economic system
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2022 ◽  
pp. 089692052110635
Gleb Maslov

The article is devoted to the study of the Soviet and post-Soviet Marxists’ views on the problem of technical and economic transformations. The stages in the development of Soviet thought in this matter are systematized, and the potential of applying the authors’ key ideas in the context of the challenges brought in by modern technological shifts is shown. With regard to the period after the collapse of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), the emphasis is on the developments of researchers belonging to the post-Soviet school of critical Marxism, as well as colleagues acting in an active dialogue with this focus area. What is emphasized is the high potential of the Marxist tendency in further studies of the contradictions of the economic system caused by technological transformations.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262611
Zhihui Li ◽  
Jia Wu ◽  
Xiaolin Cui ◽  
Zhaojuan Mi ◽  
Lu Peng

Economic vulnerability is an important indicator to measure regional coordination, health and stability. Despite the importance of vulnerabilities, this is the first study that presents 26 indicators selected from the dimensions of the domestic economic system, external economic system and financial system in the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) countries. A quantitative analysis is conducted to analyze the characteristics of spatial heterogeneity of vulnerability of the economic subsystems and the comprehensive economic system of the BRI countries and the main influencing factors of the comprehensive economic system vulnerability (CESV) are identified based on obstacle degree model. The results show that the CESV of the East Asia, South Asia and ASEAN countries are lower than that of the Middle Eastern Europe, Central Asia and West Asia countries. The CESV of the BRI countries are generally in the middle level and the average vulnerability index of highly vulnerable countries is twice as much as that of lowly vulnerable countries. In addition, in terms of the vulnerability of the three subsystems, the spatial distribution of vulnerability of the domestic economic system (DESV) and financial system (FSV) is basically consistent with the spatial distribution pattern of CESV, both of which are low in East Asia and South Asia and high in West Asia and Central Asia. While, the vulnerability of external economic system (EESV) shows a different spatial pattern, with vulnerability of West Asia, Central Asia and ASEAN higher than that of East Asia and South Asia. The main obstacle factors influencing the CESV of BRI countries include GDP growth rate, saving ratio, ratio of bank capital to assets, service industry level, industrialization level and loan rate. Therefore, the key way to maintain the stability and mitigate the vulnerability of the economic system of BRI countries is to focus on the macroeconomic development and operation, stimulate the economy and market vitality, promote the development of industries, especially the service and secondary industries, and optimize the economic structure, banking system and financial system.


The success of implementing a state economic policy operating under the conditions of a particular economic model depends on the diversity of aspects. The social one is the most important among them. The social aspect of the economic system and politics is oriented first and foremost to human resources, which is the base of the social-economic system. In this article the interdisciplinary approach has been identified as a priority in the field of study of the essence and development of new types of socio-economic systems, considering the whole complex of factors of their environment of formation. The existence of a close interconnection of economic and social aspects has been determined: the influence of non-economic, including social, determinants on the development and functioning of innovative models of the state structure; ensuring social development through existing economic shifts. It's concluded that an interdisciplinary approach in analyzing the concept of sustainable development and finding ways of its implementation is a necessity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 15
Yulia Vertakova ◽  
Irina Izmalkova ◽  
Evgeniy Leontyev

The effectiveness of the unification of enterprises in the cluster is also associated with high uncertainty and risks. Thus, the development of theoretical approaches and methodological instruments for efficient risk management of enterprises under the conditions of cluster association is an urgent scientific task. The methodology of a comprehensive risk assessment of the cluster enterprise is based on the use of the approach for building a functional-target model of a cluster enterprise, and is reduced to the search for a response to the question: can an event change the value of a providing indicator in such a way that this will lead to a deterioration in the resulting indicator in each enterprise subsystem? Based on the results of forecasting external risks, it was established that the group of state and global risks, in particular, political, territorial and financial, is characterized by significant threats for the next 5 years for the studied cluster enterprises. We proposed and tested a methodology for a comprehensive assessment of the risks of cluster enterprises, based on a functional-target approach, according to which a cluster enterprise as a socio-economic system is considered as a set of three basic subsystems: management, production and financial and economic.

2022 ◽  
pp. 36-46

This chapter describes another fundamental criticism of the Western economic system – that from Islamic economics. This is included not because the authors are advocating for Islamic economics, but because Islamic economists generally have a clearer understanding of the fundamental dishonesty of the Western monetary system than mainstream Western economists, who almost entirely ignore this glaring flaw at the heart of the Western economic system. Having forbidden interest-bearing loans, like Islam, for its first 1600 years, Christianity relaxed its rules, and thereby lowered its guard against the “money power,” which is now running rampant in what was once “Christendom.” Recent collaboration between Islamic economists and “dissident” Western economists is very promising.

2022 ◽  
pp. 127-159
Omar Ahmad Kachkar ◽  
Marwa Alfares

Alleviating poverty and inequality are among the central objectives of zakah in the Islamic economic system. These objectives are also on top of the 17 SDGs of the UN 2030 Agenda. This research argues that microenterprise support programs (MSPs) have been proven as effective tools in combating poverty. However, lack of funds has always been a major challenge for the sustainability of those programs. Channeling zakah funds to MSPs will directly contribute to empowering deprived populations and helping them to lift themselves out of the poverty cycle. Two zakah-based MSPs have been analyzed in this chapter. The first one is the Asnaf Entrepreneurship Program of Lembaga Zakah, Malaysia and the second one is Baitul Maal Muamalat Indonesia (BMMI). According to literature, using zakah in (MSPs) requires a strict implementation of best practices including screening program beneficiaries, providing professional training and monitoring to businesses, and finally applying a graduation scheme.

2022 ◽  
pp. 142-167
Naomi Birdthistle ◽  
Carla Riverola ◽  
Lenka Boorer ◽  
Sara Ekberg

Digital transformation and emerging technologies have disrupted the workplace, from the skills employees need in the workplace to the entrepreneurial mindset they require in this dynamic and globalized economic system. While the workers of today are navigating this transition, students require skills to lead the working landscape of the future. These skills, known as 21st century skills which encompass enterprising skills (i.e., creativity, innovation, teamwork), are generic skills that are transferable across different jobs and are a powerful predictor of long-term job success and will be increasingly important into the future. The Australian Government calls for enhanced enterprise skills due to their ubiquitous application and benefit across life and work domains. To answer this call, this chapter bridges the knowledge and resource gap that Australian STEAM academics have by explaining the development of a specially designed platform to teach the 21st century skills and enterprise skills.

2022 ◽  
pp. 19-35

In addition to the problems caused by money being fiat, most modern money is moreover created not by governments but by the privately-owned banking systems as debt to themselves. This is not only grossly contrary to all traditions of natural justice, it is also unconstitutional. This problem has been understood and publicised by many politicians and writers over centuries, but it is still not widely known due to the financial and political power of the perpetrators. Since it is also the main cause of the continuing increase in inequality in all the rich countries, the “great reset” being advocated by those in charge of the present system is clearly not fit to become the new basis of the economic system.

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