neutralizing antibody
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2022 ◽  
Md. Alamgir Hossain ◽  
Kara Anasti ◽  
Brian Watts ◽  
Kenneth Cronin ◽  
Advaiti Pai Kane ◽  

HIV-1 Envelope (Env) proteins designed to induce neutralizing antibody responses allow study of the role of affinities (equilibrium dissociation constant, KD) and kinetic rates (association/dissociation rates) on B cell antigen recognition. It is unclear whether affinity discrimination during B cell activation is based solely on Env protein binding KD, and whether B cells discriminate between proteins of similar affinities but that bind with different kinetic rates. Here we used a panel of Env proteins and Ramos B cell lines expressing IgM BCRs with specificity for CD4 binding-site broadly neutralizing (bnAb) or a precursor antibody to study the role of antigen binding kinetic rates on both early (proximal/distal signaling) and late events (BCR/antigen internalization) in B cell activation. Our results support a kinetic model for B cell activation in which Env protein affinity discrimination is based not on overall KD, but on sensing of association rate and a threshold antigen-BCR half-life.

Füsun Can ◽  
Zeynep Ece Kuloğlu ◽  
Rojbin El ◽  
Gülen Esken ◽  
Yeşim Tok ◽  

Objective: There is a need for the immunogenicity of different boosters after widely used inactivated vaccine regimens. We aimed to determine the effects of BNT162b2 and CoronaVac boosters on the humoral and cellular immunity of individuals who had two doses of CoronaVac vaccination. Methods: The study was conducted in three centers (Koc University Hospital, Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Hospital, and Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical School Hospital) in Istanbul. Individuals who had two doses of CoronaVac and no history of COVID-19 were included. The baseline blood samples were collected three to five months after two doses of CoronaVac. Follow-up samples were taken one and three months after third doses of CoronaVac or one dose of mRNA BNT162b2 boosters. Neutralizing antibody titers were detected by plaque reduction assay. T cell responses were evaluated by Elispot assay and flow cytometry. Results: We found a 3.38-fold increase in neutralizing antibody titers (Geometric Mean Titer [GMT], 78.69) one month after BNT162b2 booster and maintained at the three months (GMT, 80). However, in the CoronaVac group, significantly lower GMTs than BNT162b2 after 1 month and 3 months (21.44 and 28.44, respectively) indicated the weak immunogenicity of the CoronaVac booster (p<0.001). In the ELISpot assay, IL-2 levels after BNT162b2 were higher than baseline and CoronaVac booster (p<0.001) and IFN-γ levels were significantly higher than baseline (P<0.001). The CD8+CD38+CD69+ and CD4+CD38+CD69+ T cells were stimulated significantly at the 3 month of the BNT162b2 boosters. Conclusion: The neutralizing antibody levels after three months of the BNT162b2 booster were higher than the antibody levels after CoronaVac. On the other hand, specific T cells might contribute to immune protection. By considering the waning immunity, we suggest a new booster dose with BNT162b2 for the countries that already have two doses of primary CoronaVac regimens.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 921
Shang-Hung Lin ◽  
Ji-Chen Ho ◽  
Sung-Chou Li ◽  
Yu-Wen Cheng ◽  
Chung-Yuan Hsu ◽  

Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) results from joint destruction by osteoclasts. The promising efficacy of TNF-α blockage indicates its important role in osteoclastogenesis of PsA. WNT ligands actively regulate osteoclastogenesis. We investigated how WNT ligands activate osteoclasts amid the TNF-α milieu in PsA. We first profiled the expression of WNT ligands in CD14+ monocyte-derived osteoclasts (MDOC) from five PsA patients and five healthy controls (HC) and then validated the candidate WNT ligands in 32 PsA patients and 16 HC. Through RNA interference against WNT ligands in MDOC, we determined the mechanisms by which TNF-α exerts its effects on osteclastogenesis or chemotaxis. WNT5A was selectively upregulated by TNF-α in MDOC from PsA patients. The number of CD68+WNT5A+ osteoclasts increased in PsA joints. CXCL1, CXCL16, and MCP-1 was selectively increased in supernatants of MDOC from PsA patients. RNA interference against WNT5A abolished the increased MCP-1 from MDOC and THP-1-cell-derived osteoclasts. The increased migration of osteoclast precursors (OCP) induced by supernatant from PsA MDOC was abolished by the MCP-1 neutralizing antibody. WNT5A and MCP-1 expressions were decreased in MDOC from PsA patients treated by biologics against TNF-α but not IL-17. We conclude that TNF-α recruits OCP by increased MCP-1 production but does not directly activate osteoclastogenesis in PsA.

