East Asia
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Buddhism ◽  
2021 ◽  

Xuanzang玄奘, the peripatetic Chinese Buddhist scholar-monk of the Tang dynasty (618-907 ce), was born into a literati family in Henan province in 600 or 602 ce. He is known by the sobriquet “Master of the Three Baskets [comprising the Buddhist Canon] .” (Skt.: Trepiṭaka; Ch.: Sanzang三藏) Xuanzang is regarded as the most prolific translator of Indic Buddhist texts from Sanskrit into Chinese—as well as the most historically significant, given that his comprehensive translations of Indic abhidharma and Yogācāra sutras and treatises (śāstras) revolutionized the study of Buddhism in East Asia. Attesting to his lasting influence on the tradition of East Asian Buddhism, all Buddhist Indic texts translated prior to Xuanzang are known as either the “ancient translations” (guyi古譯) or “the old translations” (jiuyi舊譯), while Xuanzang’s translations are termed “the new translations” (xinyi新譯). By retrieving the unalloyed teachings of abhidharma and Yogācāra Buddhist traditions from India and rendering them into fluid and readable classical Chinese, Xuanzang has left a legacy in the study of Buddhism in East Asia. Many of Xuanzang’s translations, such as the Heart Sūtra (Xinjing心經), remain the most widely used and circulated versions of these texts. Xuanzang’s long and arduous trek across the Silk Road to India is famously recorded in his travelogue entitled the Da Tang Xiyu ji (Great Tang records of the western regions). During his fourteen years in India (629–643 ce), Xuanzang collected Indic Buddhist texts hitherto not translated, studied with Buddhist masters, engaged in various religious debates, and acquired and mastered a vast and comprehensive knowledge of the Indic Buddhist texts in their original Sanskrit forms. Xuanzang returned to his native China in 645 ce to much acclaim and fanfare. Turning down a prestigious civil service appointment offered by Emperor Taizong, Xuanzang engaged in massive translation projects to render the texts he had gathered during his travels in India into Chinese. Under the lavish patronage of the second and third Tang emperors, Taizong and Gaozong, Xuanzang rose in status to become the preeminent East Asian Buddhist scholar and translator of his generation. Attracting students from Korea, Japan, and China, Xuanzang engaged the finest minds of East Asia in his translation and exegetical projects. Xuanzang has lived on in Chinese popular literary imaginary as the basis for the character Tang Sanzang 唐三藏 (Trepiṭaka of the Tang Dynasty) in the Xiyou ji西游記 (Journey to the west), one of the four great novels of the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644).

Biology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (8) ◽  
pp. 715
Fengjiao Zhang ◽  
Ning Wang ◽  
Guanghao Cheng ◽  
Xiaochun Shu ◽  
Tao Wang ◽  

The genus Lycoris (Amaryllidaceae) consists of about 20 species, which is endemic to East Asia. Although the Lycoris species is of great horticultural and medical importance, challenges in accurate species identification persist due to frequent natural hybridization and large-scale intraspecific variation. In this study, we sequenced chloroplast genomes of four Lycoris species and retrieved seven published chloroplast (cp) genome sequences in this genus for comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses. The cp genomes of these four newly sequenced species were found to be 158,405–158,498 bp with the same GC content of 37.8%. The structure of the genomes exhibited the typical quadripartite structure with conserved gene order and content. A total of 113 genes (20 duplicated) were identified, including 79 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 30 tRNAs, and 4 rRNAs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 11 species were clustered into three main groups, and L. sprengeri locate at the base of Lycoriss. The L. radiata was suggested to be the female donor of the L. incarnata, L. shaanxiensis, and L. squamigera. The L. straminea and L. houdyshelii may be derived from L. anhuiensis, L. chinensis, or L. longituba. These results could not only offer a genome-scale platform for identification and utilization of Lycoris but also provide a phylogenomic framework for future studies in this genus.

