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PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261928
Author(s):  
Takuya Aikawa ◽  
Noritoshi Maehara ◽  
Yu Ichihara ◽  
Hayato Masuya ◽  
Katsunori Nakamura ◽  
...  

Wolbachia are obligatory endosymbiotic α-proteobacteria found in many arthropods. They are maternally inherited, and can induce reproductive alterations in the hosts. Despite considerable recent progress in studies on the associations between Wolbachia and various taxonomic groups of insects, none of the researches have revealed the effects of Wolbachia on longicorn beetles as the host insect. Acalolepta fraudatrix is a forest longicorn beetle that is distributed in East Asia. In this study, the relationship between Wolbachia and A. fraudatrix was investigated. Out of two populations of A. fraudatrix screened for Wolbachia using the genes ftsZ, wsp, and 16S rRNA, only one of the populations showed detection of all three genes indicating the presence of Wolbachia. Electron microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization also confirmed that the A. fraudatrix population was infected with Wolbachia. Sequencing the wsp genes derived from single insects revealed that two strains of Wolbachia coexisted in the insects based on the detection of two different sequences of the wsp gene. We designated these strains as wFra1 and wFra2. The bacterial titers of wFra1 were nearly 2-fold and 3-fold higher than wFra2 in the testes and ovaries, respectively. The two strains of Wolbachia in the insects were completely eliminated by rearing the insects on artificial diets containing 1% concentration of tetracycline for 1 generation. Reciprocal crosses between Wolbachia-infected and Wolbachia-uninfected A. fraudatrix demonstrated that only eggs produced by the crosses between Wolbachia-infected males and Wolbachia-uninfected females did not hatch, indicating that Wolbachia infecting A. fraudatrix causes cytoplasmic incompatibility in the host insect. This is the first report showing the effect of Wolbachia on reproductive function in a longicorn beetle, A. fraudatrix.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Perle Guarino-Vignon ◽  
Nina Marchi ◽  
Julio Bendezu-Sarmiento ◽  
Evelyne Heyer ◽  
Céline Bon

AbstractSince prehistoric times, southern Central Asia has been at the crossroads of the movement of people, culture, and goods. Today, the Central Asian populations are divided into two cultural and linguistic groups: the Indo-Iranian and the Turko-Mongolian groups. Previous genetic studies unveiled that migrations from East Asia contributed to the spread of Turko-Mongolian populations in Central Asia and the partial replacement of the Indo-Iranian populations. However, little is known about the origin of the latters. To shed light on this, we compare the genetic data on two current-day Indo-Iranian populations — Yaghnobis and Tajiks — with genome-wide data from published ancient individuals. The present Indo-Iranian populations from Central Asia display a strong genetic continuity with Iron Age samples from Turkmenistan and Tajikistan. We model Yaghnobis as a mixture of 93% Iron Age individual from Turkmenistan and 7% from Baikal. For the Tajiks, we observe a higher Baikal ancestry and an additional admixture event with a South Asian population. Our results, therefore, suggest that in addition to a complex history, Central Asia shows a remarkable genetic continuity since the Iron Age, with only limited gene flow.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262611
Author(s):  
Zhihui Li ◽  
Jia Wu ◽  
Xiaolin Cui ◽  
Zhaojuan Mi ◽  
Lu Peng

Economic vulnerability is an important indicator to measure regional coordination, health and stability. Despite the importance of vulnerabilities, this is the first study that presents 26 indicators selected from the dimensions of the domestic economic system, external economic system and financial system in the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) countries. A quantitative analysis is conducted to analyze the characteristics of spatial heterogeneity of vulnerability of the economic subsystems and the comprehensive economic system of the BRI countries and the main influencing factors of the comprehensive economic system vulnerability (CESV) are identified based on obstacle degree model. The results show that the CESV of the East Asia, South Asia and ASEAN countries are lower than that of the Middle Eastern Europe, Central Asia and West Asia countries. The CESV of the BRI countries are generally in the middle level and the average vulnerability index of highly vulnerable countries is twice as much as that of lowly vulnerable countries. In addition, in terms of the vulnerability of the three subsystems, the spatial distribution of vulnerability of the domestic economic system (DESV) and financial system (FSV) is basically consistent with the spatial distribution pattern of CESV, both of which are low in East Asia and South Asia and high in West Asia and Central Asia. While, the vulnerability of external economic system (EESV) shows a different spatial pattern, with vulnerability of West Asia, Central Asia and ASEAN higher than that of East Asia and South Asia. The main obstacle factors influencing the CESV of BRI countries include GDP growth rate, saving ratio, ratio of bank capital to assets, service industry level, industrialization level and loan rate. Therefore, the key way to maintain the stability and mitigate the vulnerability of the economic system of BRI countries is to focus on the macroeconomic development and operation, stimulate the economy and market vitality, promote the development of industries, especially the service and secondary industries, and optimize the economic structure, banking system and financial system.