2022 ◽  
Qiao Wang ◽  
Lili Feng ◽  
Haohai Zhang ◽  
Juehua Gao ◽  
Changchuin Mao ◽  

Abstract While mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 were highly efficacious against severe illness and hospitalization, they seem to be less effective in preventing infection months after vaccination, especially with the Delta variant. Breakthrough infections might be due to higher infectivity of the variants, relaxed protective measures by the general public in “COVID-19 fatigue”, and/or waning immunity post-vaccination. Determining the neutralizing antibody levels in a longitudinal manner may address this issue, but technical complexity of classic assays precludes easy detection and quick answers. We developed a lateral flow immunoassay NeutraXpress™ (commercial name of the test kit by Antagen Diagnostics, Inc.), and tested fingertip blood samples of subjects receiving either Moderna or Pfizer vaccines at various time points. With this device, we confirmed the reported clinical findings that mRNA vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies quickly wane after 3–6 months. Thus, using rapid tests to monitor neutralizing antibody status could help identify individuals at risk, prevent breakthrough infections and guide social behavior to curtail the spread of COVID-19. Statement of Significance. Mounting evidence suggests that mRNA vaccine-induced neutralizing antibody titres against SARS-CoV-2 wane in 3–6 months. Quick identification of fully vaccinated persons with high risk of breakthrough infections is key to control the COVID-19 pandemic. The described LFIA device having a control/sample dual-lane design serves this purpose with successful field-test data.

2022 ◽  
Yuemiao Zhang ◽  
Xingzi Liu ◽  
Miaomiao Lin ◽  
Jincan Zan ◽  
Yitong Hu ◽  

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at higher risk for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related morbidity and mortality. However, a significant portion of CKD patients showed hesitation toward vaccination in telephone survey of our center. Yet no serial data available on humoral response in patients with CKD, especially those on immunosuppression. We conducted a pilot, prospective study to survey the safety and humoral response to inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in CKD patients receiving a 2-dose immunization of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. We found the neutralizing antibody titers in CKD patients was significantly lower than that in healthy controls, hypertension patients, and diabetes patients. Notably, immunosuppressive medication rather than eGFR levels or disease types showed effect on the reduction of immunogenicity. Interestingly, a third dose significantly boosted neutralizing antibody in CKD patients while immunosuppressants impeded the boosting effects. In conclusion, our data demonstrates that CKD patients, even for those on immunosuppression treatment, can benefit from a third vaccination boost by improving their humoral immunity.

2022 ◽  
Apoorva Munigela ◽  
Sasikala M ◽  
Gujjarlapudi Deepika ◽  
Anand V Kulkarni ◽  
Krishna Vemula ◽  

Abstract Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) continues to be a major health concern leading to substantial mortality and morbidity across the world. Vaccination is effective in reducing the severity and associated mortality. Data pertaining to the duration of immunity, antibody waning and the optimal timing of booster dose administration is limited. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the antibody levels in healthcare workers who were fully vaccinated after obtaining Institutional ethics committee approval and informed consent. Whole blood was collected and enumeration of S1/S2 neutralizing antibody levels was carried out using LIAISON SARS-COV-2 S1/S2 IgG assay. A total of 1636 individuals who were vaccinated with Covaxin or Covishield were included. Of these, 52% were males with a median age of 29 years. Diabetes and Hypertension was noted in 2.32% (38/1636) and 2.87% (47/1636) of the individuals. Spike neutralizing antibodies were below the detectable range (<15 AU/ml) in 6.0% (98/1636) of the individuals. Decline in neutralizing antibody was seen in 30% of the individuals above 40 years of age with comorbidities (diabetes and hypertension) after 6 months. These individuals may be prioritized for a booster dose at 6 months.

mAbs ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Bo-Seong Jeong ◽  
Jeong Seok Cha ◽  
Insu Hwang ◽  
Uijin Kim ◽  
Jared Adolf-Bryfogle ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Marcela Salazar-García ◽  
Samyr Acosta-Contreras ◽  
Griselda Rodríguez-Martínez ◽  
Armando Cruz-Rangel ◽  
Alejandro Flores-Alanis ◽  