2021 ◽  
Shixian Zhai ◽  
Daniel J. Jacob ◽  
Jared F. Brewer ◽  
Ke Li ◽  
Jonathan M. Moch ◽  

Abstract. Geostationary satellite sensors over East Asia (GOCI and AHI) are now providing continuous mapping of aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 550 nm to improve monitoring of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air quality. Here we evaluate our understanding of the physical relationships between AOD and PM2.5 over East Asia by using the GEOS-Chem atmospheric chemistry model to simulate observations from multiple sources: 1) the joint NASA-NIER Korea – United States Air Quality aircraft campaign over South Korea (KORUS-AQ; May–June 2016); 2) AODs from the AERONET ground-based network; 3) AOD from a new GOCI/AHI fused product; and 4) surface PM2.5 networks in South Korea and China. The KORUS-AQ data show that 550 nm AOD is mainly contributed by sulfate-nitrate-ammonium (SNA) and organic aerosols in the planetary boundary layer (PBL), despite large dust concentrations in the free troposphere, reflecting the optically effective size and the high hygroscopicity of the PBL aerosols. Although GEOS-Chem is successful in reproducing the KORUS-AQ vertical profiles of aerosol mass, its ability to link AOD to PM2.5 is limited by under-accounting of coarse PM and by a large overestimate of nighttime PM2.5 nitrate. A broader analysis of the GOCI/AHI AOD data over East Asia in different seasons shows agreement with AERONET AODs and a spatial distribution consistent with surface PM2.5 network data. The AOD observations over North China show a summer maximum and winter minimum, opposite in phase to surface PM2.5. This is due to low PBL depths compounded by high residential coal emissions in winter, and high relative humidity (RH) in summer. Seasonality of AOD and PM2.5 over South Korea is much weaker, reflecting weaker variation of PBL depth and lack of residential coal emissions. Physical interpretation of the satellite AOD data in terms of surface PM2.5 is sensitive to accurate information on aerosol size distributions, PBL depths, RH, the role of coarse particles, and diurnal variation of PM2.5.

2021 ◽  
pp. 0958305X2110078
Muhammad K Anser ◽  
Muhammad Usman ◽  
Danish I Godil ◽  
Malik S Shabbir ◽  
Mosab Tabash ◽  

This study describes different options regarding financing in low carbon energy sectors and air pollution, which further affect clean production and sustainable environment agenda regarding the Association of southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) states. The purpose of this study is to reduce air pollution and improve environmental production through low carbon energy financing. This study further investigates, which particular country among selected ASEAN states has most affected by air pollution and decrease their energy sources as well as clean productivity level. The findings of this study indicate that transformation toward low carbon energy increased energy efficiency encouraged by all sectors of society in the target countries. It is observed that around 20,000 people have died in South East Asia (SEA) every year due to the polluted air environment among these countries.

Nephrology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vinant Bhargava ◽  
Sanjiv Jasuja ◽  
Tang Sydeny Chi Wai ◽  
Anil K. Bhalla ◽  
Gaurav Sagar ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Wandee Sirichokchatchawan ◽  
Prasert Apiwatsiri ◽  
Pawiya Pupa ◽  
Imporn Saenkankam ◽  
Nwai Oo Khine ◽  

