Social Distancing
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Marcus Rodrigues Peixoto ◽  
Jorge Brantes Ferreira ◽  
Laís Oliveira

ABSTRACT Context: teleconsultation can be a strategic technological tool for patients to access quality healthcare while dealing with resource challenges within health industry. It can be particularly relevant during and after the COVID-19 pandemic, when the social distancing world had to scramble for new technological solutions to offer quality healthcare services with reduced personal contact. Objective: our research proposes an integrative technology acceptance model to evaluate the drivers of teleconsultation adoption by patients, aligning constructs from the technology acceptance model with other drivers, such as technology readiness, trust, and self-efficacy. Methods: analyses included descriptive statistics and structural equations modeling based on survey’s data from a sample of 415 consumers. Results: results indicate significant relationships between the assessed constructs, with particular relevance on the effects of perceived usefulness, anteceded by trust and technology readiness, on attitude and intention to use teleconsultation. Conclusion: our findings provide helpful insights for health organizations and regulators associated with the diffusion of teleconsultation. The study findings also indicate that the challenging COVID-19 pandemic context may be affecting patients’ intention to adopt teleconsultation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (4) ◽  
pp. 856
Sherly De Yong ◽  
Murni Rachmawati ◽  
Ima Defiana

The spread and pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) that is currently happening in the world, has led to new policy steps in the security of public spaces to reduce the transmission of COVID-19 and protect public health. There is new adaptation in the policies while using space like limiting the use of public spaces, increasing social distancing between people or creating territory. Territory means specific area where are claimed or maintained (can be physically, through ruler or symbols). Territory can give a sense of security to the users. Therefore, this paper give insight and rethinking the territory concept as sense of security in interior public space and built environment where people expect to see strangers in this space. The methods in this paper are literature review method by collecting and synthesizing previous research using integrative approach. For the result is territory concept achieved as part of protection to the users in the build environment with mechanisms that should be applied in each type: the boundary between areas; limitation to the symbolic; supervision and control of space.

Minji Jung ◽  
Jin Kwan Hong

R. Senthil Prabhu ◽  
D. Sabitha Ananthi ◽  
S. Rajasoundarya ◽  
R. Janakan ◽  
R. Priyanka

Technologies that could allow literally billions of everyday objects to communicate with each other over the internet have enormous potential to change all our lives. The Internet of Things (IoT) is a transformative development, these technologies are a way of boosting productivity, keeping us healthier, making transport more efficient, reducing energy needs and making our homes more comfortable. In recent years, Internet of Things (IoT) and Internet of Nanothings (IoNT) have drawn significant research attention in numerous fields such as Healthcare, Defence, Environmental monitoring, Food and water quality control etc., There are various transformations such as Smart cities, Smart homes, Smart factories, Smart transportation, due to IoT and IoNT. Health care delivery requires the support of new technologies like IoT, IoNT to fight and look against the new pandemic diseases. For the past two years COVID-19 spreaded over worldwide including India, are fighting with pandemic disease and still looking for a practical and cost-effective solution to face the problems arising in several ways. To minimize the person to person, contact and to maintain social distancing various technologies are utilized, among them IoT and IoNT play a major role in healthcare system and allied fields. This review mainly discuss about the IoT, IoNT, its components and various applications in healthcare and allied fields.

2021 ◽  
Xiyun Zhang ◽  
Gabriela Lobinska ◽  
Michal Feldman ◽  
Eddie Dekel ◽  
Martin Nowak ◽  

Abstract The process of vaccinating the world population against COVID-19 is expected to take well over a year to complete. As vaccination progresses and population immunity increases, a counteracting relaxation of social distancing measures is observed. The result will be a prolonged period of high disease prevalence combined with a fitness advantage for vaccine-resistant variants, implying a considerably increased probability that a resistant variant will spread in the population. In this paper we propose a spatial vaccination strategy that has the potential to dramatically reduce this risk. Instead of spreading the vaccination effort equally throughout a country, distinct geographic regions of the country are sequentially vaccinated, quickly bringing each to effective herd immunity. Regions with high vaccination rates will then have low infection rates and vice versa. Since people primarily interact with others in their own region, spatial vaccination will reduce the number of encounters between infected people (the source of mutations) and vaccinated people (who facilitate the spread of vaccine-resistant strains). Thus with proper logistic preparations, a spatial vaccination campaign could be highly effective in reducing the global risk of vaccine-resistant variants.

Systems ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (4) ◽  
pp. 72
Karim Chichakly

COVID-19 vaccinations have been administered quickly in the USA. However, a surprisingly large number of Americans are unwilling to get vaccinated. Without enough people getting vaccinated, the pandemic will not end. The longer the pandemic persists, the more opportunities exist for more virulent strains to emerge. This model looks at the effects of people’s behavior in containing and ending the COVID-19 pandemic in the USA. Human behavior adds several feedback loops to the standard SEIR model. Comparisons are made between cases with and without behavior loops, with reduced adherence to the recommended or mandated masks and social distancing, with and without the vaccine, and the effects of an early mask mandate termination. The results suggest human behavior must be accounted for in epidemiology models and that removing masks before enough vaccine are administered not only puts those vaccinated at risk, but allows the disease to readily spread again.

