south east asia
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
M. Yousaf ◽  
Z. Hasan ◽  
F. Zaidi ◽  
S. B. Rasheed

Abstract In South and South East Asia three genera of fish species i.e. Tor, Neolissochilus and Naziritor are commonly known as Mahseer with at least 47 species. Among these 23 belongs to genus Tor, 22 to Neolissochilus and one to Naziritor i.e. Naziritor zhobensis. Recently another species added to genus Naziritor is Naziritor chelynoides in India. Among Tor species Tor putitora (Hamilton) is the most widely distributed Mahseer in Pakistan and other countries of the Indian subcontinent. However, based alone on morphological characters some authors identify the Pakistani counterparts as Tor macrolepis (Heckel), (a species presumed to be found exclusively in the Indus River system) distinct from Tor putitora (a species found in Ganga Brahmaputra River system). In order to resolve this taxonomic ambiguity, present study carried out meristic and morphometric measurements of Mahseer collected from a total of 11 water bodies of Pakistan. Ratios between the morphometric characters were calculated and statistically analyzed using t-test and correlation coefficient. Two species identified as Tor putitora and Naziritor zhobensis were the sole Mahseer inhabitants of Indus system in Pakistan. Tor putitora occurred at all surveyed sites while Nazirtor zhobensis had a distribution range from river Zhob to tributaries of river Gomal the right bank tributaries of River Indus. The study corroborates that there are no unequivocal morphological synapomorphies in any existing populations of both species. The study further demonstrates that head length, a character frequently used in Mahseer taxonomy, is not a good measure for species identification. Finally the present study establishes that Naziritor zhobensis still exists in the water bodies of Pakistan and that golden Mahseer occurring in Indus riverine system of Pakistan is Tor putitora.

Vimala Balakrishnan ◽  
Kee Seong Ng ◽  
Wandeep Kaur ◽  
Zhen Lek Lee

2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
Kirsti V. Hjerkind ◽  
Anna L. V. Johansson ◽  
Cassia B. Trewin ◽  
Hege G. Russnes ◽  
Giske Ursin

Abstract Background Breast cancer incidence differs between non-immigrants and immigrants from low- and middle-income countries. This study investigates whether immigrants also have different subtype-specific incidences. Methods We used national health registries in Norway and calculated subtype-specific incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for invasive breast cancer among women aged 20–75 and 20–49 years between 2005 and 2015. Immigrant groups were classified by country of birth broadly defined based on WHO regional groupings. Subtype was defined using estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) status as luminal A-like (ER+ PR+ HER2-), luminal B-like/HER2- (ER+ PR- HER2-), luminal B-like/HER2+ (ER+ PR any HER2+), HER2+ (ER-PR-HER2+) and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) (ER-PR-HER2-). Results Compared to non-immigrants, incidence of the luminal A-like subtype was lower in immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa (IRR 0.43 95% CI 0.28–0.66), South East Asia (IRR 0.63 95% CI 0.51–0.79), South Asia (IRR 0.67 95% CI 0.52–0.86) and Eastern Europe (IRR 0.86 95% CI 0.76–0.99). Immigrants from South Asia had higher rates of HER2 + tumors (IRR 2.02 95% CI 1.26–3.23). The rates of TNBC tended to be similar regardless of region of birth, except that women from South East Asia had an IRR of 0.54 (95% CI 0.32–0.91). Conclusions Women from Eastern Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia had different subtype-specific incidences compared to women from high-income countries (including non-immigrants). These differences in tumor characteristics between immigrant groups should be taken into consideration when planning preventive or screening strategies.


