visual feedback
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2022 ◽  
Vol 81 ◽  
pp. 102917
James W. Roberts ◽  
Simon J. Bennett

2022 ◽  
Vol 92 ◽  
pp. 243-248
Lammert A. Vos ◽  
Maarten R. Prins ◽  
Idsart Kingma

Yi-Ching Chen ◽  
Yi-Ying Tsai ◽  
Gwo-Ching Chang ◽  
Ing-Shiou Hwang

Abstract Background Error amplification (EA), virtually magnify task errors in visual feedback, is a potential neurocognitive approach to facilitate motor performance. With regional activities and inter-regional connectivity of electroencephalography (EEG), this study investigated underlying cortical mechanisms associated with improvement of postural balance using EA. Methods Eighteen healthy young participants maintained postural stability on a stabilometer, guided by two visual feedbacks (error amplification (EA) vs. real error (RE)), while stabilometer plate movement and scalp EEG were recorded. Plate dynamics, including root mean square (RMS), sample entropy (SampEn), and mean frequency (MF) were used to characterize behavioral strategies. Regional cortical activity and inter-regional connectivity of EEG sub-bands were characterized to infer neural control with relative power and phase-lag index (PLI), respectively. Results In contrast to RE, EA magnified the errors in the visual feedback to twice its size during stabilometer stance. The results showed that EA led to smaller RMS of postural fluctuations with greater SampEn and MF than RE did. Compared with RE, EA altered cortical organizations with greater regional powers in the mid-frontal cluster (theta, 4–7 Hz), occipital cluster (alpha, 8–12 Hz), and left temporal cluster (beta, 13–35 Hz). In terms of the phase-lag index of EEG between electrode pairs, EA significantly reduced long-range prefrontal-parietal and prefrontal-occipital connectivity of the alpha/beta bands, and the right tempo-parietal connectivity of the theta/alpha bands. Alternatively, EA augmented the fronto-centro-parietal connectivity of the theta/alpha bands, along with the right temporo-frontal and temporo-parietal connectivity of the beta band. Conclusion EA alters postural strategies to improve stance stability on a stabilometer with visual feedback, attributable to enhanced error processing and attentional release for target localization. This study provides supporting neural correlates for the use of virtual reality with EA during balance training.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Jieying He ◽  
Chong Li ◽  
Jiali Lin ◽  
Beibei Shu ◽  
Bin Ye ◽  

Proprioceptive deficit is one of the common sensory impairments following stroke and has a negative impact on motor performance. However, evidence-based training procedures and cost-efficient training setups for patients with poststroke are still limited. We compared the effects of proprioceptive training versus nonspecific sensory stimulation on upper limb proprioception and motor function rehabilitation. In this multicenter, single-blind, randomized controlled trial, 40 participants with poststroke hemiparesis were enrolled from 3 hospitals in China. Participants were assigned randomly to receive proprioceptive training involving passive and active movements with visual feedback (proprioceptive training group [PG]; n = 20 ) or nonspecific sensory stimulation (control group [CG]; n = 20 ) 20 times in four weeks. Each session lasted 30 minutes. A clinical assessor blinded to group assignment evaluated patients before and after the intervention. The primary outcome was the change in the motor subscale of the Fugl-Meyer assessment for upper extremity (FMA-UE-M). Secondary outcomes were changes in box and block test (BBT), thumb localization test (TLT), the sensory subscale of the Fugl-Meyer assessment for upper extremity (FMA-UE-S), and Barthel Index (BI). The results showed that the mean change scores of FMA-UE were significantly greater in the PG than in the CG ( p = 0.010 for FMA-UE-M, p = 0.033 for FMA-UE-S). The PG group was improved significantly in TLT ( p = 0.010 ) and BBT ( p = 0.027 ), while there was no significant improvement in TLT ( p = 0.083 ) and BBT ( p = 0.107 ) for the CG group. The results showed that proprioceptive training was effective in improving proprioception and motor function of the upper extremity in patients with poststroke. This trial is registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR2000037808).

