new equation
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2022 ◽  
pp. 223386592110729
Attasit Pankaew ◽  
Suppawit Kaewkhunok

China's rising role in South Asia has contributed significantly to the changing geopolitics and geo-economics of the region. Nepal is one of the countries where relations with China have dramatically changed from 2015 till pre-pandemic. This study focuses on analyzing Nepal's foreign policy shifts towards neighboring China and India through a framework of neoclassical realism. It argues that Nepal's foreign policy against neighboring countries has changed since the India-Nepal conflict in 2015, where China has become a key option within Nepal's new foreign policy context. Changes in China's foreign policy and the victory of the Nepal Communist Party are among the key factors in enhancing relations between the two countries. However, it doesn't mean that Nepal took side with China and abandoned India. The article suggests that China's rise has a positive effect on Nepal as an option to balancing intra-regional power and opportunities for infrastructure development within the country.

2022 ◽  
Chenhuizi Wu ◽  
Jianfeng Sun ◽  
Xiaojing Dong ◽  
Liuyun Cai ◽  
Xinru Deng ◽  

Abstract Background: Variations in foetal growth between populations should not be ignored, and a single universal standard is not appropriate for everyone. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a new ultrasound estimation equation that adapts better to regional population characteristics. The purpose of this study was to create a new equation for ultrasound estimation of foetal weight according to the local population in Chongqing and compare it with representative equations. Methods: This prospective study included data on pregnant women who gave birth to a child at full term in our hospital from December 2016 to November 2019. Foetal ultrasound parameters included biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), and femur diaphysis length (FDL). The foetal weight compensation model was established by using the second-order linear regression model, and then, the foetal weight equation was established by utilizing the multiple reverse elimination regression technique. Last, the absolute error and relative error were used to compare the accuracy of the equations established in this study with representative equations. Results: Through the foetal weight compensation equation, the new equation suitable for Chongqing foetuses was successfully established with the variables of BPD, HC, AC, and FDL. The following foetal weight prediction equation was established in this study: Log 10 (EFW)=3.002741+0.00005944*(BPD^2)+0.00000222*(HC^2)-0.000002078*(AC^2)+0.00004262*(FDL^2)-0.008753*BPD-0.000884*HC+0.003206*AC-0.002894*FDL (BPD: mm; HC: mm; AC: mm; FDL: mm). In the sets established by the 1925 data, the mean absolute error and standard deviation of the estimation error of the new equation were 178.9 g and 140.3 g respectively. In the validation sets established with 300 data points, the mean absolute error and standard deviation of the new equation were 173.08 g and 128.59 g respectively. Compared with representative equations, the mean absolute error and the standard deviation of the new equation were the lowest. The equation established in this study better predicted foetal weight(P<.001). Conclusions: According to the local population characteristics of Chongqing, this study created a foetal weight estimation equation that is more accurate and suitable. This equation is clinically valuable for the monitoring and management of foetal weight.

Tuan A. Pham ◽  
Melis Sutman

The prediction of shear strength for unsaturated soils remains to be a significant challenge due to their complex multi-phase nature. In this paper, a review of prior experimental studies is firstly carried out to present important pieces of evidence, limitations, and some design considerations. Next, an overview of the existing shear strength equations is summarized with a brief discussion. Then, a micromechanical model with stress equilibrium conditions and multi-phase interaction considerations is presented to provide a new equation for predicting the shear strength of unsaturated soils. The validity of the proposed model is examined for several published shear strength data of different soil types. It is observed that the shear strength predicted by the analytical model is in good agreement with the experimental data, and get high performance compared to the existing models. The evaluation of the outcomes with two criteria, using average relative error and the normalized sum of squared error, proved the effectiveness and validity of the proposed equation. Using the proposed equation, the nonlinear relationship between shear strength, saturation degree, volumetric water content, and matric suction are observed.

Yoshimitsu Gotoh ◽  
Osamu Uemura ◽  
Naoya Fujita ◽  
Yuko Hamasaki ◽  
Masataka Honda ◽  

Abstract Background We have developed a simple and easy method of estimating the glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of serum creatinine in Japanese children (eGFRUemura). The eGFR equation is for children aged 2–18 years. Therefore Uemura et al. developed an equation for children younger than 2 years (eGFRunder 2). The aim of the present study was to validate this new equation. Methods We collected the data of 13 patients from previous studies and compared the results of eGFRunder 2, eGFRUemura, and updated eGFR developed by Schwartz (eGFRSchwartz) with measured GFR using mean error (ME), root mean square error (RMSE), P30 and Bland–Altman analysis. Results The ME of eGFRunder 2, eGFRUemura and eGFRSchwartz were 2.3 ± 15.9, 7.7 ± 14.5, and 16.0 ± 18.2 ml/min/1.73m2, respectively. The RMSEs were 15.5, 15.9, and 49.6, respectively. The P30 values were 76.9%, 76.9%, and 53.8%, respectively. The graph of Bland–Altman bias analysis showed fan-shape. The eGFRunder 2 equation was the most accurate in the three equations. Conclusion The eGFRunder 2 equation was useful for Japanese children younger than 2 years.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 167-180
Hani Qadan ◽  
Amjad A. Yasin ◽  
Ahmad B. Malkawi ◽  
Muhmmad I. M Rjoub

