demand side
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2022 ◽  
Vol 262 ◽  
pp. 107400
Francisco Alcon ◽  
José A. Zabala ◽  
Victor Martínez-García ◽  
José A. Albaladejo ◽  
Erasmo I. López-Becerra ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 206 ◽  
pp. 107789
Mohammad Ostadijafari ◽  
Juan Carlos Bedoya ◽  
Wei Wang ◽  
Anamika Dubey ◽  
Chen-Ching Liu ◽  

Muthuselvi Gomathinayagam ◽  
Saravanan Balasubramanian

The current lifestyle of humanity relies heavily on energy consumption, thus rendering it an inevitable need. An ever-increasing demand for energy has resulted from the increasing population. Most of this demand is met by the traditional sources that continuously deplete and raise significant environmental issues. The existing power structure of developing nations is aging, unstable, and unfeasible, further prolonging the problem. The existing electricity grid is unstable, vulnerable to blackouts and disruption, has high transmission losses, low quality of power, insufficient electricity supply, and discourages distributed energy sources from being incorporated. Mitigating these problems requires a complete redesign of the system of power distribution. The modernization of the electric grid, i.e., the smart grid, is an emerging combination of different technologies designed to bring about the electrical power grid that is changing dramatically. Demand side management (DSM) allow customers to be more involved in contributors to the power systems to achieve system goals by scheduling their shiftable load. Effective DSM systems require the participation of customers in the system that can be done in a fair system. This paper focuses primarily on techniques of DSM and demand responses (DR), including scheduling approaches and strategies for optimal savings.

2022 ◽  
Vol 206 ◽  
pp. 104579
Philip Keefer ◽  
Carlos Scartascini ◽  
Razvan Vlaicu

Electronics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 204
Hammed Olabisi Omotoso ◽  
Abdullah M. Al-Shaalan ◽  
Hassan M. H. Farh ◽  
Abdullrahman A. Al-Shamma’a

Electrification of remote rural areas by adopting renewable energy technologies through the advancement of smart micro-grids is indispensable for the achievement of continuous development goals. Satisfying the electricity demand of consumers while adhering to reliability constraints with docile computation analysis is challenging for the optimal sizing of a Hybrid Energy System (HES). This study proposes the new application of an Artificial Ecosystem-based Optimization (AEO) algorithm for the optimal sizing of a HES while satisfying Loss of Power Supply Probability (LPSP) and Renewable Energy Fraction (REF) reliability indices. Furthermore, reduction of surplus energy is achieved by adopting Demand Side Management (DSM), which increases the utilization of renewable energy. By adopting DSM, 28.38%, 43.05%, and 65.37% were achieved for the Cost of Energy (COE) saving at 40%, 60%, and 80% REF, respectively. The simulation and optimization results demonstrate the most cost-competitive system configuration that is viable for remote-area utilization. The proposed AEO algorithm is further compared to Harris Hawk Optimization (HHO) and the Future Search Algorithm (FSA) for validation purpose. The obtained results demonstrate the efficacy of AEO to achieve the optimal sizing of HES with the lowest COE, the highest consistent level, and minimal standard deviation compared with HHO and FSA. The proposed model was developed and simulated using the MATLAB/code environment.

2022 ◽  
pp. 194016122110727
Catie Snow Bailard

This analysis tests two distinct predictions regarding local newspapers’ coverage of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. A public service view of local newspapers predicts that a robust local newspaper sector would mitigate the politicized national partisan rhetoric surrounding COVID-19; reducing the disparity in social-distancing behaviors between predominantly Republican and predominantly Democratic counties by increasing compliance in Republican counties. The alternative hypothesis, informed by a demand-side view of the market pressures local newspapers face, predicts that increased competition between local newspapers will increase the degree to which local newspapers amplify the rhetoric of national officials in line with the partisan composition of their community, further polarizing adherence to social-distancing behaviors across predominantly Republican versus predominantly Democratic counties. The results of this analysis offer strong support for the second hypothesis; but, an additional analysis of vaccination rates offers a more nuanced perspective than a simple public service versus demand-side dichotomy would imply.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. e0000056
Matthew C. Freeman ◽  
Maryann G. Delea ◽  
Jedidiah S. Snyder ◽  
Joshua V. Garn ◽  
Mulusew Belew ◽  

Behaviors related to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are key drivers of infectious disease transmission, and experiences of WASH are potential influencers of mental well-being. Important knowledge gaps exist related to the content and delivery of effective WASH programs and their associated health impacts, particularly within the contexts of government programs implemented at scale. We developed and tested a demand-side intervention called Andilaye, which aimed to change behaviors related to sanitation, personal hygiene, and household environmental sanitation. This theory-informed intervention was delivered through the existing Ethiopian Health Extension Programme (HEP). It was a multilevel intervention with a catalyzing event at the community level and behavior change activities at group and household levels. We randomly selected and assigned 50 kebeles (sub-districts) from three woredas (districts), half to receive the Andilaye intervention, and half the standard of care sanitation and hygiene programming (i.e., community-led total sanitation and hygiene [CLTSH]). We collected data on WASH access, behavioral outcomes, and mental well-being. A total of 1,589 households were enrolled into the study at baseline; 1,472 households (94%) participated in an endline assessment two years after baseline, and approximately 14 months after the initiation of a multi-level intervention. The intervention did not improve construction of latrines (prevalence ratio [PR]: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.82, 1.21) or handwashing stations with water (PR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.26), or the removal of animal feces from the compound (PR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.28). Nor did it impact anxiety (PR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.11), depression (PR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.64, 1.07), emotional distress (PR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.67, 1.09) or well-being (PR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.74, 1.10) scores. We report limited impact of the intervention, as delivered, on changes in behavior and mental well-being. The effectiveness of the intervention was limited by poor intervention fidelity. While sanitation and hygiene improvements have been documented in Ethiopia, behavioral slippage, or regression to unimproved practices, in communities previously declared open defecation free is widespread. Evidence from this trial may help address knowledge gaps related to challenges associated with scalable alternatives to CLTSH and inform sanitation and hygiene programming and policy in Ethiopia and beyond. Trial registration: This trial was registered with (NCT03075436) on March 9, 2017.

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