuals who were previously infected with SARS-CoV-2, suggesting the sufficiency of a single dose to those individuals. However, these important data are limited to developed nations and lacking in resource-limited countries, like Ethiopia. Methods We compared receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific IgG antibodies in 40 SARS-CoV-2 naïve participants and 25 participants previously infected with SARS-CoV-2, who received two doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. We measured the antibody response in post-vaccination blood samples from both groups of participants collected at four different post-vaccination time points: 8- and 12-weeks after each dose of the vaccine administration using an in-house developed ELISA. Results We observed a high level of anti-RBD IgG antibodies titers 8-weeks after a single dose administration (16/27; 59.3%) among naïve participants, albeit dropped significantly (p<0.05) two months later, suggesting the protective immunity elicited by the first dose ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine will likely last for a minimum of three months. However, as expected, a significant (p<0.001) increase in the level of anti-RBD IgG antibodies titers was observed after the second dose administration in all naïve participants. By contrast, the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine-induced anti-RBD IgG antibody titers produced by the P.I participants at 8- to 12-weeks post-single dose vaccination were found to be similar to the antibody titers seen after a two-dose vaccination course among infection- naïve participants and showed no significant (p>0.05) increment following the second dose administration. Conclusion Taken together, our findings show that a single ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 dose in previously SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals elicits similar antibody responses to that of double dose vaccinated naïve individuals. Age and sex were not associated with the level of vaccine-elicited immune responses in both individuals with and without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further studies are required to assess the need for a booster dose to extend the duration and amplitude of the specific protective immune response in Ethiopia settings, especially following the Omicron pandemic.

npj Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Lisa H. Tostanoski ◽  
Abishek Chandrashekar ◽  
Shivani Patel ◽  
Jingyou Yu ◽  
Catherine Jacob-Dolan ◽  

AbstractSARS-CoV-2 Spike-specific binding and neutralizing antibodies, elicited either by natural infection or vaccination, have emerged as potential correlates of protection. An important question, however, is whether vaccine-elicited antibodies in humans provide direct, functional protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease. In this study, we explored directly the protective efficacy of human antibodies elicited by Ad26.COV2.S vaccination by adoptive transfer studies. IgG from plasma of Ad26.COV2.S vaccinated individuals was purified and transferred into naïve golden Syrian hamster recipients, followed by intra-nasal challenge of the hamsters with SARS-CoV-2. IgG purified from Ad26.COV2.S-vaccinated individuals provided dose-dependent protection in the recipient hamsters from weight loss following challenge. In contrast, IgG purified from placebo recipients provided no protection in this adoptive transfer model. Attenuation of weight loss correlated with binding and neutralizing antibody titers of the passively transferred IgG. This study suggests that Ad26.COV2.S-elicited antibodies in humans are mechanistically involved in protection against SARS-CoV-2.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Nina Koerber ◽  
Alina Priller ◽  
Sarah Yazici ◽  
Tanja Bauer ◽  
Cho-Chin Cheng ◽  

AbstractAnti-viral immunity continuously declines over time after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we characterize the dynamics of anti-viral immunity during long-term follow-up and after BNT162b2 mRNA-vaccination in convalescents after asymptomatic or mild SARS-CoV-2 infection. Virus-specific and virus-neutralizing antibody titers rapidly declined in convalescents over 9 months after infection, whereas virus-specific cytokine-producing polyfunctional T cells persisted, among which IL-2-producing T cells correlated with virus-neutralizing antibody titers. Among convalescents, 5% of individuals failed to mount long-lasting immunity after infection and showed a delayed response to vaccination compared to 1% of naïve vaccinees, but successfully responded to prime/boost vaccination. During the follow-up period, 8% of convalescents showed a selective increase in virus-neutralizing antibody titers without accompanying increased frequencies of circulating SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells. The same convalescents, however, responded to vaccination with simultaneous increase in antibody and T cell immunity revealing the strength of mRNA-vaccination to increase virus-specific immunity in convalescents.

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