Failure of flat slabs usually occurs by punching shear mode. Current structural codes provide an experience-based design provision for punching shear strength which is often associated with high bias and variance. This paper investigates the effect of adding a horizontal reinforcement mesh at the top of the slab-column connection zone on punching the shear strength of flat slabs. A new equation considering the effect of adding this mesh was proposed to determine the punching shear strength. The proposed equation is based on the Critical Shear Crack Theory combined with the analysis of results extracted from previous experimental and theoretical studies. Moreover, the equation of load-rotation curves for different steel ratios together with the failure criterion curves were evaluated to get the design points. The investigated parameters were the slab thicknesses and dimensions, concrete strengths, size of the supporting column, and steel ratios. The model was validated using a new set of specimens and the results were also compared with the predictions of different international design codes (ACI318, BS8110, AS3600, and Eurocode 2). Statistical analysis provides that the proposed equation can predict the punching shear strength with a level of high accuracy (Mean Square Error =2.5%, Standard Deviation =0.104, Mean=1.0) and over a wide range of reinforcement ratios and compressive strengths of concrete. Most of the predictions were conservative with an underestimation rate of 12%. Doi: 10.28991/CEJ-2022-08-01-013 Full Text: PDF

Mustapha Umar Abdullahi

Seven sets of diffusible samples were allowed to diffuse in their medium in order to observe how much meters of distance a given volume of sample will cover in its medium at particular condition. At the same time also to observe how much joules of average kinetic energy that given sample volume possess during the course of its traveling. After successful diffusion by using suitable apparatus, all data associated with this study was carefully observed repeatedly and recorded. In which, mean values were used. Series of findings were found including new equation Xc=   which can be used in determining this new initiative (concentration distance of a diffusible solute in its medium (Xc)).

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Md Helal Miah ◽  
Jianhua Zhang ◽  
Dharmahinder Singh Chand

Purpose This paper aims to illustrate the tolerance optimization method based on the assembly accuracy constrain, precession constrain and the cost of production of the assembly product. Design/methodology/approach A tolerance optimization method is an excellent way to perform product assembly performance. The tolerance optimization method is adapted to the process analysis of the hatch and skin of an aircraft. In this paper, the tolerance optimization techniques are applied to the tolerance allocation for step difference analysis (example: step difference between aircraft cabin door and fuselage outer skin). First, a mathematical model is described to understand the relationship between manufacturing cost and tolerance cost. Second, the penalty function method is applied to form a new equation for tolerance optimization. Finally, MATLAB software is used to calculate 170 loops iteration to understand the efficiency of the new equation for tolerance optimization. Findings The tolerance optimization method is based on the assembly accuracy constrain, machinery constrain and the cost of production of the assembly product. The main finding of this paper is the lowest assembly and lowest production costs that met the product tolerance specification. Research limitations/implications This paper illustrated an efficient method of tolerance allocation for products assembly. After 170 loops iterations, it founds that the results very close to the original required tolerance. But it can easily say that the different number of loops iterations may have a different result. But optimization result must be approximate to the original tolerance requirements. Practical implications It is evident from Table 4 that the tolerance of the closed loop is 1.3999 after the tolerance distribution is completed, which is less than and very close to the original tolerance of 1.40; the machining precision constraint of the outer skin of the cabin door and the fuselage is satisfied, and the assembly precision constraint of the closed loop is satisfied. Originality/value The research may support further research studies to minimize cost tolerance allocation using tolerance cost optimization techniques, which must meet the given constrain accuracy for assembly products.

2021 ◽  
Sohan Sengupta

Abstract Quantum Fluids follow Quantum Dynamical Equation(s), which were not known till date. There exist a set of two equations, that is semiclassical approach to Quantum Fluids called Madelung’s Equations. But a new fully quantum variant of Madelung’s Equations when embedded in the Schrodinger Equation is gives full description of evolution of Quantum fluid with respect to time and position. The equation presented in this article has two unknown variables, one is density and other is velocity field as a function of spatial and time coordinates. The equation presented in this article, is derived from Schrodinger Equation, obeying Continuity equation, and Navier Strokes Equation. Bohm’s potential were externally added in Madeline’s equation. But the new equation which is fully quantum mechanical in nature; Bohm’s potential appears out of the equation, which is interesting to observe. Astrophysical cold stellar dynamics and condensed fluids have the main application of this equation. Quantum fluids show strange behaviour when compared to normal fluids. It is also shown that quantum fluid also have spins which has no classical analog.

Mikel Tous-Espelosin ◽  
Sonia Ruiz de Azua ◽  
Nagore Iriarte-Yoller ◽  
Pedro M. Sanchez ◽  
Edorta Elizagarate ◽  

Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) can be direct or estimated from different field tests. The Modified Shuttle Walk Test (MSWT) is suitable for all levels of function, allowing a peak response to be elicited. Therefore, we aimed (1) to validate the equation presented in the original study by Singh et al. for evaluating the relationship between MSWT with peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in adults with schizophrenia (SZ), (2) to develop a new equation for the MSWT to predict VO2peak, and (3) to validate the new equation. Participants (N = 144, 41.3 ± 10.2 years old) with SZ performed a direct measurement of VO2peak through a cardiopulmonary exercise test and the MSWT. A new equation incorporating resting heart rate, body mass index, and distance from MSWT (R2 = 0.617; adjusted R2 = 0.60; p < 0.001) performs better than the Singh et al. equation (R2 = 0.57; adjusted R2 = 0.57; p < 0.001) to estimate VO2peak for the studied population. The posteriori cross-validation method confirmed the model’s stability (R2 = 0.617 vs. 0.626). The findings of the current study support the validity of the new regression equation incorporating resting heart rate, body mass index, and distance from MSWT to predict VO2peak for assessment of CRF in people with SZ.

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