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Research related to sustainable management is rapidly increasing in quantity and is found in divergent literature and disciplines. Now is the time to offer a comprehensive review that identifies, synthesizes, and integrates previous research and highlights knowledge gaps and the way forward. This methodical literature search helped systematize 86 articles in the Scopus database published by 2018. Using a systematic and in-depth content analysis using bibliometric techniques, the authors reviewed the articles and identified the main theories used and the methodological orientations in these. articles. This review helps to identify significant knowledge gaps in terms of theoretical orientation and core content. The main contributions of this paper are: to outline and summarize a multilevel analysis of emerging sustainable management literature; integrate and extract potential theoretical contributions in this field; and indicate directions for future research.


2022 ◽  
Vol 193 ◽  
pp. 107310
Author(s):  
María José LaRota-Aguilera ◽  
Olga Lucía Delgadillo-Vargas ◽  
Enric Tello
Keyword(s):  

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Author(s):  
Geir Ottersen ◽  
Andrew J. Constable ◽  
Anne B. Hollowed ◽  
Kirstin K. Holsman ◽  
Jess Melbourne-Thomas ◽  
...  

The Polar Regions chapter of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate (SROCC) provides a comprehensive assessment of climate change impacts on polar marine ecosystems and associated consequences for humans. It also includes identification of confidence for major findings based on agreement across studies and weight of evidence. Sources of uncertainty, from the extent of available datasets, to resolution of projection models, to the complexity and understanding of underlying social-ecological linkages and dynamics, can influence confidence. Here we, marine ecosystem scientists all having experience as lead authors of IPCC reports, examine the evolution of confidence in observed and projected climate-linked changes in polar ecosystems since SROCC. Further synthesis of literature on polar marine ecosystems has been undertaken, especially within IPCC's Sixth Assessment Report (AR6) Working Group II; for the Southern Ocean also the Marine Ecosystem Assessment for the Southern Ocean (MEASO). These publications incorporate new scientific findings that address some of the knowledge gaps identified in SROCC. While knowledge gaps have been narrowed, we still find that polar region assessments reflect pronounced geographical skewness in knowledge regarding the responses of marine life to changing climate and associated literature. There is also an imbalance in scientific focus; especially research in Antarctica is dominated by physical oceanography and cryosphere science with highly fragmented approaches and only short-term funding to ecology. There are clear indications that the scientific community has made substantial progress in its ability to project ecosystem responses to future climate change through the development of coupled biophysical models of the region facilitated by increased computer power allowing for improved resolution in space and time. Lastly, we point forward—providing recommendations for future advances for IPCC assessments.


Author(s):  
Xufei Yang ◽  
Noor Haleem ◽  
Augustina Osabutey ◽  
Zhisheng Cen ◽  
Karlee Albert

Particulate matter (PM) represents an air quality management challenge for confined swine production systems. Because of the limited space and ventilation rate, PM can reach relatively high concentrations in swine barns. PM in swine barns possesses different physical, chemical, and biological characteristics than that in the atmosphere and other indoor environments. As a result, it exerts different environmental and health effects and creates some unique challenges regarding PM measurement and mitigation. Numerous research efforts have been made, generating massive data and information. However, relevant review reports are sporadic. This study aims to provide an updated comprehensive review of swine barn PM, focusing on publications since 1990. It covers various topics, including PM characteristics, sources, measurement methods, and in-barn mitigation technologies. Since PM in swine barns is of primarily biological origins, bioaerosols are reviewed in great detail. Relevant topics include bacterial/fungal counts, viruses, microbial community composition, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, antibiotic resistance genes, endotoxins, and (1→3)-β-D-glucans. For each topic, existing knowledge is summarized and discussed and knowledge gaps are identified. Overall, PM in swine barns is complicated in chemical and biological composition and highly variable in mass concentrations, size, and microbial abundance. Feed, feces, and skins constitute the major PM sources. Regarding in-barn PM mitigation, four technologies (oil/water sprinkling, ionization, alternation of feed and feeders, and recirculating air filtration) are dominant. However, none of them have been widely used in commercial barns. A collective discussion of major knowledge gaps and future research needs is offered at the end of the report.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. e0000056
Author(s):  
Matthew C. Freeman ◽  
Maryann G. Delea ◽  
Jedidiah S. Snyder ◽  
Joshua V. Garn ◽  
Mulusew Belew ◽  
...  