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a critical challenge worldwide as it impacts public health, especially via contamination in the food chain and in healthcare-associated infections. In relation to farming, the systems used, waste management on farms, and the production line process are all determinants reflecting the risk of AMR emergence and rate of contamination of foodstuffs. This review focuses on South East Asia (SEA), which contains diverse regions covering 11 countries, each having different levels of development, customs, laws, and regulations. Routinely, here as elsewhere antimicrobials are still used for three indications: therapy, prevention, and growth promotion, and these are the fundamental drivers of AMR development and persistence. The accuracy of detection of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) depends on the laboratory standards applicable in the various institutes and countries, and this affects the consistency of regional data. Enterobacteriaceae such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are the standard proxy species used for indicating AMR-associated nosocomial infections and healthcare-associated infections. Pig feces and wastewater have been suspected as one of the hotspots for spread and circulation of ARB and ARG. As part of AMR surveillance in a One Health approach, clonal typing is used to identify bacterial clonal transmission from the production process to consumers and patients – although to date there have been few published definitive studies about this in SEA. Various alternatives to antibiotics are available to reduce antibiotic use on farms. Certain of these alternatives together with improved disease prevention methods are essential tools to reduce antimicrobial usage in swine farms and to support global policy. This review highlights evidence for potential transfer of resistant bacteria from food animals to humans, and awareness and understanding of AMR through a description of the occurrence of AMR in pig farm food chains under SEA management systems. The latter includes a description of standard pig farming practices, detection of AMR and clonal analysis of bacteria, and AMR in the food chain and associated environments. Finally, the possibility of using alternatives to antibiotics and improving policies for future strategies in combating AMR in a SEA context are outlined.

2021 ◽  
Vol 32 ◽  
pp. 102-113
A.A. Tarasova ◽  
M.G. Ponomarenko ◽  

The species diversity of ermine moths of the genus Yponomeuta Latr., both in the Asian part of Russia and in foreign countries of East Asia, has been studied extremely poorly. That is confirmed by the small number of registered species, especially from the southern territories. At present, the southern continental regions of the Russian Far East, namely Primorian (20 species), Middle Amurian (10 species) and Lower Amurian (8 species), are comparable in faunistic richness with neighboring foreign countries – Japan (20 species), Korea (14 species) and China (14 species).

Zootaxa ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 5005 (2) ◽  
pp. 101-144

Bush-crickets (or katydids) of the genus Mecopoda are relatively large insects well-known for their sounds for centuries. Bioacoustic studies in India and China revealed a surprisingly large diversity of sound patterns. We extend these studies into the tropics of South East Asia using integrative taxonomy, combining song analysis, morphology of sound producing organs and male genitalia as well as chromosomes, to get a better understanding of the phylogeny and evolution of this widespread group. Besides the closely related genus Eumecopoda, the genus Mecopoda contains some isolated species and a large group of species which we assign to the Mecopoda elongata group. Some species of this group have broad tegmina and stridulatory files with different tooth spacing patterns and produce continuous, often relatively complicated, trill-like songs. The species of another subgroup with narrower wings have all similar files. Their songs consist of echemes (groups of syllables) which differ in syllable number and syllable repetition rate and also in echeme repetition rate. Our results show that South East Asia harbours a large and certainly not yet fully explored number of Mecopoda species which are most easily and clearly identified by song. Based on the data, five new forms are described: Mecopoda mahindai Heller sp. nov., Mecopoda paucidens Ingrisch, Su & Heller sp. nov., Mecopoda sismondoi Heller sp. nov., Mecopoda niponensis vietnamica Heller & Korsunovskaya subsp. nov., Eumecopoda cyrtoscelis zhantievi Heller subsp. nov. In addition, some taxonomic changes are proposed: Eumecopoda Hebard, 1922 stat. rev., Paramecopoda Gorochov, 2020, syn. nov. of Eumecopoda Hebard, 1922, Mecopoda javana (Johansson, 1763) stat. nov. (neotype selected) with M. javana minahasa Gorochov, 2020 stat. nov., M. javana darevskyi Gorochov, 2020 stat. nov., M. javana buru Gorochov, 2020 stat. nov., Mecopoda macassariensis (Haan, 1843) stat. rev., Mecopoda ampla malayensis Gorochov, 2020 syn. nov., Mecopada ampla javaensis Gorochov, 2020 syn. nov., Mecopoda fallax aequatorialis Gorochov, 2020 syn. nov., the last three are all synonyms of Mecopoda himalaya Liu, 2020, Mecopoda yunnana Liu 2020, stat. nov.

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