Nazilla Khanlou ◽  
Luz Maria Vazquez ◽  
Soheila Pashang ◽  
Jennifer A. Connolly ◽  
Farah Ahmad ◽  

Abstract Objective To conduct a rapid knowledge synthesis of literature on the social determinants of mental health of racialized women exposed to gender-based violence (GBV) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods We adapted the Cochrane Rapid Reviews method and were guided by an equity lens in conducting rapid reviews on public health issues. Four electronic databases (Cochrane CENTRAL, Medline, ProQuest, and EBSCO), electronic news media, Google Scholar, and policy documents were searched for literature between January 2019 and October 2020 with no limitations for location. Fifty-five articles qualified for the review. Results Health emergencies heighten gender inequalities in relation to income, employment, job security, and working conditions. Household stress and pandemic-related restrictions (social distancing, closure of services) increase women’s vulnerability to violence. Systemic racism and discrimination intensify health disparities. Conclusion Racialized women are experiencing a 2020 Syndemic: a convergence of COVID-19, GBV, and racism pandemics, placing their wellbeing at a disproportionate risk. GBV is a public health issue and gender-responsive COVID-19 programming is essential. Anti-racist and equity-promoting policies to GBV service provision and disaggregated data collection are required.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Courtney A. Moore ◽  
Benjamin C. Ruisch ◽  
Javier A. Granados Samayoa ◽  
Shelby T. Boggs ◽  
Jesse T. Ladanyi ◽  

AbstractRecent work has found that an individual’s beliefs and personal characteristics can impact perceptions of and responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. Certain individuals—such as those who are politically conservative or who endorse conspiracy theories—are less likely to engage in preventative behaviors like social distancing. The current research aims to address whether these individual differences not only affect people’s reactions to the pandemic, but also their actual likelihood of contracting COVID-19. In the early months of the pandemic, U.S. participants responded to a variety of individual difference measures as well as questions specific to the pandemic itself. Four months later, 2120 of these participants responded with whether they had contracted COVID-19. Nearly all of our included individual difference measures significantly predicted whether a person reported testing positive for the virus in this four-month period. Additional analyses revealed that all of these relationships were primarily mediated by whether participants held accurate knowledge about COVID-19. These findings offer useful insights for developing more effective interventions aimed at slowing the spread of both COVID-19 and future diseases. Moreover, some findings offer critical tests of the validity of such theoretical frameworks as those concerning conspiratorial ideation and disgust sensitivity within a real-world context.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
pp. 09-15
Van Der Rowe

Like other countries, Jamaica in the last 2 decades has seen an increase in physical inactivity, which has significantly increased the number of people living with chronic lifestyle diseases on the island. It can be argued that increased industrialization has resulted in several ecological concerns, such as violence that may deter people from engaging in physical exercise, pollution and polluted air, lack of parks, walkways, and sports/recreational amenities. Despite the causes of physical inactivity, there is a global mobilization by the World Health Organization (WHO) and individual countries to reduce physical inactivity levels by at least 15% by 2030. The COVID-19 pandemic has surely put a dent in the physical activity (PA) targets. Many countries initiated restrictive measures (lockdowns, curfews, and social distancing) to try and contain the spread of the COVID-19 virus. For countries such as Jamaica, combating physical inactivity seems to require strategies, interventions, motivation, and the promotion of physical activity (PA) culture from all stakeholders (integrated approach) to meet the WHO’s goals and standards by 2030. The purpose of this research was to assess the perceived impact and reach of Jamaica’s Ministry of Health and Wellness (MOHW) initiatives to promote PA, impact weight loss, and lifestyle while trying to reduce sedentary behaviors in Jamaica. A standardized questionnaire was used in a single cross-sectional design that surveyed 843 Jamaicans using Google Forms. Participants ages 12-71 years old were surveyed using a hybrid sample strategy that used convenience and snowballs sampling techniques. The results of the study indicated that there was a 35% participation rate in the MOHW initiatives, with only 14.3% of the participants believed that the initiatives were impacting their weight loss and lifestyle. Additionally, 51.6% of the participants did not believe the initiatives caused them to participate more in PA; on average, the initiatives by the MOHW were rated at 50% effective. The initiatives are not very effective in reaching most of the population, which is not achieving the goal of enhancing healthy lifestyle practices and reducing physical inactivity. These implications may potentially see an increase in Jamaica’s physical inactivity levels and chronic lifestyle diseases if these initiatives are not intensified to reach the majority of the population.

Gleidson Sobreira Leite ◽  
Adriano Bessa Albuquerque ◽  
Plácido Rogerio Pinheiro

With the growing concern about the spread of new respiratory infectious diseases, several studies involving the application of technology in the prevention of these diseases have been carried out. Among these studies, it is worth highlighting the importance of those focused on the primary forms of prevention, such as social distancing, mask usage, quarantine, among others. This importance arises because, from the emergence of a new disease to the production of immunizers, preventive actions must be taken to reduce contamination and fatalities rates. Despite the considerable number of studies, no records of works aimed at the identification, registration, selection, and rigorous analysis and synthesis of the literature were found. For this purpose, this paper presents a systematic review of the literature on the application of technological solutions in the primary ways of respiratory infectious diseases transmission prevention. From the 1139 initially retrieved, 219 papers were selected for data extraction, analysis, and synthesis according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results enabled the identification of a general categorization of application domains, as well as mapping of the adopted support mechanisms. Findings showed a greater trend in studies related to pandemic planning and, among the support mechanisms adopted, data and mathematical application-related solutions received greater attention. Topics for further research and improvement were also identified such as the need for a better description of data analysis and evidence.

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