Author(s):  
Leon Moosavi

It is well established within the field of Critical Whiteness Studies that white privilege routinely materialises in Western universities. Yet, even though a third wave of Critical Whiteness Studies is increasingly focussing on whiteness in non-Western contexts, there has been insufficient attention toward whether white privilege also exists in East Asian universities. This article seeks to explore this issue by offering an autoethnography in which the author, a mixed-race academic who is racialised as white on some occasions and as a person of colour on others, critically interrogates whiteness in East Asian higher education. It is argued that those who are racialised as white are privileged in East Asian universities and may even seek to actively sustain this. In departing from the dominant understanding of whiteness as always-and-only privileging, this article also explores the extent to which white academics in East Asia may also be disadvantaged by their whiteness.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jianbing Jin ◽  
Mijie Pang ◽  
Arjo Segers ◽  
Wei Han ◽  
Li Fang ◽  
...  

Abstract. This spring, super dust storms reappeared in East Asia after being absent for a (two) decade(s). The event caused enormous losses both in Mongolia and in China. Accurate simulation of such super sandstorms is valuable for the quantification of health damages, aviation risks, and profound impacts on the Earth system, but also to reveal the driving climate and the process of desertification. However, accurate simulation of dust life cycles is challenging mainly due to imperfect knowledge of emissions. In this study, the emissions that lead to the 2021 spring dust storms are estimated through assimilation of MODIS AOD and ground-based PM10 concentration data. To be able to use the AOD observations to represent the dust load, an Angstrom-based data screening is designed to select only observations that are dominated by dust. In addition, a non-dust AOD bias correction has been designed to remove the part of the AOD that could be attributed to other aerosols than dust. With this, the dust concentrations during the 2021 spring super storms could be reproduced and validated with concentration observations. The emission inversion results reveal that wind blown dust emissions originated from both China and Mongolia during spring 2021. Specifically, 18.3M and 27.2M ton of particles were released in Chinese desert and Mongolia desert respectively during these severe dust events. By source apportionment it has been estimated that 58 % of the dust deposited in the densely populated Fenwei Plain (FWP) in the northern China originate from transnational transport from Mongolia desert. For the North China Plain (NCP), local Chinese desert play a less significant roles in the dust affection; the long-distance transport from Mongolia contributes for about 69 % to the dust deposition in NCP, even if it locates more than 1000 km away from the nearest Mongolian desert.


Author(s):  
Jianbing Jin ◽  
Mijie Pang ◽  
Arjo Segers ◽  
Wei Han ◽  
Li Fang ◽  
...  

Author(s):  
Mingyun Hu ◽  
Yiang Chen ◽  
Dehao Yuan ◽  
Rui Yu ◽  
Xingcheng Lu ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yoji Sasahara ◽  
Takashi Uchida ◽  
Tasuku Suzuki ◽  
Daiki Abukawa

BackgroundCauses of early-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) vary, and primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) are associated with early-onset IBD as monogenic disorders.AimThis review investigates the prevalence, clinical manifestation, genetic profile, and treatment of patients with early-onset IBD in Southeast and East Asia.MethodsA systemic review of articles reporting PID patients associated with early-onset IBD in Southeast and East Asia was conducted.ResultsThe prevalence of PID associated with IBD was higher than that reported in western nations, and the frequency of patients with bloody stools as an early symptom was relatively higher in monogenic diseases. A total 13 (12.0%) of 108 patients with early-onset IBD were diagnosed as PID by exome sequencing and targeted gene panel analysis in Japan, including four patients with XIAP, three with IL10RA, and two or one patient with other gene mutations. In addition, ten patients were reported as having IL-10 receptor alpha (IL-10RA) deficiency in China and Hong Kong. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was performed in patients with X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis deficiency, IL-10RA deficiency, or other PID as a curative treatment, and the preferable outcome of reduced-intensity conditioning and complete resolution of IBD symptoms and dysbiosis were achieved.ConclusionComprehensive molecular diagnosis has been widely applied to screen for patients with PID-associated IBD in Southeast and East Asia. These results contributed to the awareness of monogenic PID in early-onset IBD patients and their differences in clinical manifestations and genetic profiles compared to the patients in western counties.


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