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 3
Frauke Heins ◽  
Markus Lappe

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261732
Prabhat Pathak ◽  
Jeongin Moon ◽  
Se-gon Roh ◽  
Changhyun Roh ◽  
Youngbo Shim ◽  

Minimum toe clearance (MTC) is an important indicator of the risk of tripping. Aging and neuromuscular diseases often decrease MTC height and increase its variability, leading to a higher risk of tripping. Previous studies have developed visual feedback-based gait training systems to modify MTC. However, these systems are bulky and expensive, and the effects of the training continue only for a short time. We paid attention to the efficacy of vibration in decreasing the variability of gait parameters, and hypothesized that proper vibration applied to soles can reduce the MTC variability. Using shoes embedded with active vibrating insoles, we assessed the efficacy of both sub- and supra-threshold vibration in affecting MTC distribution. Experiment results with 17 young and healthy adults showed that vibration applied throughout the walking task with constant intensity of 130% of sensory threshold significantly decreased MTC variability, whereas sub-threshold vibration yielded no significant effect. These results demonstrate that a properly designed tactile sensory input which is controlled and delivered by a simple wearable device, the active insole, can reduce the MTC variability during walking.

Xingyi Jin ◽  
Zhiguo Zhang ◽  
Li Zhang ◽  
Linling Li ◽  
Gan Huang

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 147
Emanuela Elena Mihai ◽  
Ilie Valentin Mihai ◽  
Mihai Berteanu

Stroke remains one of the leading causes of disability in adults, and lower limb spasticity, affected stance, and balance impact everyday life and activities of such patients. Robotic therapy and assessment are becoming important tools to clinical evaluation for post-stroke rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to determine in a more objective manner the effects of visual feedback balance training through a balance trainer system and radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (rESWT), along with conventional physiotherapy, on lower limb post-stroke spasticity, trunk control, and static and dynamic balance through clinical and stabilometric assessment. The study was designed as a randomized controlled trial. The experimental group underwent conventional physiotherapy, visual feedback balance training, and rESWT. The control group underwent conventional physiotherapy, visual feedback training and sham rESWT. The statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Software and MATLAB. Primary clinical outcome measures were The Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), passive range of motion (PROM), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and Clonus score. Secondary outcome measures were trunk performance, sensorimotor, and lower limb function. Stabilometric outcome measures were trunk control, static balance, and dynamic balance. Visual feedback training using the Prokin system and rESWT intervention, along with conventional physiotherapy, yielded statistically significant improvement both on clinical and stabilometric outcome measures, enhancing static and dynamic balance, trunk performance, sensorimotor outcome, and limb function and considerably diminishing lower limb spasticity, pain intensity, and clonus score in the experimental group.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Pooya Rahimian ◽  
Jodie M. Plumert ◽  
Joseph K. Kearney

Visual feedback latency in virtual reality systems is inherent due to the computing time it takes to simulate the effects of user actions. Depending upon the nature of interaction and amount of latency, the impact of this latency could range from a minor degradation to a major disruption of performance. The goal of this study was to examine how visuomotor latency impacts users’ performance in a continuous steering task and how users adapt to this latency with experience. The task involved steering a bike along an illuminated path in a dark environment viewed in an HTC Vive head-mounted virtual reality display. We examined how users adapt to visuomotor latency in two different conditions: 1) when the user controlled the steering while the bike moved forward at a constant speed, and 2) when the user controlled the steering and the speed of the bike through pedaling and braking. We found that users in both conditions started with a large steering error at the beginning of exposure to visuomotor latency but then quickly adapted to the delay. We also found that when users could control their speed, they adjusted their speed based on the complexity of the path (i.e., proximity to turns) and they gradually increased their speed as they adapted to latency and gained better control over their movement. The current work supports the idea that users can adapt to visual feedback delay in virtual reality regardless of whether they control the pace of movement. The results inform the design of virtual reality simulators and teleoperation systems and give insight into perceptual-motor adaptation in the presence of latency.

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