World Health Organization (WHO) has prioritized the infectious emerging diseases such as Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) in terms of research and development of effective tests, vaccines, antivirals, and other treatments. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological causative agent of COVID-19, is a virus belonging to risk group 3 that requires Biosafety Level (BSL)-3 laboratories and the corresponding facilities for handling. An alternative to these BSL-3/-4 laboratories is to use a pseudotyped virus that can be handled in a BSL-2 laboratory for study purposes. Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) can be generated with complementary DNA from complete negative-stranded genomic RNA, with deleted G glycoprotein and, instead, incorporation of other fusion protein, like SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S protein). Accordingly, it is called pseudotyped VSV-SARS-CoV-2 S. In this review, we have described the generation of pseudotyped VSV with a focus on the optimization and application of pseudotyped VSV-SARS-CoV-2 S. The application of this pseudovirus has been addressed by its use in neutralizing antibody assays in order to evaluate a new vaccine, emergent SARS-CoV-2 variants (delta and omicron), and approved vaccine efficacy against variants of concern as well as in viral fusion-focused treatment analysis that can be performed under BSL-2 conditions.

2022 ◽  
Kirsten E Lyke ◽  
Robert L Atmar ◽  
Clara P. Dominguez Islas ◽  
Christine M. Posavad ◽  
Daniel Szydlo ◽  

As part of an ongoing study assessing homologous and heterologous booster vaccines, following primary EUA series, we assessed neutralization of D614G and Omicron variants prior to and 28 days after boost. Subset analysis was done in six combinations (N = 10/group): four homologous primary-booster combinations included mRNA-1273 two-dose priming followed by boosting with 100-μg or 50-μg mRNA-1273, Ad26.COV2.S single-dose priming followed by Ad26.COV2.S booster and BNT162b2 two-dose priming followed by BNT162b2 boosting; and two heterologous primary-booster combinations: BNT162b2 followed by Ad26.COV2.S and Ad26.COV2.S followed by BNT162b2. Neutralizing antibody (Nab) titers to D614G on the day of boost (baseline) were detected in 85-100% of participants, with geometric mean titers (GMT) of 71-343 in participants who received an mRNA vaccine series versus GMTs of 35-41 in participants primed with Ad26.OV2.S. Baseline NAb titers to Omicron were detected in 50-90% of participants who received an mRNA vaccine series (GMT range 12.8-24.5) versus 20-25% among participants primed with Ad26.COV2.S. The booster dose increased the neutralizing GMT in most combinations to above 1000 for D614G and above 250 for Omicron by Day 29. Homologous prime-boost Ad26.COV2.S had the lowest NAb on Day 29 (D614G GMT 128 and Omicron GMT 45). Results were similar between age groups. Most homologous and heterologous boost combinations examined will increase humoral immunity to the Omicron variant.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Fengming Ding ◽  
Lei Han ◽  
Qiang Fu ◽  
Xinxin Fan ◽  
Rong Tang ◽  

Pseudomonas aeruginosa airway infection increases risks of exacerbations and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aimed to elucidate the role of IL-17 in the pathogenesis. We examined the expression and influences of IL-23/IL-17A in patients with stable COPD (n = 33) or acute COPD exacerbations with P. aeruginosa infection (n = 34). A mouse model of COPD (C57BL/6) was used to investigate the role of IL-17A in host inflammatory responses against P. aeruginosa infection through the application of IL-17A–neutralizing antibody or recombinant IL-17A. We found that P. aeruginosa infection increased IL-23/17A signaling in lungs of both COPD patients and COPD mouse models. When COPD mouse models were treated with neutralizing antibody targeting IL-17A, P. aeruginosa induced a significantly less polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration and less bacterial burden in their lungs compared to those of untreated counterparts. The lung function was also improved by neutralizing antibody. Furthermore, IL-17A-signaling blockade significantly reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α, CXCL1, CXCL15 and MMP-9, and increased the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and IL-1Ra. The application of mouse recombinant IL-17A exacerbated P. aeruginosa-mediated inflammatory responses and pulmonary dysfunction in COPD mouse models. A cytokine protein array revealed that the expression of retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) was down-regulated by IL-17A, and exogenous RBP4-recombinant protein resulted in a decrease in the severity of P. aeruginosa-induced airway dysfunction. Concurrent application of IL-17A-neutralizing antibody and ciprofloxacin attenuated airway inflammation and ventilation after inoculation of P. aeruginosa in COPD mouse models. Our results revealed that IL-17 plays a detrimental role in the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa airway infection during acute exacerbations of COPD. Targeting IL-17A is a potential therapeutic strategy in controlling the outcomes of P. aeruginosa infection in COPD patients.

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