Lower Limb
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2021 ◽  
pp. 154596832110541
Elisabetta Ambron ◽  
Laurel J. Buxbaum ◽  
Alexander Miller ◽  
Harrison Stoll ◽  
Katherine J. Kuchenbecker ◽  

Background Phantom limb pain (PLP) is a common and in some cases debilitating consequence of upper- or lower-limb amputation for which current treatments are inadequate. Objective This small clinical trial tested whether game-like interactions with immersive VR activities can reduce PLP in subjects with transtibial lower-limb amputation. Methods Seven participants attended 5–7 sessions in which they engaged in a visually immersive virtual reality experience that did not require leg movements (Cool! TM), followed by 10–12 sessions of targeted lower-limb VR treatment consisting of custom games requiring leg movement. In the latter condition, they controlled an avatar with 2 intact legs viewed in a head-mounted display (HTC Vive TM). A motion-tracking system mounted on the intact and residual limbs controlled the movements of both virtual extremities independently. Results All participants except one experienced a reduction of pain immediately after VR sessions, and their pre session pain levels also decreased over the course of the study. At a group level, PLP decreased by 28% after the treatment that did not include leg movements and 39.6% after the games requiring leg motions. Both treatments were successful in reducing PLP. Conclusions This VR intervention appears to be an efficacious treatment for PLP in subjects with lower-limb amputation.

BMC Neurology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Anna Zaheer ◽  
Arshad Nawaz Malik ◽  
Tahir Masood ◽  
Sahar Fatima

Abstract Background The objective of the current study is to evaluate the effects of phantom exercises on phantom limb pain, mobility status, and quality of life in lower limb amputees treated with mirror therapy and routine physiotherapy. Methods It is a randomized controlled trial in which 24 unilateral lower limb amputees (above and below the knee) were randomly assigned to two equal groups i.e., control group (mirror therapy and conventional physical therapy) and experimental group in which, phantom exercises were given, additionally. Physical therapy included conventional therapeutic exercises while phantom exercises include imagining the movement of the phantom limb and attempting to execute these movements Data were collected at baseline, after 2 and 4 weeks of intervention using VAS (pain), AMP (mobility) and RAND SF-36 Version 1.0 (QOL) questionnaires. All statistical analyses were done with IBM SPSS 25.0 with 95% CI. Results Twenty-four amputees (17 males and 7 females) participated in this trial. The Mean age of the participants in experimental and control groups was 45.3 ± 11.1 years and 40.5 ± 12.5 years respectively. After the intervention, the pain (VAS score) was significantly lower in the experimental group (p = 0.003). Similarly, the experimental group demonstrated a significantly better score in the “bodily pain” domain of SF-36 (p = 0.012). Both groups significantly (p < 0.05) improved in other domains of SF-36 and ambulatory potential with no significant (p > 0.05) between-group differences. Conclusions The Addition of phantom exercises resulted in significantly better pain management in lower limb amputees treated with mirror therapy and routine physiotherapy. Trial registration This study is registered in the U.S National Library of Medicine. The clinical trials registration number for this study is NCT04285138 (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier) (Date: 26/02/2020).

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Leticia Vargas Almeida ◽  
Claudiane Arakaki Fukuchi ◽  
Tania Emi Sakanaka ◽  
Alberto Cliquet

AbstractLower limb amputation highly impacts the lives of individuals. The inability to walk due to difficulties in adapting to wearing prosthesis can potentially result in physical degeneration and comorbidity in this population. In this randomized clinical trial study, we investigated if a low-cost and easily implementable physiotherapy intervention was effective in improving gait performance and adaptation to lower limb prosthesis in individuals with an amputation. A total of 26 individuals participated in the study, 16 with lower limb amputation and 10 without amputation. Participants with amputation were further divided in intervention and control groups. The intervention group underwent a rehabilitation protocol aimed at strengthening muscles and improving prosthesis adaptation. Muscle strengthening targeted the hip segment, prioritizing the abdominal muscles, hip flexors, extensors, adductors and abductors, followed by cicatricial mobilization and weight-bearing on the stump for desensitization. Assessment and measures were performed across the kinetic and kinematic parameters of gait. In the comparison between pre-and post-intervention, a significant increase in gait speed (0.68—2.98, 95% CI, 1.83, effect size ES) and cadence (0.56—2.69, 95% CI, 1.63, ES) was found between groups and time points. Step (0.73—3.11, 95% CI, 1.92, ES) and stride length (0.62—2.84, 95% CI, 1.73) increased between pre- and post-intervention, while in the control group both variables remained smaller. The intervention group decreased stance phase as a percentage of gait cycle between pre- and post-intervention (− 1.33—0.62, 95% CI, − 36, ES), while it increased in the control group. Improvement in a combination of important gait parameters indicates that the intervention protocol promoted the adaptation to prosthesis and the functional independence of individuals with lower limb amputation. It is recommended that the participants continue receiving follow-up assessments and rehabilitation interventions.

Alexis Thibodeau ◽  
Patrick Dumond ◽  
Edward Lemaire

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