Behaviors related to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are key drivers of infectious disease transmission, and experiences of WASH are potential influencers of mental well-being. Important knowledge gaps exist related to the content and delivery of effective WASH programs and their associated health impacts, particularly within the contexts of government programs implemented at scale. We developed and tested a demand-side intervention called Andilaye, which aimed to change behaviors related to sanitation, personal hygiene, and household environmental sanitation. This theory-informed intervention was delivered through the existing Ethiopian Health Extension Programme (HEP). It was a multilevel intervention with a catalyzing event at the community level and behavior change activities at group and household levels. We randomly selected and assigned 50 kebeles (sub-districts) from three woredas (districts), half to receive the Andilaye intervention, and half the standard of care sanitation and hygiene programming (i.e., community-led total sanitation and hygiene [CLTSH]). We collected data on WASH access, behavioral outcomes, and mental well-being. A total of 1,589 households were enrolled into the study at baseline; 1,472 households (94%) participated in an endline assessment two years after baseline, and approximately 14 months after the initiation of a multi-level intervention. The intervention did not improve construction of latrines (prevalence ratio [PR]: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.82, 1.21) or handwashing stations with water (PR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.26), or the removal of animal feces from the compound (PR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.28). Nor did it impact anxiety (PR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.11), depression (PR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.64, 1.07), emotional distress (PR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.67, 1.09) or well-being (PR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.74, 1.10) scores. We report limited impact of the intervention, as delivered, on changes in behavior and mental well-being. The effectiveness of the intervention was limited by poor intervention fidelity. While sanitation and hygiene improvements have been documented in Ethiopia, behavioral slippage, or regression to unimproved practices, in communities previously declared open defecation free is widespread. Evidence from this trial may help address knowledge gaps related to challenges associated with scalable alternatives to CLTSH and inform sanitation and hygiene programming and policy in Ethiopia and beyond. Trial registration: This trial was registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03075436) on March 9, 2017.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Lite Ge ◽  
Jing Zhao ◽  
Huiyin Deng ◽  
Chunli Chen ◽  
Zhiping Hu ◽  
...  

BackgroundMultiple preclinical studies have demonstrated that bone‐marrow derived mesenchymal stromal (stem) cells [MSC(M)] positively influence the severity of sepsis symptoms and mortality in rodent models. However, this remains an inconclusive finding.ObjectiveTo review the effect of naïve MSC(M) in rodent models of sepsis.MethodsThe PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases were searched up to August 31, 2021. Inclusion criteria according to PICOS criteria were as follows: (1) population: rodents; (2) intervention: unmodified MSC(M); (3) comparison: not specified; (4) primary outcome: the effects of MSC(M) cell therapy on the mortality of rodent models of sepsis and endotoxemia; (5) study: experimental studies. Multiple prespecified subgroup and meta-regression analysis were conducted. Following quality assessment, random effects models were used for this meta-analysis.The inverse variance method of the fixed effects model was used to calculate the pooled odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Resultstwenty-four animal studies met the inclusion criteria. Our results revealed an overall OR difference between animals treated with naïve MSC(M) and controls for mortality rate was 0.34(95% confidence interval: 0.27-0.44; P < 0.0001). Significant heterogeneity among studies was observed.ConclusionsThe findings of this meta-analysis suggest that naïve MSC(M) therapy decreased mortality in rodent models of sepsis. Additionally, we identified several key knowledge gaps, including the lack of large animal studies and uncertainty regarding the optimal dose of MSC(M) transplantation in sepsis. Before MSC(M) treatment can advance to clinical trials, these knowledge gaps must be addressed.


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