Governments focused on rebuilding pandemic-hit economies are having to attend to the threat of the new COVID-19 variant

Sirinya Phulkerd ◽  
Cut Novianti Rachmi ◽  
Mohd Jamil Sameeha ◽  
Elaine Q. Borazon ◽  
Anne-Marie Thow ◽  

Effective policies that address both the supply and demand dimensions of access to affordable, healthy foods are required for tackling malnutrition in South East Asia. This paper presents the Protocol for the South East Asia Obesogenic Food Environment (SEAOFE) study, which is designed to analyze the retail food environment, consumers’ and retailers’ perspectives regarding the retail food environment, and existing policies influencing food retail in four countries in South East Asia in order to develop evidence-informed policy recommendations. This study was designed as a mixed-methods sequential explanatory approach. The country sites are Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. The proposed study consists of four phases. Phase One describes the characteristics of the current retail food environment using literature and data review. Phase Two interprets consumer experience in the retail food environment in selected urban poor communities using a consumer-intercept survey. This phase also assesses the retail food environment by adapting an in-store audit tool previously validated in higher-income countries. Phase Three identifies factors influencing food retailer decisions, perceptions, and attitudes toward food retail policies using semi-structured interviews with selected retailers. Phase Four recommends changes in the retail food environment using policy analysis and semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders. For the analysis of the quantitative data, descriptive statistics and multiple regression will be used, and thematic analysis will be used to process the qualitative data. This study will engage stakeholders throughout the research process to ensure that the design and methods used are sensitive to the local context.

2022 ◽  
pp. 202-219
Henriette van Rensburg ◽  
Betty Adcock

This conceptual chapter presents an overview of the current developments in special education, specifically in inclusive education, and focuses only on the barriers experienced by the different stakeholders in developing countries in South East Asia. To support inclusion and equity in education, governments need to influence public opinion, implement legislation and policy regulations, and provide financial resources. The three key stakeholders are the government, educational professionals, and families. There are also others including instructors and other education professionals, teacher trainers and researchers, national, local, and school-level administrators and managers, policy-makers and service providers in other sectors, civic groups in the community, and members of minority groups who are at risk of exclusion. Awareness of the value of inclusive education should be raised amongst all stakeholders to develop a network of support for all learners.

2022 ◽  
pp. 649-671
Kaliyaperumal Ashokkumar ◽  
Muthusamy Murugan ◽  
M. K. Dhanya ◽  
Thiravidamani Sathyan ◽  
Surya Raj ◽  

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally employed in south East Asia as well as India and China for treatment of nausea, asthma, fever, vomiting, cough, constipation, pain, arthritis, inflammation, etc. This chapter discusses the phytochemical composition and pharmacological studies of ginger extracts, ginger essential oil (GEO), and active bioactive constituents. The essential oil of fresh and dry ginger was ranged between 0.2% - 2.62% and 0.72% - 4.17% respectively. The bioactive constituent zingiberene, β-sesquiphellandrene, curcumene, β-bisabolene, β-farnesene, camphene, and gingerol and shogal are the major constituents in ginger extracts. These compounds are chief bioactive substances responsible for pharmacological activities such antioxidant, antidiabetic, anticancer, anticoagulant, antiradiation, anti-inflammatory, gastrointestinal, antimicrobial, cardiovascular, anti-obesity, and weight loss effects. Future research needs to investigate the suitable duration, maximum dosage of ginger, concerns of overdosage, and its side effects in animal models and humans.

2022 ◽  
Vol 26 (1) ◽  
pp. 6-11
I. Darnton-Hill ◽  
P. P. Mandal ◽  
A. de Silva ◽  
V. Bhatia ◽  
M. Sharma

The bidirectional relationship between TB and nutrition is well recognized – primary undernutrition is a risk factor for developing TB disease, while TB results in wasting. Although nutrition support is acknowledged as an important intervention in TB programmes, it is seldom afforded commensurate priority for action. TB incidence and deaths worldwide are falling too slowly to meet WHO End TB Strategy milestones, and the number of undernourished people is increasing, likely to be further exacerbated by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Undernutrition needs to be more urgently and intensively addressed. This is especially true for the WHO South-East Asia Region, where the high rates of undernutrition are a key driver of the TB epidemic. The evidence base has been sufficiently robust for clear and workable programmatic guidance to be formulated on assessment, counselling and interventions for TB patients. Many high-burden countries have developed policies addressing TB and nutrition. Gaps in research to date have frustrated the development of more refined programmatic approaches related to addressing TB and malnutrition. Future research can be shaped to inform targeted, actionable policies and programmes delivering dual benefits in terms of undernutrition and TB. There are clear opportunities for policy-makers to amplify efforts to end TB by addressing undernutrition.

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